Abstract

We propose an optical fiber sensor for low refractive index (RI) based on a serial-tilted-tapered fiber (STTF), which can be considered as two tightly concatenated micro Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The STTF has a compact length of 959.8 μm, and can realize point detection and sensing in limited space. Numerical simulations reveal that a significantly strong evanescent field occurs around the STTF, making it to have the high sensitivity for surrounding RI. In the experiments, the interference dips show the nonlinear wavelength and intensity responses with increasing RI from 1.3395 to 1.3538. In the RI range of 1.3532~1.3538, the RI sensitivities reach the highest value of 2300 nm/RIU and −16183.33 dB/RIU. Moreover, the transmission spectrum of the STTF is low sensitive to temperature. These results indicate that our proposed sensor can be an appropriate candidate in most chemical and biological applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (11)

Y. Q. Ma, D. Guo, Y. Gao, S. Sarah, Q. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Pištora, and M. Cada, “High sensitive Z-shaped fiber interferometric refractive index sensor: Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 30(12), 1131–1134 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Li, L. V. Nguyen, Y. Zhao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. C. Warren-Smith, “High-sensitivity Sagnac-interferometer biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 269, 103–109 (2018).

X. Chen, L. Xia, and C. Li, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a novel D-shaped photonic crystal fiber for low refractive index detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Li, N. M. Y. Zhang, N. Zhang, T. Zhang, G. Liu, and L. Wei, “Spectral characteristics and ultrahigh sensitivities near the dispersion turning point of optical microfiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(12), 2409–2415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, S. Xiao, J. Liu, B. Wei, Q. Ding, and S. Jian, “Refractive index and temperature sensing based on an optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a Fabry-Perot fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Novais, M. S. Ferreira, and J. L. Pinto, “Optical fiber Fabry-Perot tip sensor for detection of water-glycerin mixtures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1576–1582 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lu, J. Su, X. Dong, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a few-mode fiber-based sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(13), 2796–2802 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Wu, B. Song, and C. Wang, “A magnetic field sensor based on a dual S-tapered multimode fiber interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(7), 075103 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, R. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, W. H. Wei, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Q. Ning, and Y. S. Yu, “Compact refractive index sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 919–925 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, T. Ning, J. Li, J. Zheng, X. Gao, and L. Pei, “Refractive index and strain sensor based on twin-core fiber with a novel T-shaped taper,” Opt. Laser Technol. 102, 12–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

J. Yang, C. Guan, P. Tian, T. Yuan, Z. Zhu, P. Li, J. Shi, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “In-fiber refractive index sensor based on single eccentric hole-assisted dual-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4470–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shi, X. Bai, F. Wang, F. Pang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “All-fiber magnetic field sensor based on hollow optical fiber and magnetic fluid,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(3), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Q. Nie, L. Gai, H. Li, and H. Hu, “Highly sensitive temperature sensing probe based on deviation S-shaped microfiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(17), 3699–3704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, L. H. Chen, J. Yang, R. Raghunandhan, X. Dong, P. L. So, and C. C. Chan, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot optofluidic sensor with a focused ion beam ablated microslot for fast refractive index and magnetic field measurement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 322–326 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ren, X. Zhang, X. Guo, H. Wang, and X. Wu, “High-sensitivity optofluidic sensor based on coupled liquid-core laser,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 29(8), 639–642 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Miao, X. Ma, Y. He, H. Zhang, X. Yang, and J. Yao, “Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 357–363 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Shen, C. Wang, Z. Sun, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and X. Shu, “Small-period long-period fiber grating with improved refractive index sensitivity and dual-parameter sensing ability,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 199–202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Gangwar and V. K. Singh, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance based D-shaped photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor,” Plasmonics 12(5), 1367–1372 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (11)

A. A. Rifat, G. A. Mahdiraji, Y. M. Sua, R. Ahmed, Y. G. Shee, and F. R. M. Adikan, “Highly sensitive multi-core flat fiber surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2485–2495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

H. Luo, Q. Sun, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Highly birefringent D-shaped microfiber and its application in high-sensitive optical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(12), 4793–4797 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Coelho, D. Viegas, J. L. Santos, and J. M. M. M. Almeida, “Characterization of zinc oxide coated optical fiber long period gratings with improved refractive index sensing properties,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 223, 45–51 (2016).

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, and A. Song, “Fiber optic SPR sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement based on MMF-FBG-MMF structure,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 237, 521–525 (2016).

J. Wu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Song, W. Lin, and Y. Li, “WGM micro-fluidic-channel based on reflection type fiber-tip-coupled hollow-core PCFs,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 28(22), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Jaddoa, A. A. Jasim, M. Z. A. Razak, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Highly responsive NaCl detector based on inline microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. A. 237, 56–61 (2016).

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

C. Li, T. Ning, C. Zhang, J. Li, C. Zhang, X. Wen, H. Lin, and L. Pei, “All-fiber multipath Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a four-core fiber for sensing applications,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 248, 148–154 (2016).

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Lei, B. J. Peng, D. R. Chen, Q. G. Shi, and X. W. Ma, “An all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on dual-S-shaped optic fiber integrated with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 958–964 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

H. Liu, Y. Miao, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Song, M. Huang, and L. Lin, “Relative humidity sensor based on S-taper fiber coated with SiO2 nanoparticles,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3424–3428 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Luo, S. Pu, J. Tang, X. Zeng, and M. Lahoubi, “Reflective all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on microfiber and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18133–18142 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Q. Sun, X. Li, Z. Yan, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Refractive index sensitivity characteristics near the dispersion turning point of the multimode microfiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5042–5045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. Chen, J. Zhou, and X. Yuan, “MZ interferometer constructed by two S-bend fibers for displacement and force measurements,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 26(8), 837–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, M. Tang, F. Gao, P. Zhang, L. Duan, B. Zhu, S. Fu, J. Ouyang, H. Wei, J. Li, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Temperature compensated magnetic field sensing using dual S-bend structured optical fiber modal interferometer cascaded with fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27515–27523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Shi, D. Chen, X. Jiang, B. Peng, and X. Lei, “Refractive index sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer formed by two cascaded single mode fiber corners,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2642–2645 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

F. Shi, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on S-tapered photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adikan, F. R. M.

Ahmad, H.

M. F. Jaddoa, A. A. Jasim, M. Z. A. Razak, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Highly responsive NaCl detector based on inline microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. A. 237, 56–61 (2016).

Ahmed, R.

Almeida, J. M. M. M.

L. Coelho, D. Viegas, J. L. Santos, and J. M. M. M. Almeida, “Characterization of zinc oxide coated optical fiber long period gratings with improved refractive index sensing properties,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 223, 45–51 (2016).

Angsantikul, P.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arce, F. T.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

F. Shi, X. Bai, F. Wang, F. Pang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “All-fiber magnetic field sensor based on hollow optical fiber and magnetic fluid,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(3), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bock, W.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cada, M.

Y. Q. Ma, D. Guo, Y. Gao, S. Sarah, Q. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Pištora, and M. Cada, “High sensitive Z-shaped fiber interferometric refractive index sensor: Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 30(12), 1131–1134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Cao, S.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Chan, C. C.

Y. Zheng, L. H. Chen, J. Yang, R. Raghunandhan, X. Dong, P. L. So, and C. C. Chan, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot optofluidic sensor with a focused ion beam ablated microslot for fast refractive index and magnetic field measurement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 322–326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, R. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, W. H. Wei, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Q. Ning, and Y. S. Yu, “Compact refractive index sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 919–925 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3126–3132 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Q. Shi, D. Chen, X. Jiang, B. Peng, and X. Lei, “Refractive index sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer formed by two cascaded single mode fiber corners,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2642–2645 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. R.

X. Q. Lei, B. J. Peng, D. R. Chen, Q. G. Shi, and X. W. Ma, “An all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on dual-S-shaped optic fiber integrated with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 958–964 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. Zhou, and X. Yuan, “MZ interferometer constructed by two S-bend fibers for displacement and force measurements,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 26(8), 837–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. H.

Y. Zheng, L. H. Chen, J. Yang, R. Raghunandhan, X. Dong, P. L. So, and C. C. Chan, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot optofluidic sensor with a focused ion beam ablated microslot for fast refractive index and magnetic field measurement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 322–326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q. D.

Chen, S.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Xia, and C. Li, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a novel D-shaped photonic crystal fiber for low refractive index detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Coelho, L.

L. Coelho, D. Viegas, J. L. Santos, and J. M. M. M. Almeida, “Characterization of zinc oxide coated optical fiber long period gratings with improved refractive index sensing properties,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 223, 45–51 (2016).

Cui, Y.

Dang, Y.

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

Ding, Q.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, S. Xiao, J. Liu, B. Wei, Q. Ding, and S. Jian, “Refractive index and temperature sensing based on an optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a Fabry-Perot fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

Dong, J.

Dong, X.

C. Lu, J. Su, X. Dong, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature with a few-mode fiber-based sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(13), 2796–2802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, L. H. Chen, J. Yang, R. Raghunandhan, X. Dong, P. L. So, and C. C. Chan, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot optofluidic sensor with a focused ion beam ablated microslot for fast refractive index and magnetic field measurement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 322–326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Duan, L.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

X. Li, L. V. Nguyen, Y. Zhao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. C. Warren-Smith, “High-sensitivity Sagnac-interferometer biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 269, 103–109 (2018).

Farrell, G.

Ferreira, M. S.

Fraser, J. M.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fu, C.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Fu, S.

Gai, L.

Gangwar, R. K.

R. K. Gangwar and V. K. Singh, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance based D-shaped photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor,” Plasmonics 12(5), 1367–1372 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

Gao, X.

C. Zhang, T. Ning, J. Li, J. Zheng, X. Gao, and L. Pei, “Refractive index and strain sensor based on twin-core fiber with a novel T-shaped taper,” Opt. Laser Technol. 102, 12–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Y. Q. Ma, D. Guo, Y. Gao, S. Sarah, Q. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Pištora, and M. Cada, “High sensitive Z-shaped fiber interferometric refractive index sensor: Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 30(12), 1131–1134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Greig, P.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guan, C.

Guan, H.

Guo, D.

Y. Q. Ma, D. Guo, Y. Gao, S. Sarah, Q. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Pištora, and M. Cada, “High sensitive Z-shaped fiber interferometric refractive index sensor: Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 30(12), 1131–1134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, J. C.

Guo, Q.

Guo, X.

L. Ren, X. Zhang, X. Guo, H. Wang, and X. Wu, “High-sensitivity optofluidic sensor based on coupled liquid-core laser,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 29(8), 639–642 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harun, S. W.

M. F. Jaddoa, A. A. Jasim, M. Z. A. Razak, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Highly responsive NaCl detector based on inline microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. A. 237, 56–61 (2016).

He, Y.

Y. Miao, X. Ma, Y. He, H. Zhang, X. Yang, and J. Yao, “Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 357–363 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

J. Li, Q. Nie, L. Gai, H. Li, and H. Hu, “Highly sensitive temperature sensing probe based on deviation S-shaped microfiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(17), 3699–3704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

Hu, T.

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, and A. Song, “Fiber optic SPR sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement based on MMF-FBG-MMF structure,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 237, 521–525 (2016).

Huang, M.

H. Liu, Y. Miao, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Song, M. Huang, and L. Lin, “Relative humidity sensor based on S-taper fiber coated with SiO2 nanoparticles,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3424–3428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaddoa, M. F.

M. F. Jaddoa, A. A. Jasim, M. Z. A. Razak, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Highly responsive NaCl detector based on inline microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. A. 237, 56–61 (2016).

Jasim, A. A.

M. F. Jaddoa, A. A. Jasim, M. Z. A. Razak, S. W. Harun, and H. Ahmad, “Highly responsive NaCl detector based on inline microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. A. 237, 56–61 (2016).

Jian, S.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, S. Xiao, J. Liu, B. Wei, Q. Ding, and S. Jian, “Refractive index and temperature sensing based on an optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a Fabry-Perot fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Q. Shi, D. Chen, X. Jiang, B. Peng, and X. Lei, “Refractive index sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer formed by two cascaded single mode fiber corners,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2642–2645 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jing, S. M.

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

Lahoubi, M.

Lal, R.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, X.

Q. Shi, D. Chen, X. Jiang, B. Peng, and X. Lei, “Refractive index sensor based on Mach–Zehnder interferometer formed by two cascaded single mode fiber corners,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 56(11), 2642–2645 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lei, X. Q.

X. Q. Lei, B. J. Peng, D. R. Chen, Q. G. Shi, and X. W. Ma, “An all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on dual-S-shaped optic fiber integrated with magnetic fluid,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(4), 958–964 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

X. Chen, L. Xia, and C. Li, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a novel D-shaped photonic crystal fiber for low refractive index detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Li, T. Ning, C. Zhang, J. Li, C. Zhang, X. Wen, H. Lin, and L. Pei, “All-fiber multipath Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a four-core fiber for sensing applications,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 248, 148–154 (2016).

Li, H.

Li, J.

C. Zhang, T. Ning, J. Li, J. Zheng, X. Gao, and L. Pei, “Refractive index and strain sensor based on twin-core fiber with a novel T-shaped taper,” Opt. Laser Technol. 102, 12–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Q. Nie, L. Gai, H. Li, and H. Hu, “Highly sensitive temperature sensing probe based on deviation S-shaped microfiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(17), 3699–3704 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

C. Li, T. Ning, C. Zhang, J. Li, C. Zhang, X. Wen, H. Lin, and L. Pei, “All-fiber multipath Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a four-core fiber for sensing applications,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 248, 148–154 (2016).

Z. Zhao, M. Tang, F. Gao, P. Zhang, L. Duan, B. Zhu, S. Fu, J. Ouyang, H. Wei, J. Li, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Temperature compensated magnetic field sensing using dual S-bend structured optical fiber modal interferometer cascaded with fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27515–27523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Li, N. M. Y. Zhang, N. Zhang, T. Zhang, G. Liu, and L. Wei, “Spectral characteristics and ultrahigh sensitivities near the dispersion turning point of optical microfiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(12), 2409–2415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Li, X.

X. Li, L. V. Nguyen, Y. Zhao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. C. Warren-Smith, “High-sensitivity Sagnac-interferometer biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 269, 103–109 (2018).

H. Luo, Q. Sun, X. Li, Z. Yan, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Refractive index sensitivity characteristics near the dispersion turning point of the multimode microfiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5042–5045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

J. Wu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Song, W. Lin, and Y. Li, “WGM micro-fluidic-channel based on reflection type fiber-tip-coupled hollow-core PCFs,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 28(22), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Q. Sun, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Highly birefringent D-shaped microfiber and its application in high-sensitive optical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(12), 4793–4797 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Q. Sun, X. Li, Z. Yan, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Refractive index sensitivity characteristics near the dispersion turning point of the multimode microfiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5042–5045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lian, J.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Liang, J. F.

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, R.

Liao, C.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Lin, H.

C. Li, T. Ning, C. Zhang, J. Li, C. Zhang, X. Wen, H. Lin, and L. Pei, “All-fiber multipath Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a four-core fiber for sensing applications,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 248, 148–154 (2016).

Lin, L.

H. Liu, Y. Miao, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Song, M. Huang, and L. Lin, “Relative humidity sensor based on S-taper fiber coated with SiO2 nanoparticles,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3424–3428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.

J. Wu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Song, W. Lin, and Y. Li, “WGM micro-fluidic-channel based on reflection type fiber-tip-coupled hollow-core PCFs,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 28(22), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Miao, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Song, M. Huang, and L. Lin, “Relative humidity sensor based on S-taper fiber coated with SiO2 nanoparticles,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3424–3428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

X. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Wu, B. Song, and C. Wang, “A magnetic field sensor based on a dual S-tapered multimode fiber interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(7), 075103 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Song, W. Lin, and Y. Li, “WGM micro-fluidic-channel based on reflection type fiber-tip-coupled hollow-core PCFs,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 28(22), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Miao, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Song, M. Huang, and L. Lin, “Relative humidity sensor based on S-taper fiber coated with SiO2 nanoparticles,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3424–3428 (2015).
[Crossref]

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F. Shi, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on S-tapered photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
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Wu, J.

X. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Wu, B. Song, and C. Wang, “A magnetic field sensor based on a dual S-tapered multimode fiber interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(7), 075103 (2018).
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Xia, F.

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

Xia, L.

X. Chen, L. Xia, and C. Li, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a novel D-shaped photonic crystal fiber for low refractive index detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

F. Shi, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on S-tapered photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, S. Xiao, J. Liu, B. Wei, Q. Ding, and S. Jian, “Refractive index and temperature sensing based on an optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a Fabry-Perot fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

Xu, G.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Xu, W.

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Xue, Y.

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3126–3132 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yam, S. S. H.

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, T.

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

Yang, J.

Yang, R.

C. Chen, R. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, W. H. Wei, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Q. Ning, and Y. S. Yu, “Compact refractive index sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 919–925 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3126–3132 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

Y. Miao, X. Ma, Y. He, H. Zhang, X. Yang, and J. Yao, “Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 357–363 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, S. Xiao, J. Liu, B. Wei, Q. Ding, and S. Jian, “Refractive index and temperature sensing based on an optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a Fabry-Perot fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Y. Miao, X. Ma, Y. He, H. Zhang, X. Yang, and J. Yao, “Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 357–363 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, I.

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, S.

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, Y. S.

C. Chen, R. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, W. H. Wei, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Q. Ning, and Y. S. Yu, “Compact refractive index sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 919–925 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3126–3132 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

Yuan, T.

Yuan, X.

J. Chen, J. Zhou, and X. Yuan, “MZ interferometer constructed by two S-bend fibers for displacement and force measurements,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 26(8), 837–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Zeng, X.

F. Shi, X. Bai, F. Wang, F. Pang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “All-fiber magnetic field sensor based on hollow optical fiber and magnetic fluid,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(3), 619–622 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Luo, S. Pu, J. Tang, X. Zeng, and M. Lahoubi, “Reflective all-fiber magnetic field sensor based on microfiber and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18133–18142 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B. L.

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3126–3132 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, T. Ning, J. Li, J. Zheng, X. Gao, and L. Pei, “Refractive index and strain sensor based on twin-core fiber with a novel T-shaped taper,” Opt. Laser Technol. 102, 12–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Li, T. Ning, C. Zhang, J. Li, C. Zhang, X. Wen, H. Lin, and L. Pei, “All-fiber multipath Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a four-core fiber for sensing applications,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 248, 148–154 (2016).

C. Li, T. Ning, C. Zhang, J. Li, C. Zhang, X. Wen, H. Lin, and L. Pei, “All-fiber multipath Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a four-core fiber for sensing applications,” Sensor. Actuat. A-Phys. 248, 148–154 (2016).

Zhang, H.

X. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Wu, B. Song, and C. Wang, “A magnetic field sensor based on a dual S-tapered multimode fiber interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(7), 075103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, X. Ma, Y. He, H. Zhang, X. Yang, and J. Yao, “Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 357–363 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Song, W. Lin, and Y. Li, “WGM micro-fluidic-channel based on reflection type fiber-tip-coupled hollow-core PCFs,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 28(22), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Y. Miao, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, B. Song, M. Huang, and L. Lin, “Relative humidity sensor based on S-taper fiber coated with SiO2 nanoparticles,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3424–3428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, J. Wu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, B. Song, H. Zhang, B. Liu, and J. Yao, “Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29914–29920 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Tang, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, S. Xiao, J. Liu, B. Wei, Q. Ding, and S. Jian, “Refractive index and temperature sensing based on an optoelectronic oscillator incorporating a Fabry-Perot fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L.

F. Shen, C. Wang, Z. Sun, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and X. Shu, “Small-period long-period fiber grating with improved refractive index sensitivity and dual-parameter sensing ability,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 199–202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Huang, J. Lee, F. T. Arce, I. Yoon, P. Angsantikul, J. Liu, Y. Shi, J. Villanueva, S. Thamphiwatana, X. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Chen, R. Lal, and D. J. Sirbuly, “Nanofibre optic force transducers with sub-piconewton resolution via near-field plasmon-dielectric interactions,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 352–355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Luo, Q. Sun, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Highly birefringent D-shaped microfiber and its application in high-sensitive optical sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(12), 4793–4797 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, Q. Sun, X. Li, Z. Yan, Y. Li, D. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Refractive index sensitivity characteristics near the dispersion turning point of the multimode microfiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5042–5045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

N. Zhang, W. Xu, S. You, C. Yu, C. Yu, B. Dong, and K. Li, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, strain and temperature using a tapered structure based on SMF,” Opt. Commun. 410, 70–74 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Li, N. M. Y. Zhang, N. Zhang, T. Zhang, G. Liu, and L. Wei, “Spectral characteristics and ultrahigh sensitivities near the dispersion turning point of optical microfiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(12), 2409–2415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N. M. Y.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, T.

Zhang, W.

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Wu, B. Song, and C. Wang, “A magnetic field sensor based on a dual S-tapered multimode fiber interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 29(7), 075103 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, R. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, W. H. Wei, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Q. Ning, and Y. S. Yu, “Compact refractive index sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 919–925 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Ren, X. Zhang, X. Guo, H. Wang, and X. Wu, “High-sensitivity optofluidic sensor based on coupled liquid-core laser,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 29(8), 639–642 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. L.

Zhang, X. Y.

C. Chen, R. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, W. H. Wei, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, L. Qin, Y. Q. Ning, and Y. S. Yu, “Compact refractive index sensor based on an S-tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 919–925 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wang, Y. Xue, T. Yan, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer using S type fibre taper and lateral-offset,” J. Mod. Opt. 63(21), 2146–2150 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

F. Shi, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on S-tapered photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 230, 206–211 (2016).

Zhao, L.

F. Shi, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on S-tapered photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

X. Li, L. V. Nguyen, Y. Zhao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. C. Warren-Smith, “High-sensitivity Sagnac-interferometer biosensor based on exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 269, 103–109 (2018).

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, and A. Song, “Fiber optic SPR sensor for refractive index and temperature measurement based on MMF-FBG-MMF structure,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 237, 521–525 (2016).

Q. Wang, L. Kong, Y. Dang, F. Xia, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Hu, and J. Li, “High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on splicing points tapered SMF-PCF-SMF structure Mach-Zehnder mode interferometer,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 225, 213–220 (2016).

Zhao, Z.

Zheng, J.

C. Zhang, T. Ning, J. Li, J. Zheng, X. Gao, and L. Pei, “Refractive index and strain sensor based on twin-core fiber with a novel T-shaped taper,” Opt. Laser Technol. 102, 12–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, L. H. Chen, J. Yang, R. Raghunandhan, X. Dong, P. L. So, and C. C. Chan, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot optofluidic sensor with a focused ion beam ablated microslot for fast refractive index and magnetic field measurement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 322–326 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Y. Q. Ma, D. Guo, Y. Gao, S. Sarah, Q. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Pištora, and M. Cada, “High sensitive Z-shaped fiber interferometric refractive index sensor: Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 30(12), 1131–1134 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, L. Chen, J. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Guan, W. Qiu, J. Dong, H. Lu, J. Tang, W. Zhu, Z. Cai, Y. Xiao, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Coreless side-polished fiber: a novel fiber structure for multimode interference and highly sensitive refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5352–5365 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. Zhou, and X. Yuan, “MZ interferometer constructed by two S-bend fibers for displacement and force measurements,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 26(8), 837–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, K.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, C. C.

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. C. Zhu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, B. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “PDMS-coated S-tapered fiber for highly sensitive measurements of transverse load and temperature,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(6), 3429–3435 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Xue, X. L. Zhang, J. C. Guo, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “S-tapered fiber sensors for highly sensitive measurement of refractive index and axial strain,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3126–3132 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

Y. Zheng, L. H. Chen, J. Yang, R. Raghunandhan, X. Dong, P. L. So, and C. C. Chan, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot optofluidic sensor with a focused ion beam ablated microslot for fast refractive index and magnetic field measurement,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 23(2), 322–326 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. (8)

L. Ren, X. Zhang, X. Guo, H. Wang, and X. Wu, “High-sensitivity optofluidic sensor based on coupled liquid-core laser,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 29(8), 639–642 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. C. Zhu, Y. S. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, C. Chen, J. F. Liang, Z. J. Liu, A. H. Meng, S. M. Jing, and H. B. Sun, “Compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on tapered hollow optical fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 27(12), 1277–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, J. Zhou, and X. Yuan, “MZ interferometer constructed by two S-bend fibers for displacement and force measurements,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 26(8), 837–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, B. Liu, H. Zhang, B. Song, W. Lin, and Y. Li, “WGM micro-fluidic-channel based on reflection type fiber-tip-coupled hollow-core PCFs,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 28(22), 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Ma, D. Guo, Y. Gao, S. Sarah, Q. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Pištora, and M. Cada, “High sensitive Z-shaped fiber interferometric refractive index sensor: Simulation and Experiment,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 30(12), 1131–1134 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Shi, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on S-tapered photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Zhu, B. L. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “A highly sensitive temperature sensor based on a liquid-sealed S-tapered fiber,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. Lett. 25(9), 829–832 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

X. Chen, L. Xia, and C. Li, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on a novel D-shaped photonic crystal fiber for low refractive index detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(1), 1–9 (2018).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic diagram of the STTF. (b) Experimental setup of the RI sensing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a), (b) and (c) Illustration diagrams of the fabrication procedures of the STTF. (d) Microscopic images of the STTF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission spectra of the SMF (black line), TT (red line) and STTF (green line).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated light propagation of the STTF in SRI of 1 (a) and 1.35 (b) based on beam propagation theory (BPM), respectively. The SMF has a core/cladding diameters and effective indices of 8.2/125 μm and 1.4682/1.4628, respectively. The wavelength of input light is 1550 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured transmission spectra under different SRIs from 1.3395 to 1.3538.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Wavelength shift of the transmission spectrum with the variation of the SRI: (a) dip B; (b) dip A.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Intensities of dips A and dip B change with SRI, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Transmission spectra of the STTF at different temperatures.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Wavelength of dips A and B as a function of temperature, respectively. (b) Intensity of dips A and B as a function of temperature, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sensor performances of the proposed STTF in comparison with other micro-MZI RI sensors.

Equations (5)

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I T T 1 = I c o r e 1 + I c l a d d i n g 1 + 2 I c o r e 1 I c l a d d i n g 1 cos ( Δ Φ 1 ) = [ κ c o r e 1 c o r e 1 2 + κ c o r e 1 c l a d d i n g 1 2 + 2 κ c o r e 1 c o r e 1 κ c o r e 1 c l a d d i n g 1 cos ( Δ Φ 1 ) ] I i n p u t
λ N = 2 Δ n e f f L 1 2 N + 1
I o u t p u t = I c o r e 2 + I c l a d d i n g 2 + 2 I c o r e 2 I c l a d d i n g 2 cos ( Δ Φ 2 ) = [ κ c o r e 2 c o r e 2 2 + κ c o r e 2 c l a d d i n g 2 2 + 2 κ c o r e 2 c o r e 2 κ c o r e 2 c l a d d i n g 2 cos ( Δ Φ 2 ) ] I T T 1
λ M = 2 Δ n e f f L 2 2 M + 1
I o u t p u t = [ κ c o r e 1 c o r e 1 2 + κ c o r e 1 c l a d d i n g 1 2 + 2 κ c o r e 1 c o r e 1 κ c o r e 1 c l a d d i n g 1 cos ( Δ Φ 1 ) ] [ κ c o r e 2 c o r e 2 2 + κ c o r e 2 c l a d d i n g 2 2 + 2 κ c o r e 2 c o r e 2 κ c o r e 2 c l a d d i n g 2 cos ( Δ Φ 2 ) ] I i n p u t

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