Abstract

The application of metasurfaces requires the reduction or elimination of their chromatic aberration while maintaining a high efficiency. We propose a method for the design of dual-wavelength operating achromatic metalenses, which can focus two different wavelengths at the same position. Phase manipulation was achieved by crossing two crystalline Si nanorods on each pixel carrying phase information for wavelengths of 780 and 660 nm based on the principal of Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. At 660 nm, chromatic aberration was reduced from 1.28 to 0.46 μm in numerical experiments. The focusing efficiency of the circularly polarized light reached 90.2% for 780 nm and 49.7% for 660 nm. This method can be extended to other wavelengths.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 43722 (2017), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, Y. Guo, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Dispersion controlling meta-lens at visible frequency,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21419–21427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3732–3737 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength metasurfaces through spatial multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32803 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

X. Luo, M. Pu, X. Ma, and X. Li, “Taming the electromagnetic boundaries via metasurfaces: From theory and fabrication to functional devices,” Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2015(16), 204127 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. G. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Xu, C. Du, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging by metallic slab lens with nanoslits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 3966 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Hariharan, “Superachromatic lens combinations,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(2), 115–118 (1999).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

M. V. Berry, “Quantal phase factors accompanying adiabatic changes,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 392(1802), 45–57 (1984).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Generalized theory of interference and its applications,” Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A 44(6), 398–417 (1956).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akalin, T.

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 43722 (2017), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength metasurfaces through spatial multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32803 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength metasurfaces through spatial multiplexing,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32803 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, “Quantal phase factors accompanying adiabatic changes,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 392(1802), 45–57 (1984).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3732–3737 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chahadih, A.

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaudhary, K.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3732–3737 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, W.

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M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5358–5362 (2015).
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Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
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D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).
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G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
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Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
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K. Li, Y. Guo, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Dispersion controlling meta-lens at visible frequency,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21419–21427 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
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Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
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K. Li, Y. Guo, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Dispersion controlling meta-lens at visible frequency,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21419–21427 (2017).
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X. Luo, M. Pu, X. Ma, and X. Li, “Taming the electromagnetic boundaries via metasurfaces: From theory and fabrication to functional devices,” Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2015(16), 204127 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, M. Pu, X. Ma, and X. Li, “Taming the electromagnetic boundaries via metasurfaces: From theory and fabrication to functional devices,” Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2015(16), 204127 (2015).
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D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).
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Mishra, I.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
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F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3732–3737 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Li, Y. Guo, M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Dispersion controlling meta-lens at visible frequency,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21419–21427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rho, J.

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
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Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousso, D.

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5358–5362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanjeev, V.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, M. I.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaltout, A. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Z.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stellinga, D.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Su, R.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamagnone, M.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsukernik, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

T. Xu, C. Du, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging by metallic slab lens with nanoslits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 3966 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y. F.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, C. Du, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging by metallic slab lens with nanoslits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 3966 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, B.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoon, G.

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, H.

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaidi, A.

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, L.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, A. Y.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

Z. Zhou, J. Li, R. Su, B. Yao, H. Fang, K. Li, L. Zhou, J. Liu, D. Stellinga, C. P. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, and X. Wang, “Efficient silicon metasurfaces for visible light,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 544–551 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Xu, C. Du, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging by metallic slab lens with nanoslits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 3966 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Millimeter-wave transmitarrays for wavefront and polarization control,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 61(12), 4407–4417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Antennas Propag. (1)

X. Luo, M. Pu, X. Ma, and X. Li, “Taming the electromagnetic boundaries via metasurfaces: From theory and fabrication to functional devices,” Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2015(16), 204127 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (9)

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y. W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z. W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C. W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q. T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y. F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-frequency dielectric metasurfaces for multiwavelength achromatic and highly dispersive holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metalens over 60 nm bandwidth in the visible and metalens with reverse chromatic dispersion,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1819–1824 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, F. Aieta, P. Kanhaiya, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, D. Rousso, and F. Capasso, “Achromatic metasurface lens at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5358–5362 (2015).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Super-dispersive off-axis meta-lenses for compact high resolution spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3732–3737 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, A. L. Holsteen, E. Maguid, G. Wetzstein, P. G. Kik, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photonic multitasking interleaved si nanoantenna phased array,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7671–7676 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

G. Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S. Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
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D. Hu, G. Moreno, X. Wang, J. He, A. Chahadih, Z. Xie, B. Wang, T. Akalin, and Y. Zhang, “Dispersion characteristic of ultrathin terahertz planar lenses based on metasurface,” Opt. Commun. 322(322), 164–168 (2014).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
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Science (4)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The light intensity distribution along the optic axis for the field map at the metalens under different parameters. When there is no disturbance, the focal length is 6 μm as designed. Upon the addition of a disturbance, A:B = 2:1 or A:B = 1:2, the focal length f deviates to 5.95 μm at λ1 = 780 nm (blue line) and 6.65 μm at λ2 = 660 nm (magenta line).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (c) The influence of reference phase C on the focal length at 780 nm (magenta line) and 660 nm (blue line) for the combined (solid lines) and single phase information (dashed lines). (b) and (d) The distribution of the intensity along the Z-axis when C = 189°/C = 180° is added to phase φ2 for different values of A:B.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic representation of the operating mechanism of the X-shaped meta-atom, which is formed by the superposition of two differently sized nanorods. The rotation of a nanorod with an in-plane angle θ12 can induce a phase change 2σθ1/2σθ2 in the oppositely-polarized component of the transmitted light according to the PB phase. (b) Definition of the geometric parameters for a unit cell of the metalens. The period P = 300 nm, height H = 400 nm, and width W = 72 nm. The length L is 250 nm for Rod 1 and 150 nm for Rod 2. (c) Schematic representation of the proposed metalens.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The near-field intensity distribution of the X-shaped meta-atoms with different cross-angles upon illumination using left circular polarized light at (a) 780 nm and (b) 660 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The electric field intensity distribution after passing through the metalens. Using (a) 780 nm and (b) 660 nm light incident on the metalens designed for a wavelength of 780 nm with a 6 μm focal length. The focal lengths were measured to be 6.09 and 7.37 μm respectively. Using (c) 780 nm and (d) 660 nm light incident on the metalens with X-shaped meta-atoms designed for a focal length of 6 μm. The reference phase C = 180° is included. The focal lengths were 5.75 and 6.21 μm, respectively. The white circle in each image indicates the position with the strongest intensity. The inset on the lower-left corner of each figure represents the field intensity distribution at focus on the x-y plane. The vertical (horizontal) cuts of focal spots have a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (a) 0.56 μm (0.56 μm), (b) 0.56 μm (0.56 μm), (c) 0.56 μm (0.56 μm), and (d) 0.48 μm (0.48 μm), respectively. Values of FWHMs from vertical and horizontal cuts are very close revealing the symmetry of the focal spots.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ(x,y,λ)= 2π λ ( x 2 + y 2 + f 2 f).
E(x,y,λ)=I e jφ(x,y,λ) ,
φ 1 (x,y, λ 1 )= 2π λ 1 ( x 2 + y 2 + f 2 f),
φ 2 (x,y, λ 2 )= 2π λ 2 ( x 2 + y 2 + f 2 f),
E'=A(λ) e j φ 1 +B(λ) e jφ2 ,
φ 2 '(x,y, λ 2 )= 2π λ 2 ( x 2 + y 2 + f 2 f)+C,
E 2 '=B(λ) e j φ 2 ' .
E X =A(λ) e j φ 1 +B(λ) e jφ2 .

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