Abstract

The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) induced by the normal incidence of linearly-polarized infrared radiation has been observed in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. A model has been proposed to explain the phenomenon, and the spin transverse force has been determined by the model fitting. The anomalous linear photogalvanic effect (ALPGE) is also observed, and the photoinduced momentum anisotropy is extracted. Furthermore, the ISHE and ALPGE are investigated at different temperatures between 77 and 300 K, and the temperature dependence of the spin transverse force and photoinduced momentum anisotropy are obtained. This study suggests a new way to investigate the inverse spin Hall effect via linearly polarized light even at room temperature.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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  4. S. K. Khamari, S. Porwal, V. K. Dixit, and T. K. Sharma, “Temperature dependence of the photo-induced inverse spin hall effect in Au/InP hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 042102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. D. C. King, R. C. Hatch, M. Bianchi, R. Ovsyannikov, C. Lupulescu, G. Landolt, B. Slomski, J. H. Dil, D. Guan, J. L. Mi, E. D. L. Rienks, J. Fink, A. Lindblad, S. Svensson, S. Bao, G. Balakrishnan, B. B. Iversen, J. Osterwalder, W. Eberhardt, F. Baumberger, and P. Hofmann, “Large tunable Rashba spin splitting of a two-dimensional electron gas in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 096802 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. C. G. Tang, Y. H. Chen, Y. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous-circular photogalvanic effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Phys. Cond. Matter 21, 375802 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Chen, H. J. Qin, F. Yang, J. Liu, T. Guan, F. M. Qu, G. H. Zhang, J. R. Shi, X. C. Xie, C. L. Yang, K. H. Wu, Y. Q. Li, and L. Lu, “Gate-voltage control of chemical potential and weak antilocalization in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176602 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. S.-Q. Shen, “Spin transverse force on spin current in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187203 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. Y. Shiomi, K. Nomura, Y. Kajiwara, K. Eto, M. Novak, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, and E. Saitoh, “Spin-electricity conversion induced by spin injection into topological insulators,” Phys. Phys. Lett. 113, 196601 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Malinowski, R. S. Britton, T. Grevatt, R. T. Harley, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Y. Simmons, “Spin relaxation in GaAs/Alx Ga1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 13034 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Takahashi, K. Shizume, and N. Masuhara, “Spin diffusion in a two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4856–4865 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Matsuzaka, Y. Ohno, and H. Ohno, “Electron density dependence of the spin Hall effect in GaAs probed by scanning Kerr rotation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 241305 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. W.-K. Tse and S. Das Sarma, “Spin Hall effect in doped semiconductor structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 056601 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Son, K. Banerjee, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. K. Lee, J. H. Ahn, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films with ionic liquid gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213114 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2017 (6)

J. B. S. Mendes, S. L. A. Mello, O. A. Santos, R. O. Cunha, R. L. Rodriguez-Suarez, A. Azevedo, and S. M. Rezende, “Inverse spin Hall effect in the semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 214405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, M. Elyasi, X. Qiu, M. Chen, Y. Liu, L. Ke, and H. Yang, “High-performance THz emitters based on ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603031 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Liu, C. W. Chong, C. M. FanChiang, J. C. A. Huang, H. C. Han, Z. J. Li, H. L. Qiu, Y. C. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Ultrathin (Bi1−xSx)2Se3 field effect transistor with large on/off ratio,” Acs Appl. Mater. Interf. 9, 12859–12864 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, R. Liu, H. Xie, Y. Zhang, B. Lyu, P. Wang, J. Wang, Q. Fan, Y. Ma, S. Tao, S. Xiao, X. Yu, Y. Gao, and J. He, “Tri-phase all-optical switching and broadband nonlinear optical response in Bi2Se3 nanosheets,” Opt. Express 25, 18346–18354 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, X. Zeng, L. Zhang, K. He, S. Cheng, Y. Lai, W. Huang, Y. Chen, C. Yin, and Q. Xue, “Photoinduced inverse spin hall effect of surface states in the topological insulator bi2se3,” Nano Lett. 17, 7878 (2017)DOI: .
[Crossref]

L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

L. Braun, G. Mussler, A. Hruban, M. Konczykowski, T. Schumann, M. Wolf, M. Münzenberg, L. Perfetti, and T. Kampfrath, “Ultrafast photocurrents at the surface of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13259 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Plank, L. E. Golub, S. Bauer, V. V. Bel’kov, T. Herrmann, P. Olbrich, M. Eschbach, L. Plucinski, C. M. Schneider, J. Kampmeier, M. Lanius, G. Mussler, D. Grützmacher, and S. D. Ganichev, “Photon drag effect in (Bi1−xSbx)2Te3 three-dimensional topological insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 125434 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and tunable THz emitters based on the Fe/Pt magnetic heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Seifert, S. Jaiswal, U. Martens, J. Hannegan, L. Braun, P. Maldonado, F. Freimuth, A. Kronenberg, J. Henrizi, I. Radu, E. Beaurepaire, Y. Mokrousov, P. M. Oppeneer, M. Jourdan, G. Jakob, D. Turchinovich, L. M. Hayden, M. Wolf, M. Munzenberg, M. Klaui, and T. Kampfrath, “Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation,” Nature Photon. 10, 483 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou and X. Ling, “Unveiling the photonic spin Hall effect with asymmetric spin-dependent splitting,” Opt. Express 24, 3025–3036 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Luo, W. Y. Deng, H. Geng, M. N. Chen, R. Shen, L. Sheng, and D. Y. Xing, “Perfect inverse spin hall effect and inverse edelstein effect due to helical spin-momentum locking in topological surface states,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 115118 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Jamali, J. S. Lee, J. S. Jeong, F. Mahfouzi, Y. Lv, Z. Y. Zhao, B. K. Nikolic, K. A. Mkhoyan, N. Samarth, and J. P. Wang, “Giant spin pumping and inverse spin hall effect in the presence of surface and bulk spin-orbit coupling of topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Nano Lett. 15, 7126–7132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

P. Deorani, J. Son, K. Banerjee, N. Koirala, M. Brahlek, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Observation of inverse spin Hall effect in bismuth selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 094403 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Olbrich, L. E. Golub, T. Herrmann, S. N. Danilov, H. Plank, V. V. Bel’kov, G. Mussler, C. Weyrich, C. M. Schneider, J. Kampmeier, D. Grützmacher, L. Plucinski, M. Eschbach, and S. D. Ganichev, “Room-temperature high-frequency transport of dirac fermions in epitaxially grown Sb2Te3- and Bi2Te3-based topological insulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 096601 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Khamari, S. Porwal, V. K. Dixit, and T. K. Sharma, “Temperature dependence of the photo-induced inverse spin hall effect in Au/InP hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 042102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Sobota, S. L. Yang, D. Leuenberger, A. F. Kemper, J. G. Analytis, I. R. Fisher, P. S. Kirchmann, T. P. Devereaux, and Z. X. Shen, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Se3 studied by time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. 195, 249–257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shiomi, K. Nomura, Y. Kajiwara, K. Eto, M. Novak, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, and E. Saitoh, “Spin-electricity conversion induced by spin injection into topological insulators,” Phys. Phys. Lett. 113, 196601 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. Radu, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “Terahertz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nature Nanotech. 8, 256 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Son, K. Banerjee, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. K. Lee, J. H. Ahn, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films with ionic liquid gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213114 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. W. McIver, D Hsieh, H Steinberg, P. Jarillo Herrero, and N Gedik, “Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light polarization,” Nature Nanotech. 7, 96–100 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Bahramy, P. D. C. King, A. de la Torre, J. Chang, M. Shi, L. Patthey, G. Balakrishnan, P. Hofmann, R. Arita, N. Nagaosa, and F. Baumberger, “Emergent quantum confinement at topological insulator surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. D. C. King, R. C. Hatch, M. Bianchi, R. Ovsyannikov, C. Lupulescu, G. Landolt, B. Slomski, J. H. Dil, D. Guan, J. L. Mi, E. D. L. Rienks, J. Fink, A. Lindblad, S. Svensson, S. Bao, G. Balakrishnan, B. B. Iversen, J. Osterwalder, W. Eberhardt, F. Baumberger, and P. Hofmann, “Large tunable Rashba spin splitting of a two-dimensional electron gas in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 096802 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Peng, Q. Zhang, B. Shen, J. R. Shi, C. M. Yin, X. W. He, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, N. Tang, C. Y. Jiang, Y. H. Chen, and K. Chang, “Anomalous linear photogalvanic effect observed in a GaN-based two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075341 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Chen, H. J. Qin, F. Yang, J. Liu, T. Guan, F. M. Qu, G. H. Zhang, J. R. Shi, X. C. Xie, C. L. Yang, K. H. Wu, Y. Q. Li, and L. Lu, “Gate-voltage control of chemical potential and weak antilocalization in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176602 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Mosendz, V. Vlaminck, J. E. Pearson, F. Y. Fradin, G. E. W. Bauer, S. D. Bader, and A. Hoffmann, “Detection and quantification of inverse spin hall effect from spin pumping in permalloy/normal metal bilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 214403 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. G. Tang, Y. H. Chen, Y. Liu, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous-circular photogalvanic effect in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas,” J. Phys. Cond. Matter 21, 375802 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuzaka, Y. Ohno, and H. Ohno, “Electron density dependence of the spin Hall effect in GaAs probed by scanning Kerr rotation microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 241305 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

P. S. Eldridge, W. J. H. Leyland, P. G. Lagoudakis, O. Z. Karimov, M. Henini, D. Taylor, R. T. Phillips, and R. T. Harley, “All-optical measurement of Rashba coefficient in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125344 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Seki, Y. Hasegawa, S. Mitani, S. Takahashi, H. Imamura, S. Maekawa, J. Nitta, and K. Takanashi, “Giant spin Hall effect in perpendicularly spin-polarized FePt/Au devices,” Nat. Mater. 7, 125–129 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. H. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Han, C. M. Yin, N. Tang, F. J. Xu, C. G. Tang, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous photogalvanic effect of circularly polarized light incident on the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−xN/GaN heterostructures at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 147402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X. D. Cui, S. Q. Shen, J. Li, Y. Ji, W. K. Ge, and F. C. Zhang, “Observation of electric current induced by optically injected spin current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 242115 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Zhou and S.-Q. Shen, “Deduction of pure spin current from the linear and circular spin photogalvanic effect in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 045339 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W.-K. Tse and S. Das Sarma, “Spin Hall effect in doped semiconductor structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 056601 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S.-Q. Shen, “Spin transverse force on spin current in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187203 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wunderlich, B. Kaestner, J. Sinova, and T. Jungwirth, “Experimental observation of the spin-Hall effect in a two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled semiconductor system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. K. Kato, R. C. Myers, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, “Observation of the spin Hall effect in semiconductors,” Science 306, 1910 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Malinowski, R. S. Britton, T. Grevatt, R. T. Harley, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Y. Simmons, “Spin relaxation in GaAs/Alx Ga1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 13034 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Y. Takahashi, K. Shizume, and N. Masuhara, “Spin diffusion in a two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 4856–4865 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

J. Son, K. Banerjee, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. K. Lee, J. H. Ahn, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films with ionic liquid gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Analytis, J. G.

J. A. Sobota, S. L. Yang, D. Leuenberger, A. F. Kemper, J. G. Analytis, I. R. Fisher, P. S. Kirchmann, T. P. Devereaux, and Z. X. Shen, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Se3 studied by time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. 195, 249–257 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ando, Y.

Y. Shiomi, K. Nomura, Y. Kajiwara, K. Eto, M. Novak, K. Segawa, Y. Ando, and E. Saitoh, “Spin-electricity conversion induced by spin injection into topological insulators,” Phys. Phys. Lett. 113, 196601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arita, R.

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J. Chen, H. J. Qin, F. Yang, J. Liu, T. Guan, F. M. Qu, G. H. Zhang, J. R. Shi, X. C. Xie, C. L. Yang, K. H. Wu, Y. Q. Li, and L. Lu, “Gate-voltage control of chemical potential and weak antilocalization in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and tunable THz emitters based on the Fe/Pt magnetic heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1944–1949 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

J. Chen, H. J. Qin, F. Yang, J. Liu, T. Guan, F. M. Qu, G. H. Zhang, J. R. Shi, X. C. Xie, C. L. Yang, K. H. Wu, Y. Q. Li, and L. Lu, “Gate-voltage control of chemical potential and weak antilocalization in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Y. Wu, M. Elyasi, X. Qiu, M. Chen, Y. Liu, L. Ke, and H. Yang, “High-performance THz emitters based on ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603031 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Deorani, J. Son, K. Banerjee, N. Koirala, M. Brahlek, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Observation of inverse spin Hall effect in bismuth selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 094403 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Son, K. Banerjee, M. Brahlek, N. Koirala, S. K. Lee, J. H. Ahn, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films with ionic liquid gating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. L.

J. A. Sobota, S. L. Yang, D. Leuenberger, A. F. Kemper, J. G. Analytis, I. R. Fisher, P. S. Kirchmann, T. P. Devereaux, and Z. X. Shen, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in the topological insulator Bi2Se3 studied by time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” J. Electron Spectrosc. 195, 249–257 (2014).
[Crossref]

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X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. H. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Han, C. M. Yin, N. Tang, F. J. Xu, C. G. Tang, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous photogalvanic effect of circularly polarized light incident on the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−xN/GaN heterostructures at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 147402 (2008).
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Yin, C.

J. Yu, X. Zeng, L. Zhang, K. He, S. Cheng, Y. Lai, W. Huang, Y. Chen, C. Yin, and Q. Xue, “Photoinduced inverse spin hall effect of surface states in the topological insulator bi2se3,” Nano Lett. 17, 7878 (2017)DOI: .
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Yin, C. M.

X. Y. Peng, Q. Zhang, B. Shen, J. R. Shi, C. M. Yin, X. W. He, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, N. Tang, C. Y. Jiang, Y. H. Chen, and K. Chang, “Anomalous linear photogalvanic effect observed in a GaN-based two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075341 (2011).
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X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. H. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Han, C. M. Yin, N. Tang, F. J. Xu, C. G. Tang, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous photogalvanic effect of circularly polarized light incident on the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−xN/GaN heterostructures at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 147402 (2008).
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Yu, J.

J. Yu, X. Zeng, L. Zhang, K. He, S. Cheng, Y. Lai, W. Huang, Y. Chen, C. Yin, and Q. Xue, “Photoinduced inverse spin hall effect of surface states in the topological insulator bi2se3,” Nano Lett. 17, 7878 (2017)DOI: .
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Yu, X.

Yuan, Y. H.

L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
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Zang, Y. Y.

L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
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Zbarsky, V.

T. Kampfrath, M. Battiato, P. Maldonado, G. Eilers, J. Notzold, S. Mahrlein, V. Zbarsky, F. Freimuth, Y. Mokrousov, S. Blugel, M. Wolf, I. Radu, P. M. Oppeneer, and M. Munzenberg, “Terahertz spin current pulses controlled by magnetic heterostructures,” Nature Nanotech. 8, 256 (2013).
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Zeng, X.

J. Yu, X. Zeng, L. Zhang, K. He, S. Cheng, Y. Lai, W. Huang, Y. Chen, C. Yin, and Q. Xue, “Photoinduced inverse spin hall effect of surface states in the topological insulator bi2se3,” Nano Lett. 17, 7878 (2017)DOI: .
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Zhang, D.

L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F. C.

X. D. Cui, S. Q. Shen, J. Li, Y. Ji, W. K. Ge, and F. C. Zhang, “Observation of electric current induced by optically injected spin current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 242115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. H.

J. Chen, H. J. Qin, F. Yang, J. Liu, T. Guan, F. M. Qu, G. H. Zhang, J. R. Shi, X. C. Xie, C. L. Yang, K. H. Wu, Y. Q. Li, and L. Lu, “Gate-voltage control of chemical potential and weak antilocalization in Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176602 (2010).
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Zhang, G. Y.

X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. H. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Han, C. M. Yin, N. Tang, F. J. Xu, C. G. Tang, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous photogalvanic effect of circularly polarized light incident on the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−xN/GaN heterostructures at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 147402 (2008).
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J. Yu, X. Zeng, L. Zhang, K. He, S. Cheng, Y. Lai, W. Huang, Y. Chen, C. Yin, and Q. Xue, “Photoinduced inverse spin hall effect of surface states in the topological insulator bi2se3,” Nano Lett. 17, 7878 (2017)DOI: .
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L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
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Zhang, Q.

X. Y. Peng, Q. Zhang, B. Shen, J. R. Shi, C. M. Yin, X. W. He, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, N. Tang, C. Y. Jiang, Y. H. Chen, and K. Chang, “Anomalous linear photogalvanic effect observed in a GaN-based two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075341 (2011).
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X. W. He, B. Shen, Y. H. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Han, C. M. Yin, N. Tang, F. J. Xu, C. G. Tang, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. G. Wang, “Anomalous photogalvanic effect of circularly polarized light incident on the two-dimensional electron gas in Alx Ga1−xN/GaN heterostructures at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 147402 (2008).
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Zhang, Y.

Zhao, D. P.

L. G. Zhang, D. P. Zhao, Y. Y. Zang, Y. H. Yuan, G. Y. Jiang, M. H. Liao, D. Zhang, K. He, X. C. Ma, and Q. K. Xue, “Ferromagnetism in vanadium-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator films,” APL Mater. 5, 076106 (2017).
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B. Zhou and S.-Q. Shen, “Deduction of pure spin current from the linear and circular spin photogalvanic effect in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 045339 (2007).
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Zhou, C.

D. Yang, J. Liang, C. Zhou, L. Sun, R. Zheng, S. Luo, Y. Wu, and J. Qi, “Powerful and tunable THz emitters based on the Fe/Pt magnetic heterostructure,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1944–1949 (2016).
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Y. H. Liu, C. W. Chong, C. M. FanChiang, J. C. A. Huang, H. C. Han, Z. J. Li, H. L. Qiu, Y. C. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Ultrathin (Bi1−xSx)2Se3 field effect transistor with large on/off ratio,” Acs Appl. Mater. Interf. 9, 12859–12864 (2017).
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B. Zhou and S.-Q. Shen, “Deduction of pure spin current from the linear and circular spin photogalvanic effect in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 045339 (2007).
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X. Y. Peng, Q. Zhang, B. Shen, J. R. Shi, C. M. Yin, X. W. He, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, N. Tang, C. Y. Jiang, Y. H. Chen, and K. Chang, “Anomalous linear photogalvanic effect observed in a GaN-based two-dimensional electron gas,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075341 (2011).
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P. Deorani, J. Son, K. Banerjee, N. Koirala, M. Brahlek, S. Oh, and H. Yang, “Observation of inverse spin Hall effect in bismuth selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 094403 (2014).
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H. Plank, L. E. Golub, S. Bauer, V. V. Bel’kov, T. Herrmann, P. Olbrich, M. Eschbach, L. Plucinski, C. M. Schneider, J. Kampmeier, M. Lanius, G. Mussler, D. Grützmacher, and S. D. Ganichev, “Photon drag effect in (Bi1−xSbx)2Te3 three-dimensional topological insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 125434 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the measurement geometry. (b) Background current y0 and the LPGE current as a function of light spot positions measured at 77 K. The solid line is the theoretical result of the spatial distribution of LPGE. (c) A typical result of photocurrent collected between two electrodes as a function of polarization angle of light when the light is on point C. The solid line is the fitting curve using Eq. (3), and the dashed, dotted, dash-dotted and dash-dot-dotted lines are LPGE, L1, L2 and background current y0, respectively. The data is measured at 77 K. (d) The L1 and (e) L2 components as a function of the polarization angle θ of incident light at points A, B and C, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spatial distribution of L1 component in Bi2Se3 measured at 77 K. The circles are the experimental data, and the solid line is the fitting result according to Eq. (4). The inset shows the schematic diagram of the geometry.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Illustration of charge current under the normal incidence of linearly polarized light. The black circle indicates the light spot area. ⊙ (⊗) represents the spin direction of electron is perpendicular to the figure and pointing outside (inside). The long blue arrows denote the spin current direction, and the green arrows indicate the direction of charge current induced by inverse spin Hall effect. (b) Spatial distribution of L2 component measured at 77 K. The solid line is the fitting curve using Eq. (7). The arrows indicate the positions corresponding to the points A, B and C shown in Fig. 1(a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The spatial distribution of (a) L1 and (b) L2 component at different temperatures. The solid lines are the fitting results. The temperature dependence of (c) photoinduced momentum anisotropy, (d) spin transverse force, (e) LPGE and (d) background current y0, respectively. The open circles in (d) and the open triangles in (e) are the spin transverse force and the LPGE current normalized by the background current y0, respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J = J LPGE sin ( 2 θ 3 Φ ) + y 0 .
J = J LPGE sin ( 2 θ 3 Φ ) + L 1 sin ( 2 θ ) + y 0 ,
J = J LPGE sin ( 2 θ 3 Φ ) + L 1 sin ( 2 θ ) + L 2 cos ( 2 θ ) + y 0 .
L 1 = 4 W 𝒫 x y π σ R x L ( x 2 + L 2 ) 2 exp ( x 2 / A s ) .
𝒫 x y = α β ( θ 0 ) 2 e ( υ e τ ) 2 ω .
J z ( r , φ ) G ( r ) cos [ 3 ( φ 30 ° Φ ) ] ( cos 2 φ + I 1 ) cos 2 θ .
I a b = f 0 2 π χ q D exp ( r 2 2 χ 2 ) cos [ 3 ( φ 30 ° Φ ) ] ( cos 2 φ + I 1 ) r d r d φ .

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