Abstract

We report the standoff (up to ~2 m) and remote (~8.5 m) detection of novel high energy materials/explosive molecules (Nitroimidazoles and Nitropyrazoles) using the technique of femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We utilized two different collection systems (a) ME-OCT-0007 (commercially available) and (b) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope for these experiments. In conjunction with LIBS data, principal component analysis was employed to discriminate/classify the explosives and the obtained results in both configurations are compared. Different aspects influencing the LIBS signal strength at far distances such as fluence at target, efficiency of collection system etc. are discussed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. S. Harilal, B. E. Brumfield, and M. C. Phillips, “Standoff analysis of laser-produced plasmas using laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 1055–1058 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (12)

K. Bhavsar, K. E. Eseller, and R. Prabhu, “Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection,” Proc. SPIE 10441, 1044103 (2017).

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Kalam, E. N. Rao, and S. V. Rao, “Standoff LIBS for explosives detection: Challenges and status,” Laser Focus World 53, 24–28 (2017).

S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Pořízka, J. Klus, J. Mašek, M. Rajnoha, D. Prochazka, P. Modlitbová, J. Novotný, R. Burget, K. Novotný, and J. Kaiser, “Multivariate classification of echellograms: a new perspective in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3160 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Farhadian, M. K. Tehrani, M. H. Keshavarz, and S. M. R. Darbani, “Energetic materials identification by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with artificial neural network,” Appl. Opt. 56(12), 3372–3377 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Barnett, N. Lamsal, and S. M. Angel, “Standoff Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Using a Miniature Wide Field of View Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer with Sub-Microsteradian Collection Optics,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(4), 583–590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S.-C. Yang, F. Jin, S. B. Trivedi, E. E. Brown, U. Hommerich, A. Tripathi, and A. C. Samuels, “Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Emissions of Thin Solid Explosive Powder Films Deposited on Aluminum Substrates,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(4), 728–734 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Álvarez-Trujillo, V. Lazic, J. Moros, and J. Javier Laserna, “Standoff monitoring of aqueous aerosols using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: droplet size and matrix effects,” Appl. Opt. 56(13), 3773–3782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. K. Gundawar, R. Junjuri, and A. K. Myakalwar, “Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Def. Sci. J. 67(6), 623–630 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. C. Hartig, I. Ghebregziabher, and I. Jovanovic, “Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43852 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, J. D. Suter, and M. C. Phillips, “Dynamics of molecular emission features from nanosecond, femtosecond laser and filament ablation plasmas,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(6), 1192–1197 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. A. Labutin, V. N. Lednev, A. A. Ilyin, and A. M. Popov, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(1), 90–118 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. K. Myakalwar, S. K. Anubham, S. K. Paidi, I. Barman, and M. K. Gundawar, “Real-time fingerprinting of structural isomers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(10), 3077–3083 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part I: animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 35–47 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part II: photon and neutron methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 49–65 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, and M. C. Phillips, “Consequences of femtosecond laser filament generation conditions in standoff laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17941–17949 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, and M. C. Phillips, “Plasma temperature clamping in filamentation laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27113–27122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Rao, S. Sunku, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Studies of Nitropyrazoles: The Effect of Varying Nitro Groups,” Appl. Spectrosc. 69(11), 1342–1354 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Exploring the formation routes of diatomic hydrogenated radicals using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of deuterated molecular solids‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 30(11), 2343–2352 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

C. A. Zuhlke, J. Bruce, T. P. Anderson, D. R. Alexander, and C. G. Parigger, “A Fundamental Understanding of the Dependence of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Signal Strength on the Complex Focusing Dynamics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses on Either Side of the Focus,” Appl. Spectrosc. 68(9), 1021–1029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gaona, J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Range-Adaptive Standoff Recognition of Explosive Fingerprints on Solid Surfaces using a Supervised Learning Method and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 5045–5052 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. El Haddad, L. Canioni, and B. Bousquet, “Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 101, 171–182 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sreedhar, M. K. Gundawar, and S. V. Rao, “Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Classification of High Energy Materials using Elemental Intensity Ratios,” Def. Sci. J. 64, 332–338 (2014).

2013 (5)

S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, K. Novotný, and J. J. Laserna, “Fundamentals of stand-off Raman scattering spectroscopy for explosive fingerprinting,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(1), 121–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sunku, E. N. Rao, G. M. Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Discrimination methodologies using femtosecond LIBS and correlation techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8726, 87260H (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gottfried, “Influence of metal substrates on the detection of explosive residues with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), B10–B19 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sreedhar, E. Nageswara Rao, G. Manoj Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. Venugopal Rao, “Molecular formation dynamics of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in air, nitrogen, and argon atmospheres studied using femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 87, 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

J. Moros, J. Serrano, C. Sanchez, J. Macias, and J. J. Laserna, “New chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for recognizing explosive residues‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 27(12), 2111–2122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Giubileo, F. Colao, and A. Puiu, “Identification of standard explosive traces by infrared laser spectroscopy: PCA on LPAS data,” Laser Phys. 22(6), 1033–1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. C. De Lucia and J. L. Gottfried, “Classification of explosive residues on organic substrates using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B83–B92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part II: Review of Instrumental and Methodological Approaches to Material Analysis and Applications to Different Fields,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66(4), 347–419 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond Laser Filamentation for Atmospheric Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Moros and J. J. Laserna, “New Raman-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Identity of Explosives using Parametric Data Fusion on an Integrated Sensing Platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(16), 6275–6285 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lazic, A. Palucci, S. Jovicevic, and M. Carpanese, “Standoff Detection of Explosives in traces by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 66(8), 644–655 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff detection of explosives: critical comparison for ensuing options on Raman spectroscopy-LIBS sensor fusion,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3353–3365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform,” Anal. Chem. 82(4), 1389–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Wynn, S. Palmacci, R. R. Kunz, and M. Rothschild, “Noncontact detection of homemade explosive constituents via photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5399–5406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, and A. W. Miziolek, “Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection,” Opt. Express 17(2), 419–425 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Discrimination of explosive residues on organic and inorganic substrates using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(3), 288–296 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(2), 283–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gonzalez, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff LIBS detection of explosive residues behind a barrier‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(8), 1123–1126 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. J. Judge, G. Heck, E. B. Cerkez, and R. J. Levis, “Discrimination of Composite Graphite Samples Using Remote Filament-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(7), 2658–2663 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

A. W. Schill, D. A. Heaps, D. N. Stratis-Cullum, B. R. Arnold, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Characterization of near-infrared low energy ultra-short laser pulses for portable applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14044–14056 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1405–1411 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (6)

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, A. LaPointe, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(6), 1140–1148 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, D. Anglos, and D. Gray, “Ultraviolet laser filaments for remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis: applications in cultural heritage monitoring,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1139–1141 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fujii, N. Goto, M. Miki, T. Nayuki, and K. Nemoto, “Lidar measurement of constituents of microparticles in air by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using femtosecond terawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3456–3458 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. C. Wiens, S. K. Sharma, J. Thompson, A. Misra, and P. G. Lucey, “Joint analyses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy at stand-off distances,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(10), 2324–2334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically Turbulent Femtosecond Light Guide in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2938–2941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alexander, D. R.

Álvarez-Trujillo, L. A.

Anderson, T. P.

Andrusyak, O.

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
[Crossref]

Angel, S. M.

Anglos, D.

Anubham, S. K.

A. K. Myakalwar, S. K. Anubham, S. K. Paidi, I. Barman, and M. K. Gundawar, “Real-time fingerprinting of structural isomers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(10), 3077–3083 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, B. R.

Azarm, A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barman, I.

A. K. Myakalwar, S. K. Anubham, S. K. Paidi, I. Barman, and M. K. Gundawar, “Real-time fingerprinting of structural isomers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(10), 3077–3083 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, P. D.

Baudelet, M.

M. Baudelet, M. Richardson, and M. Sigman, “Self-channeling of femtosecond laser pulses for rapid and efficient standoff detection of energetic materials,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security(IEEE,2009), pp. 472–476.
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bereket, H.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernath, R.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhavsar, K.

K. Bhavsar, K. E. Eseller, and R. Prabhu, “Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection,” Proc. SPIE 10441, 1044103 (2017).

Blaney, D.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
[Crossref]

Börner, F.

K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bornstein, B.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Bourayou, R.

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J. El Haddad, L. Canioni, and B. Bousquet, “Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 101, 171–182 (2014).
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Brown, C.

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
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Brown, C. G.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
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Brown, E. E.

Brown, E. R.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

Brown, K. E.

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part I: animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 35–47 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part II: photon and neutron methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 49–65 (2016).
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Bruce, J.

Brumfield, B. E.

Burget, R.

P. Pořízka, J. Klus, J. Mašek, M. Rajnoha, D. Prochazka, P. Modlitbová, J. Novotný, R. Burget, K. Novotný, and J. Kaiser, “Multivariate classification of echellograms: a new perspective in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3160 (2017).
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Burl, M.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Cabalín, L. M.

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Canioni, L.

J. El Haddad, L. Canioni, and B. Bousquet, “Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 101, 171–182 (2014).
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Carpanese, M.

V. Lazic, A. Palucci, S. Jovicevic, and M. Carpanese, “Standoff Detection of Explosives in traces by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 66(8), 644–655 (2011).
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Cerkez, E. B.

E. J. Judge, G. Heck, E. B. Cerkez, and R. J. Levis, “Discrimination of Composite Graphite Samples Using Remote Filament-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(7), 2658–2663 (2009).
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Chalus, O.

Châteauneuf, M.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
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Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
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H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond Laser Filamentation for Atmospheric Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
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W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
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Colao, F.

G. Giubileo, F. Colao, and A. Puiu, “Identification of standard explosive traces by infrared laser spectroscopy: PCA on LPAS data,” Laser Phys. 22(6), 1033–1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J. F.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J.-F.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
[Crossref]

Darbani, S. M. R.

Dasari, R. R.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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De Lucia, F. C.

F. C. De Lucia and J. L. Gottfried, “Classification of explosive residues on organic substrates using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B83–B92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, and A. W. Miziolek, “Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection,” Opt. Express 17(2), 419–425 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Discrimination of explosive residues on organic and inorganic substrates using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(3), 288–296 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(2), 283–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues,” Appl. Opt. 47(31), G112–G121 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Standoff Detection of Chemical and Biological Threats Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(4), 353–363 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1405–1411 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. C. De Lucia, R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of energetic materials,” Appl. Opt. 42(30), 6148–6152 (2003).
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De Lucia, J. F. C.

J. L. Gottfried, J. F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23(2), 205–216 (2008).
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DeFlores, L.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Delgado, T.

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
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DeLucia, F.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
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DeLucia, F. C.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, A. LaPointe, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(6), 1140–1148 (2006).
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Diels, J.-C.

Dikmelik, Y.

Dingari, N. C.

A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
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R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Dubois, J.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eislöffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El Haddad, J.

J. El Haddad, L. Canioni, and B. Bousquet, “Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 101, 171–182 (2014).
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K. Bhavsar, K. E. Eseller, and R. Prabhu, “Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection,” Proc. SPIE 10441, 1044103 (2017).

Estlin, T.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Farhadian, A. H.

Fischer, T.

K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
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Fisher, M.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
[Crossref]

Francis, R.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Frydenvang, J.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Fujii, T.

Gaines, D.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Gaona, I.

I. Gaona, J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Range-Adaptive Standoff Recognition of Explosive Fingerprints on Solid Surfaces using a Supervised Learning Method and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 5045–5052 (2014).
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Gasnault, O.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Ge, C.-H.

Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
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Gelmont, B.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

Ghebregziabher, I.

K. C. Hartig, I. Ghebregziabher, and I. Jovanovic, “Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43852 (2017).
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Girón, D.

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Giubileo, G.

G. Giubileo, F. Colao, and A. Puiu, “Identification of standard explosive traces by infrared laser spectroscopy: PCA on LPAS data,” Laser Phys. 22(6), 1033–1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

Globus, T.

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

Gonzalez, R.

R. Gonzalez, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff LIBS detection of explosive residues behind a barrier‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(8), 1123–1126 (2009).
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González, R.

Goto, N.

Gottfried, J. L.

J. L. Gottfried, “Influence of metal substrates on the detection of explosive residues with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), B10–B19 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. De Lucia and J. L. Gottfried, “Classification of explosive residues on organic substrates using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B83–B92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, and A. W. Miziolek, “Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection,” Opt. Express 17(2), 419–425 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(2), 283–300 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Discrimination of explosive residues on organic and inorganic substrates using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(3), 288–296 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Gottfried, J. F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23(2), 205–216 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra for classification of explosive-containing residues,” Appl. Opt. 47(31), G112–G121 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Standoff Detection of Chemical and Biological Threats Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(4), 353–363 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1405–1411 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gray, D.

Greenfield, M. T.

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part II: photon and neutron methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 49–65 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part I: animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 35–47 (2016).
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Gundawar, M. K.

M. K. Gundawar, R. Junjuri, and A. K. Myakalwar, “Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Def. Sci. J. 67(6), 623–630 (2017).
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A. K. Myakalwar, S. K. Anubham, S. K. Paidi, I. Barman, and M. K. Gundawar, “Real-time fingerprinting of structural isomers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(10), 3077–3083 (2016).
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S. Sreedhar, M. K. Gundawar, and S. V. Rao, “Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Classification of High Energy Materials using Elemental Intensity Ratios,” Def. Sci. J. 64, 332–338 (2014).

S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
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Guo, L. B.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Hahn, D. W.

Hao, Z. Q.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Harilal, S. S.

Harmon, R. S.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, A. LaPointe, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(6), 1140–1148 (2006).
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K. C. Hartig, I. Ghebregziabher, and I. Jovanovic, “Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43852 (2017).
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Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
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Heaps, D. A.

Heck, G.

E. J. Judge, G. Heck, E. B. Cerkez, and R. J. Levis, “Discrimination of Composite Graphite Samples Using Remote Filament-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(7), 2658–2663 (2009).
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Holl, G.

K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
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Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
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Ilyin, A. A.

T. A. Labutin, V. N. Lednev, A. A. Ilyin, and A. M. Popov, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(1), 90–118 (2016).
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Jagatap, B. N.

E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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Javier Laserna, J.

L. A. Álvarez-Trujillo, V. Lazic, J. Moros, and J. Javier Laserna, “Standoff monitoring of aqueous aerosols using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: droplet size and matrix effects,” Appl. Opt. 56(13), 3773–3782 (2017).
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C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
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D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

Jin, F.

Johnson, E.

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
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C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
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R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Jovanovic, I.

K. C. Hartig, I. Ghebregziabher, and I. Jovanovic, “Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43852 (2017).
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Jovicevic, S.

V. Lazic, A. Palucci, S. Jovicevic, and M. Carpanese, “Standoff Detection of Explosives in traces by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 66(8), 644–655 (2011).
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Judge, E. J.

E. J. Judge, G. Heck, E. B. Cerkez, and R. J. Levis, “Discrimination of Composite Graphite Samples Using Remote Filament-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(7), 2658–2663 (2009).
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Junjuri, R.

M. K. Gundawar, R. Junjuri, and A. K. Myakalwar, “Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Def. Sci. J. 67(6), 623–630 (2017).
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P. Pořízka, J. Klus, J. Mašek, M. Rajnoha, D. Prochazka, P. Modlitbová, J. Novotný, R. Burget, K. Novotný, and J. Kaiser, “Multivariate classification of echellograms: a new perspective in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3160 (2017).
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Kalam, S. A.

S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
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S. A. Kalam, E. N. Rao, and S. V. Rao, “Standoff LIBS for explosives detection: Challenges and status,” Laser Focus World 53, 24–28 (2017).

E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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Kamali, Y.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
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J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
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Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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Kasparian, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
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K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
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K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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Kiran, P. P.

S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
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Klus, J.

P. Pořízka, J. Klus, J. Mašek, M. Rajnoha, D. Prochazka, P. Modlitbová, J. Novotný, R. Burget, K. Novotný, and J. Kaiser, “Multivariate classification of echellograms: a new perspective in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3160 (2017).
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S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
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Konstantynovski, K.

K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
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Kosareva, O.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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Kumar, G. M.

S. Sunku, E. N. Rao, G. M. Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Discrimination methodologies using femtosecond LIBS and correlation techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8726, 87260H (2013).
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Kumar Anubham, S.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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Kumar Gundawar, M.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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Kumar Myakalwar, A.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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Kunz, R. R.

Labutin, T. A.

T. A. Labutin, V. N. Lednev, A. A. Ilyin, and A. M. Popov, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(1), 90–118 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lamsal, N.

LaPointe, A.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, A. LaPointe, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(6), 1140–1148 (2006).
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Laserna, J. J.

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
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J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Exploring the formation routes of diatomic hydrogenated radicals using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of deuterated molecular solids‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 30(11), 2343–2352 (2015).
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I. Gaona, J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Range-Adaptive Standoff Recognition of Explosive Fingerprints on Solid Surfaces using a Supervised Learning Method and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 5045–5052 (2014).
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J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, K. Novotný, and J. J. Laserna, “Fundamentals of stand-off Raman scattering spectroscopy for explosive fingerprinting,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(1), 121–130 (2013).
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J. Moros, J. Serrano, C. Sanchez, J. Macias, and J. J. Laserna, “New chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for recognizing explosive residues‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 27(12), 2111–2122 (2012).
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J. Moros and J. J. Laserna, “New Raman-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Identity of Explosives using Parametric Data Fusion on an Integrated Sensing Platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(16), 6275–6285 (2011).
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J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff detection of explosives: critical comparison for ensuing options on Raman spectroscopy-LIBS sensor fusion,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3353–3365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform,” Anal. Chem. 82(4), 1389–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gonzalez, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff LIBS detection of explosive residues behind a barrier‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(8), 1123–1126 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009).
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Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazic, V.

L. A. Álvarez-Trujillo, V. Lazic, J. Moros, and J. Javier Laserna, “Standoff monitoring of aqueous aerosols using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: droplet size and matrix effects,” Appl. Opt. 56(13), 3773–3782 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Lazic, A. Palucci, S. Jovicevic, and M. Carpanese, “Standoff Detection of Explosives in traces by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 66(8), 644–655 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lednev, V. N.

T. A. Labutin, V. N. Lednev, A. A. Ilyin, and A. M. Popov, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(1), 90–118 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lepcha, A.

K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
[Crossref]

Levis, R. J.

E. J. Judge, G. Heck, E. B. Cerkez, and R. J. Levis, “Discrimination of Composite Graphite Samples Using Remote Filament-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(7), 2658–2663 (2009).
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T. Zhang, H. Tang, and H. Li, “Chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Chemometr.in press.

Li, J. M.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Li, W. T.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Li, X.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Li, X. Y.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Liu, K.

Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

López-Moreno, C.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lorenzo, J. A.

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, K. Novotný, and J. J. Laserna, “Fundamentals of stand-off Raman scattering spectroscopy for explosive fingerprinting,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(1), 121–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff detection of explosives: critical comparison for ensuing options on Raman spectroscopy-LIBS sensor fusion,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3353–3365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform,” Anal. Chem. 82(4), 1389–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y. F.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Lucena, P.

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform,” Anal. Chem. 82(4), 1389–1400 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gonzalez, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff LIBS detection of explosive residues behind a barrier‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(8), 1123–1126 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009).
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R. C. Wiens, S. K. Sharma, J. Thompson, A. Misra, and P. G. Lucey, “Joint analyses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy at stand-off distances,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(10), 2324–2334 (2005).
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S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
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J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1405–1411 (2007).
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L. A. Álvarez-Trujillo, V. Lazic, J. Moros, and J. Javier Laserna, “Standoff monitoring of aqueous aerosols using nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: droplet size and matrix effects,” Appl. Opt. 56(13), 3773–3782 (2017).
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J. Moros, J. Serrano, C. Sanchez, J. Macias, and J. J. Laserna, “New chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for recognizing explosive residues‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 27(12), 2111–2122 (2012).
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J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(2), 283–300 (2009).
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J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Standoff Detection of Chemical and Biological Threats Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(4), 353–363 (2008).
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S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
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M. K. Gundawar, R. Junjuri, and A. K. Myakalwar, “Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Def. Sci. J. 67(6), 623–630 (2017).
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A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
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K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
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Paidi, S. K.

A. K. Myakalwar, S. K. Anubham, S. K. Paidi, I. Barman, and M. K. Gundawar, “Real-time fingerprinting of structural isomers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(10), 3077–3083 (2016).
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A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
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P. Pořízka, J. Klus, J. Mašek, M. Rajnoha, D. Prochazka, P. Modlitbová, J. Novotný, R. Burget, K. Novotný, and J. Kaiser, “Multivariate classification of echellograms: a new perspective in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3160 (2017).
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S. A. Kalam, E. N. Rao, and S. V. Rao, “Standoff LIBS for explosives detection: Challenges and status,” Laser Focus World 53, 24–28 (2017).

E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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E. N. Rao, S. Sunku, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Studies of Nitropyrazoles: The Effect of Varying Nitro Groups,” Appl. Spectrosc. 69(11), 1342–1354 (2015).
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S. A. Kalam, E. N. Rao, and S. V. Rao, “Standoff LIBS for explosives detection: Challenges and status,” Laser Focus World 53, 24–28 (2017).

S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
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E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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E. N. Rao, S. Sunku, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Studies of Nitropyrazoles: The Effect of Varying Nitro Groups,” Appl. Spectrosc. 69(11), 1342–1354 (2015).
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S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sunku, E. N. Rao, G. M. Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Discrimination methodologies using femtosecond LIBS and correlation techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8726, 87260H (2013).
[Crossref]

Reyes, R. F.

Richardson, M.

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, M. Richardson, and M. Sigman, “Self-channeling of femtosecond laser pulses for rapid and efficient standoff detection of energetic materials,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security(IEEE,2009), pp. 472–476.
[Crossref]

Richardson, M. C.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rose, J.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rothschild, M.

Roy, G.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, J.

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
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Salmon, E.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
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C. S.-C. Yang, F. Jin, S. B. Trivedi, E. E. Brown, U. Hommerich, A. Tripathi, and A. C. Samuels, “Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Emissions of Thin Solid Explosive Powder Films Deposited on Aluminum Substrates,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(4), 728–734 (2017).
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D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

Sanchez, C.

J. Moros, J. Serrano, C. Sanchez, J. Macias, and J. J. Laserna, “New chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for recognizing explosive residues‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 27(12), 2111–2122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, S.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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Schill, A. W.

Scholz, A.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serrano, J.

J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Exploring the formation routes of diatomic hydrogenated radicals using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of deuterated molecular solids‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 30(11), 2343–2352 (2015).
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I. Gaona, J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Range-Adaptive Standoff Recognition of Explosive Fingerprints on Solid Surfaces using a Supervised Learning Method and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 5045–5052 (2014).
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J. Moros, J. Serrano, C. Sanchez, J. Macias, and J. J. Laserna, “New chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for recognizing explosive residues‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 27(12), 2111–2122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sharifi, M.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

R. C. Wiens, S. K. Sharma, J. Thompson, A. Misra, and P. G. Lucey, “Joint analyses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy at stand-off distances,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(10), 2324–2334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siders, C.

M. Fisher, C. Siders, E. Johnson, O. Andrusyak, C. Brown, and M. Richardson, “Control of filamentation for enhancing remote detection with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 621907 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sigman, M.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Baudelet, M. Richardson, and M. Sigman, “Self-channeling of femtosecond laser pulses for rapid and efficient standoff detection of energetic materials,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security(IEEE,2009), pp. 472–476.
[Crossref]

Simard, J. R.

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simard, P. T.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 62(1), 76–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

Singh, A. K.

S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
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E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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Spegazzini, N.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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Sreedhar, S.

E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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S. Sreedhar, M. K. Gundawar, and S. V. Rao, “Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Classification of High Energy Materials using Elemental Intensity Ratios,” Def. Sci. J. 64, 332–338 (2014).

S. Sreedhar, E. Nageswara Rao, G. Manoj Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. Venugopal Rao, “Molecular formation dynamics of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in air, nitrogen, and argon atmospheres studied using femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 87, 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stecklum, B.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stratis-Cullum, D. N.

Sunku, S.

E. N. Rao, S. Sunku, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Studies of Nitropyrazoles: The Effect of Varying Nitro Groups,” Appl. Spectrosc. 69(11), 1342–1354 (2015).
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S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sunku, E. N. Rao, G. M. Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Discrimination methodologies using femtosecond LIBS and correlation techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8726, 87260H (2013).
[Crossref]

Suter, J. D.

S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, J. D. Suter, and M. C. Phillips, “Dynamics of molecular emission features from nanosecond, femtosecond laser and filament ablation plasmas,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(6), 1192–1197 (2016).
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Tang, H.

T. Zhang, H. Tang, and H. Li, “Chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Chemometr.in press.

Tang, S. S.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Tehrani, M. K.

Tewari, S. P.

S. Sreedhar, E. Nageswara Rao, G. Manoj Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. Venugopal Rao, “Molecular formation dynamics of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in air, nitrogen, and argon atmospheres studied using femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 87, 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sunku, E. N. Rao, G. M. Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Discrimination methodologies using femtosecond LIBS and correlation techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8726, 87260H (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thompson, J.

R. C. Wiens, S. K. Sharma, J. Thompson, A. Misra, and P. G. Lucey, “Joint analyses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy at stand-off distances,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(10), 2324–2334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tobaria, L.

Tobaria, L. M.

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform,” Anal. Chem. 82(4), 1389–1400 (2010).
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R. Gonzalez, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff LIBS detection of explosive residues behind a barrier‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(8), 1123–1126 (2009).
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Tremblay, G.

J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, A.

Trivedi, S. B.

Tzortzakis, S.

Venugopal Rao, S.

S. Sreedhar, E. Nageswara Rao, G. Manoj Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. Venugopal Rao, “Molecular formation dynamics of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in air, nitrogen, and argon atmospheres studied using femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 87, 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Myakalwar, S. Sreedhar, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, S. Venugopal Rao, P. Prem Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and G. Manoj Kumar, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis,” Talanta 87, 53–59 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verma, V.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
[Crossref]

Walters, R. A.

C. G. Brown, R. Bernath, M. Fisher, M. C. Richardson, M. Sigman, R. A. Walters, A. Miziolek, H. Bereket, and L. E. Johnson, “Remote femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a standoff detection regime,” Proc. SPIE 6219, 62190B (2006).
[Crossref]

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
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Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
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Whitehouse, A. I.

C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wiens, R. C.

R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. C. Wiens, S. K. Sharma, J. Thompson, A. Misra, and P. G. Lucey, “Joint analyses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy at stand-off distances,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(10), 2324–2334 (2005).
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R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, A. LaPointe, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(6), 1140–1148 (2006).
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K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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Wolf, J.-P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

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D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, A. C. Samuels, J. O. Jensen, T. Globus, B. Gelmont, and M. Wolski, “Terahertz-frequency remote-sensing of biological warfare agents,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest(IEEE,2003), pp. 763–766.

Woste, L.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
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Wöste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically Turbulent Femtosecond Light Guide in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2938–2941 (1999).
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Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
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H. L. Xu and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond Laser Filamentation for Atmospheric Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 11(1), 32–53 (2011).
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Yang, P.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Yi, R. X.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
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Zeng, X. Y.

W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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Zhang, C.

A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, H. Tang, and H. Li, “Chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Chemometr.in press.

Zhao, H.

Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
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Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (5)

K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part I: animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 35–47 (2016).
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K. E. Brown, M. T. Greenfield, S. D. McGrane, and D. S. Moore, “Advances in explosives analysis-part II: photon and neutron methods,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(1), 49–65 (2016).
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R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, A. LaPointe, R. J. Winkel, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS for landmine detection and discrimination,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(6), 1140–1148 (2006).
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J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges, and future prospects,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(2), 283–300 (2009).
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J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff detection of explosives: critical comparison for ensuing options on Raman spectroscopy-LIBS sensor fusion,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400(10), 3353–3365 (2011).
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Anal. Chem. (4)

I. Gaona, J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Range-Adaptive Standoff Recognition of Explosive Fingerprints on Solid Surfaces using a Supervised Learning Method and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 5045–5052 (2014).
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J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform,” Anal. Chem. 82(4), 1389–1400 (2010).
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J. Moros and J. J. Laserna, “New Raman-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Identity of Explosives using Parametric Data Fusion on an Integrated Sensing Platform,” Anal. Chem. 83(16), 6275–6285 (2011).
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E. J. Judge, G. Heck, E. B. Cerkez, and R. J. Levis, “Discrimination of Composite Graphite Samples Using Remote Filament-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(7), 2658–2663 (2009).
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Analyst (Lond.) (1)

A. K. Myakalwar, S. K. Anubham, S. K. Paidi, I. Barman, and M. K. Gundawar, “Real-time fingerprinting of structural isomers using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 141(10), 3077–3083 (2016).
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Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. L. Chin, H. L. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, W. Liu, J. F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. T. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Méjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. R. Simard, M. Châteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation “remote” sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 1–12 (2009).
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J.-F. Daigle, Y. Kamali, M. Châteauneuf, G. Tremblay, F. Théberge, J. Dubois, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing with intense filaments enhanced by adaptive optics,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 701–713 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3977–3979 (2004).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (6)

P. D. Barnett, N. Lamsal, and S. M. Angel, “Standoff Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Using a Miniature Wide Field of View Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer with Sub-Microsteradian Collection Optics,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(4), 583–590 (2017).
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C. S.-C. Yang, F. Jin, S. B. Trivedi, E. E. Brown, U. Hommerich, A. Tripathi, and A. C. Samuels, “Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Emissions of Thin Solid Explosive Powder Films Deposited on Aluminum Substrates,” Appl. Spectrosc. 71(4), 728–734 (2017).
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E. N. Rao, S. Sunku, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Studies of Nitropyrazoles: The Effect of Varying Nitro Groups,” Appl. Spectrosc. 69(11), 1342–1354 (2015).
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C. A. Zuhlke, J. Bruce, T. P. Anderson, D. R. Alexander, and C. G. Parigger, “A Fundamental Understanding of the Dependence of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Signal Strength on the Complex Focusing Dynamics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses on Either Side of the Focus,” Appl. Spectrosc. 68(9), 1021–1029 (2014).
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D. W. Hahn and N. Omenetto, “Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part II: Review of Instrumental and Methodological Approaches to Material Analysis and Applications to Different Fields,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66(4), 347–419 (2012).
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J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Standoff Detection of Chemical and Biological Threats Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(4), 353–363 (2008).
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Def. Sci. J. (2)

M. K. Gundawar, R. Junjuri, and A. K. Myakalwar, “Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Def. Sci. J. 67(6), 623–630 (2017).
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S. Sreedhar, M. K. Gundawar, and S. V. Rao, “Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Classification of High Energy Materials using Elemental Intensity Ratios,” Def. Sci. J. 64, 332–338 (2014).

Front. Phys. (1)

Q.-Q. Wang, K. Liu, H. Zhao, C.-H. Ge, and Z.-W. Huang, “Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Front. Phys. 7(6), 701–707 (2012).
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J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (12)

J. Serrano, J. Moros, and J. J. Laserna, “Exploring the formation routes of diatomic hydrogenated radicals using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of deuterated molecular solids‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 30(11), 2343–2352 (2015).
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S. A. Kalam, N. L. Murthy, P. Mathi, N. Kommu, A. K. Singh, and S. V. Rao, “Correlation of molecular, atomic emissions with detonation parameters in femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS plasma of high energy materials‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(8), 1535–1546 (2017).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, and L. Woste, “Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in picosecond and femtosecond regimes,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 437–444 (2004).
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W. T. Li, X. Y. Yang, X. Li, S. S. Tang, J. M. Li, R. X. Yi, P. Yang, Z. Q. Hao, L. B. Guo, X. Y. Li, X. Y. Zeng, and Y. F. Lu, “A portable multi-collector system based on an artificial optical compound eye for stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(10), 1975–1979 (2017).
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J. L. Gottfried, J. F. C. De Lucia, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Strategies for residue explosives detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 23(2), 205–216 (2008).
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E. N. Rao, P. Mathi, S. A. Kalam, S. Sreedhar, A. K. Singh, B. N. Jagatap, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond LIBS studies of nitroimidazoles: correlation between molecular structure and LIBS data‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(3), 737–750 (2016).
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J. Moros, J. Serrano, C. Sanchez, J. Macias, and J. J. Laserna, “New chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for recognizing explosive residues‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 27(12), 2111–2122 (2012).
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S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, J. D. Suter, and M. C. Phillips, “Dynamics of molecular emission features from nanosecond, femtosecond laser and filament ablation plasmas,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(6), 1192–1197 (2016).
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J. L. Gottfried, F. C. De Lucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Discrimination of explosive residues on organic and inorganic substrates using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(3), 288–296 (2009).
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C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco, J. Javier Laserna, F. DeLucia, A. W. Miziolek, J. Rose, R. A. Walters, and A. I. Whitehouse, “Test of a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for the detection of explosive residues on solid surfaces‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 21(1), 55–60 (2006).
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R. Gonzalez, P. Lucena, L. M. Tobaria, and J. J. Laserna, “Standoff LIBS detection of explosive residues behind a barrier‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 24(8), 1123–1126 (2009).
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T. A. Labutin, V. N. Lednev, A. A. Ilyin, and A. M. Popov, “Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy‎,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31(1), 90–118 (2016).
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J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

J. Moros, J. A. Lorenzo, K. Novotný, and J. J. Laserna, “Fundamentals of stand-off Raman scattering spectroscopy for explosive fingerprinting,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 44(1), 121–130 (2013).
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Laser Focus World (1)

S. A. Kalam, E. N. Rao, and S. V. Rao, “Standoff LIBS for explosives detection: Challenges and status,” Laser Focus World 53, 24–28 (2017).

Laser Phys. (2)

G. Giubileo, F. Colao, and A. Puiu, “Identification of standard explosive traces by infrared laser spectroscopy: PCA on LPAS data,” Laser Phys. 22(6), 1033–1037 (2012).
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H. L. Xu, P. T. Simard, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, J. Bernhardt, J. Dubois, M. Châteauneuf, F. Théberge, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Filament-induced breakdown remote spectroscopy in a polar environment,” Laser Phys. 22(12), 1767–1770 (2012).
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Measurement (1)

D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L. M. Cabalín, and J. J. Laserna, “In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS,” Measurement 115, 1–10 (2018).
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Opt. Express (7)

A. W. Schill, D. A. Heaps, D. N. Stratis-Cullum, B. R. Arnold, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Characterization of near-infrared low energy ultra-short laser pulses for portable applications of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14044–14056 (2007).
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Y. Dikmelik, C. McEnnis, and J. B. Spicer, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of trinitrotoluene,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5332–5337 (2008).
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S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, and M. C. Phillips, “Plasma temperature clamping in filamentation laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27113–27122 (2015).
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F. C. De Lucia, J. L. Gottfried, and A. W. Miziolek, “Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection,” Opt. Express 17(2), 419–425 (2009).
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J. J. Laserna, R. F. Reyes, R. González, L. Tobaria, and P. Lucena, “Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10265–10276 (2009).
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C. M. Wynn, S. Palmacci, R. R. Kunz, and M. Rothschild, “Noncontact detection of homemade explosive constituents via photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5399–5406 (2010).
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S. S. Harilal, J. Yeak, B. E. Brumfield, and M. C. Phillips, “Consequences of femtosecond laser filament generation conditions in standoff laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17941–17949 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eislöffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 036607 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically Turbulent Femtosecond Light Guide in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2938–2941 (1999).
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K. Bhavsar, K. E. Eseller, and R. Prabhu, “Design optimization of Cassegrain telescope for remote explosive trace detection,” Proc. SPIE 10441, 1044103 (2017).

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S. Sunku, E. N. Rao, G. M. Kumar, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Discrimination methodologies using femtosecond LIBS and correlation techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8726, 87260H (2013).
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K. C. Hartig, I. Ghebregziabher, and I. Jovanovic, “Standoff Detection of Uranium and its Isotopes by Femtosecond Filament Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43852 (2017).
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A. Kumar Myakalwar, N. Spegazzini, C. Zhang, S. Kumar Anubham, R. R. Dasari, I. Barman, and M. Kumar Gundawar, “Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13169 (2015).
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P. Pořízka, J. Klus, J. Mašek, M. Rajnoha, D. Prochazka, P. Modlitbová, J. Novotný, R. Burget, K. Novotný, and J. Kaiser, “Multivariate classification of echellograms: a new perspective in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3160 (2017).
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R. Francis, T. Estlin, G. Doran, S. Johnstone, D. Gaines, V. Verma, M. Burl, J. Frydenvang, S. Montaño, R. C. Wiens, S. Schaffer, O. Gasnault, L. DeFlores, D. Blaney, and B. Bornstein, “AEGIS autonomous targeting for ChemCam on Mars Science Laboratory: Deployment and results of initial science team use,” Sci. Robot. 2(7), eaan4582 (2017).
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K. Konstantynovski, G. Njio, F. Börner, A. Lepcha, T. Fischer, G. Holl, and S. Mathur, “Bulk detection of explosives and development of customized metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors for the identification of energetic materials,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 258, 1252–1266 (2018).
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Sensors (Basel) (1)

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Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

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Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. (6)

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J. El Haddad, L. Canioni, and B. Bousquet, “Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 101, 171–182 (2014).
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S. Sunku, M. K. Gundawar, A. K. Myakalwar, P. P. Kiran, S. P. Tewari, and S. V. Rao, “Femtosecond and nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopic studies of NTO, HMX, and RDX,” Spectrochim. Acta B At. Spectrosc. 79–80, 31–38 (2013).
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Talanta (1)

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M. Baudelet, M. Richardson, and M. Sigman, “Self-channeling of femtosecond laser pulses for rapid and efficient standoff detection of energetic materials,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security(IEEE,2009), pp. 472–476.
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T. Zhang, H. Tang, and H. Li, “Chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Chemometr.in press.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Femtosecond standoff (up to 2 m, configuration 1) and remote (~8.5 m, configuration 2) LIBS setup. In figure M, A, HWP, BP, L, D, P and T stands for mirror, aperture, half wave plate, Brewster plate, lens, collection system, plasma and target, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical fs standoff LIBS spectra of nitroimidazoles at (a) 10 cm (b) 30 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 100 cm (e) 200 cm acquired in ST-LIBS (configuration 1) and (f) Stack plot of the fs standoff LIBS spectra of Al at all distances.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PC scores plot of the processed LIBS spectra of nitroimidazoles obtained at (a) 10 cm (b) 30 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 100 cm (e) 200 cm obtained in ST-LIBS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 First three PCs for the processed LIBS spectra of nitroimidazoles at (a) 10 cm (b) 100 cm and (c) 200 cm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Stack plots of (a) representative fs R-LIBS spectra of explosive molecules (nitroimidazoles and nitropyrazoles) and (b) metals (Aluminum, copper, brass, and stainless steel) obtained at 8.5 m away.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) PC scores plot and (b) first three PCs for the processed LIBS spectra of explosives (nitroimidazoles and nitropyrazoles) obtained at 8.5 m. (c) PC scores plot and (d) first three PCs for R-LIBS spectra of different metals obtained at 8.5 m.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 IUPAC names and molecular formula of HEMs used in ST-LIBS and R-LIBS experiments

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