Abstract

With the proposal of dual-wavelength pumping (DWP) scheme, DWP Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers at 3.5 μm have become a fascinating area of research. However, limited by the absence of suitable saturable absorber, passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers have not been realized in this spectral region. Based on the layer-dependent bandgap and excellent photoelectric characteristics of black phosphorus (BP), BP is a promising candidate for saturable absorber near 3.5 μm. Here, we fabricated a 3.5-μm saturable absorber mirror (SAM) by transferring BP flakes onto a Au-coated mirror. With the as-prepared BP SAM, we realized Q-switching and mode-locking operations in the DWP Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers at 3.5 μm. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to achieve passively Q-switched and mode-locked pulses in 3.5 μm spectral region. The research results will not only promote the development of 3.5-μm pulsed fiber lasers but also open the photonics application of two-dimensional materials in this spectral region.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  36. A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Quenching of 3.4 μm dual-wavelength pumped Erbium doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(2), 1600208 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Recent advances in 3.5 μm Erbium doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 0900509 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “5.6 W monolithic fiber laser at 3.55 μm,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2054–2057 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, S. Antipov, L. Li, I. Alamgir, T. Hu, M. E. Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, M. Rochette, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, “Toward all-fiber supercontinuum spanning the mid-infrared,” Optica 4(10), 1163–1166 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “New energy-transfer upconversion process in Er3+:ZBLAN mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 24(7), 6869–6883 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henderson-Sapir, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Versatile and widely tunable mid-infrared erbium doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1676–1679 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tang, L. G. Wright, K. Charan, T. Wang, C. Xu, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of intense 100 fs solitons tunable from 2 to 4.3 μm in fluoride fiber,” Optica 3(9), 948–951 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

Z. Qin, G. Xie, W. Ge, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Over 20-W mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1400506 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Duval, M. Bernier, V. Fortin, J. Genest, M. Piché, and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond fiber lasers reach the mid-infrared,” Optica 2(7), 623–626 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hu, S. D. Jackson, and D. D. Hudson, “Ultrafast pulses from a mid-infrared fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4226–4228 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Mid-infrared fiber lasers at and beyond 3.5 μm using dual-wavelength pumping,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 493–496 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, “Mid-infrared chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 127–129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2009 (1)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. H. P. Th. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, and R. L. Barns, “Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard’s law for In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(7), 659–661 (1978).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Alamgir, I.

Amraoui, M. E.

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antipov, S.

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Barns, R. L.

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, and R. L. Barns, “Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard’s law for In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(7), 659–661 (1978).
[Crossref]

Bawden, N.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Recent advances in 3.5 μm Erbium doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 0900509 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bekman, H. H. P. Th.

H. H. P. Th. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernier, M.

Bhuiyan, M.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Buscema, M.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caron, N.

Carvalho, A.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
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M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
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Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Chen, S.

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coker, D. F.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
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K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
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B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
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B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
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Faist, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Fan, D. Y.

Fang, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Farmer, D.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
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Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Fuerbach, A.

Fuhrer, M. S.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
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Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
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M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Q.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
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Halmer, D.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 437–443 (2006).
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Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
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He, J.

Henderson-Sapir, O.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Recent advances in 3.5 μm Erbium doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 0900509 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Henderson-Sapir, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Versatile and widely tunable mid-infrared erbium doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1676–1679 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “New energy-transfer upconversion process in Er3+:ZBLAN mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 24(7), 6869–6883 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Mid-infrared fiber lasers at and beyond 3.5 μm using dual-wavelength pumping,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 493–496 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hering, P.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Höfler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Hudson, D. D.

Hussain, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Jackson, S. D.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, H.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
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Johnston, W. D.

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, and R. L. Barns, “Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard’s law for In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(7), 659–661 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jost, H. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S. P.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, L.

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kowalczyk, M.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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Li, C.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
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Li, J.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
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D. D. Hudson, S. Antipov, L. Li, I. Alamgir, T. Hu, M. E. Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, M. Rochette, S. D. Jackson, and A. Fuerbach, “Toward all-fiber supercontinuum spanning the mid-infrared,” Optica 4(10), 1163–1166 (2017).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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Liu, Z. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Lu, D. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Lu, R.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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Luo, H.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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Ma, J.

Ma, T. P.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
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F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “5.6 W monolithic fiber laser at 3.55 μm,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2054–2057 (2017).
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F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Quenching of 3.4 μm dual-wavelength pumped Erbium doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(2), 1600208 (2017).
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K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malouf, A.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Recent advances in 3.5 μm Erbium doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 0900509 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
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A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
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Miao, L. L.

Mo, S.-K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, T.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munch, J.

Mürtz, M.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nahory, R. E.

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, and R. L. Barns, “Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard’s law for In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(7), 659–661 (1978).
[Crossref]

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neto, A. H.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
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Ning, J.

O’Donnell, K. M.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
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Oakley, D. C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ottaway, D. J.

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Recent advances in 3.5 μm Erbium doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 0900509 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “New energy-transfer upconversion process in Er3+:ZBLAN mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 24(7), 6869–6883 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henderson-Sapir, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Versatile and widely tunable mid-infrared erbium doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1676–1679 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Mid-infrared fiber lasers at and beyond 3.5 μm using dual-wavelength pumping,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 493–496 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Özyilmaz, B.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paletko, P.

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pflügl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Piché, M.

Pollack, M. A.

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, and R. L. Barns, “Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard’s law for In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(7), 659–661 (1978).
[Crossref]

Pospischil, A.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

Qi, X. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, W. Ge, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Over 20-W mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1400506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, L. J.

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, W. Ge, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Over 20-W mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1400506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rochette, M.

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schleijpen, H. M. A.

H. H. P. Th. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.-X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobon, G.

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

Steele, G. A.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, X.

Sun, Z.

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szydlowska, B. M.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tadich, A.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, Y.

Thelen, S.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tian, H.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

van den Heuvel, J. C.

H. H. P. Th. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

van der Zant, H. S. J.

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Putten, F. J. M.

H. H. P. Th. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. J.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, K.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

Wise, F. W.

Wright, L. G.

Wu, H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Q.

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, W. Ge, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Over 20-W mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1400506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, C.

Yang, K.

Yang, L.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, G. J.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H. H.

Yu, X.

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, P.

Zhai, B.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, R.

Ziletti, A.

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

M. T. Edmonds, A. Tadich, A. Carvalho, A. Ziletti, K. M. O’Donnell, S. P. Koenig, D. F. Coker, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Neto, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Creating a stable oxide at the surface of black phosphorus,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14557–14562 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

K. Wang, B. M. Szydłowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2–3), 437–443 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, H. J. Jost, and M. L. Fischer, “Mid-IR difference frequency laser-based sensors for ambient CH4, CO, and N2O monitoring,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 271–277 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, W. D. Johnston, and R. L. Barns, “Band gap versus composition and demonstration of Vegard’s law for In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33(7), 659–661 (1978).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Quenching of 3.4 μm dual-wavelength pumped Erbium doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(2), 1600208 (2017).
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A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, M. Gorjan, and D. J. Ottaway, “Numerical modeling of 3.5 μm dual-wavelength pumped erbium-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(11), 1600412 (2016).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Henderson-Sapir, A. Malouf, N. Bawden, J. Munch, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Recent advances in 3.5 μm Erbium doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(3), 0900509 (2017).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Qin, G. Xie, W. Ge, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Over 20-W mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1400506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(4), 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

Q. Guo, A. Pospischil, M. Bhuiyan, H. Jiang, H. Tian, D. Farmer, B. Deng, C. Li, S. J. Han, H. Wang, Q. Xia, T. P. Ma, T. Mueller, and F. Xia, “Black phosphorus mid-infrared photodetectors with high gain,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4648–4655 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (9)

M. Bernier, V. Fortin, N. Caron, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallée, “Mid-infrared chalcogenide glass Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 127–129 (2013).
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J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
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O. Henderson-Sapir, S. D. Jackson, and D. J. Ottaway, “Versatile and widely tunable mid-infrared erbium doped ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1676–1679 (2016).
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F. Maes, V. Fortin, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “5.6 W monolithic fiber laser at 3.55 μm,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2054–2057 (2017).
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O. Henderson-Sapir, J. Munch, and D. J. Ottaway, “Mid-infrared fiber lasers at and beyond 3.5 μm using dual-wavelength pumping,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 493–496 (2014).
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Z. Qin, G. Xie, C. Zhao, S. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 56–59 (2016).
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T. Hu, S. D. Jackson, and D. D. Hudson, “Ultrafast pulses from a mid-infrared fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4226–4228 (2015).
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B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Ning, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. H. P. Th. Bekman, J. C. van den Heuvel, F. J. M. van Putten, and H. M. A. Schleijpen, “Development of a mid-infrared laser for study of infrared countermeasures techniques,” Proc. SPIE 5615, 27–38 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Two-dimensional morphologies of the BP flakes from three different areas on silica plate scanned by AFM and the corresponding height profiles of the section marked in AFM. (b) Photoelectron spectroscopy taken from BP flakes exposed to air after 4 days, P1 corresponds to binding energy of phosphorus-phosphorus bonds, P2~P4 corresponds to binding energy of various-valance phosphorus oxides.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Saturable absorption of BP SAM at 3.5 μm (upper) and the experimental measurement setup (lower).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the BP Q-switched and mode-locked Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers. OC, output coupler; CMS, cladding mode stripper; BP SAM, black phosphorus saturable absorber mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Q-switched pulse trains at the output powers of 71.4 mW, 88.5 mW, and 113.4 mW, respectively. (b) Corresponding pulse profiles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical spectrum of the Q-switched pulses.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) CW output power, Q-switched average power, and pulse energy versus the launched pump power of 1973 nm. (b) Repetition rate and pulse width versus the launched pump power of 1973 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Mode-locked pulse train in microsecond and millisecond time scales. (b) Fundamental radio frequency (RF) spectrum with resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 1 kHz. (c) RF spectrum with broad span. (d) Mode-locked pulse spectrum.

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