Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated an actively tunable optical filter that controls the amplitude of reflected long-wave-infrared light in two separate spectral regions concurrently. Our device exploits the dependence of the excitation energy of plasmons in a continuous and unpatterned sheet of graphene on the Fermi-level, which can be controlled via conventional electrostatic gating. The filter enables simultaneous modification of two distinct spectral bands whose positions are dictated by the device geometry and graphene plasmon dispersion. Within these bands, the reflected amplitude can be varied by over 15% and resonance positions can be shifted by over 90 cm−1. Electromagnetic simulations verify that tuning arises through coupling of incident light to graphene plasmons by a grating structure. Importantly, the tunable range is determined by a combination of graphene properties, device structure, and the surrounding dielectrics, which dictate the plasmon dispersion. Thus, the underlying design shown here is applicable across a broad range of infrared frequencies.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

J. Kim, E. G. Carnemolla, C. DeVault, A. M. Shaltout, D. Faccio, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, M. Ferrera, and A. Boltasseva, “Dynamic control of nanocavities with tunable metal oxides,” Nano Lett. 18, 740–746 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230 degrees phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17, 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Goldflam, Z. Fei, I. Ruiz, S. W. Howell, P. S. Davids, D. W. Peters, and T. E. Beechem, “Designing graphene absorption in a multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared detector,” Opt. Express 25, 12400 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Howell, I. Ruiz, P. S. Davids, R. K. Harrison, S. W. Smith, M. D. Goldflam, J. B. Martin, N. J. Martinez, and T. E. Beechem, “Graphene-insulator-semiconductor junction for hybrid photodetection modalities,” Sci. Reports 7, 14651 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. B. Hoang and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 183107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16, 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Reports 5, 15754 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, J. S. Wu, S. Dai, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, K. W. Post, S. Zhu, G. C. Janssen, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Edge and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 15, 8271–8276 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14, 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Ozyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and persistent switching of graphene plasmons on a ferroelectric substrate,” Nano Lett. 15, 4859–4864 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, S. Engels, J. Dauber, M. Oellers, F. Haupt, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, B. Beschoten, and C. Stampfer, “Ultrahigh-mobility graphene devices from chemical vapor deposition on reusable copper,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Jadidi, A. B. Sushkov, R. L. Myers-Ward, A. K. Boyd, K. M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, M. S. Fuhrer, H. D. Drew, and T. E. Murphy, “Tunable terahertz hybrid metal-graphene plasmons,” Nano Lett. 15, 7099–7104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-bn heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14, 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Jang, V. W. Brar, M. C. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, L. Kim, S. Kim, M. Choi, H. A. Atwater, and et al., “Tunable large resonant absorption in a midinfrared graphene salisbury screen,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 165409 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldflam, M. K. Liu, B. C. Chapler, H. T. Stinson, A. J. Sternbach, A. S. McLeod, J. D. Zhang, K. Geng, M. Royal, B.-J. Kim, R. D. Averitt, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 041117 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13, 2541–2547 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yota, H. Shen, and R. Ramanathan, “Characterization of atomic layer deposition HfO2, Al2O3, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 as metal-insulator-metal capacitor dielectric for GaAs HBT technology,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A: Vacuum, Surfaces, Films 31, 01A134 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature. 487, 82–85 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, F. Ren, G.-C. Chi, S. C. Hung, Y. P. Huang, J. Kim, I. Kravchenko, and S. J. Pearton, “Effects of semiconductor processing chemicals on conductivity of graphene,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. B, Nanotechnol. Microelectron. Materials, Process. Meas. Phenom. 30, 040602 (2012).

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature. 487, 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun and I. Brener, “Electrically tunable infrared metamaterials based on depletion-type semiconductor devices,” J. Opt. 14, 114013 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Jandhyala, G. Mordi, B. Lee, G. Lee, C. Floresca, P. R. Cha, J. Ahn, R. M. Wallace, Y. J. Chabal, M. J. Kim, L. Colombo, K. Cho, and J. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of dielectrics on graphene using reversibly physisorbed ozone,” ACS Nano 6, 2722–2730 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Pirkle, J. Chan, A. Venugopal, D. Hinojos, C. W. Magnuson, S. McDonnell, L. Colombo, E. M. Vogel, R. S. Ruoff, and R. M. Wallace, “The effect of chemical residues on the physical and electrical properties of chemical vapor deposited graphene transferred to SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 122108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. F. Crommie, and A. Zettl, “Boron nitride substrates for high mobility chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. E. Dorgan, M.-H. Bae, and E. Pop, “Mobility and saturation velocity in graphene on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 082112 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (7)

J. D. Fowler, M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, Y. Yang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Practical chemical sensors from chemically derived graphene,” ACS Nano 3, 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, and P. Avouris, “Role of contacts in graphene transistors: A scanning photocurrent study,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 245430 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Khomyakov, G. Giovannetti, P. Rusu, G. v. Brocks, J. Van den Brink, and P. J. Kelly, “First-principles study of the interaction and charge transfer between graphene and metals,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195425 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with Al2O3 dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt Express 17, 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. Casiraghi, S. Pisana, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. C. Ferrari, “Raman fingerprint of charged impurities in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233108 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Hwang and S. D. Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 205418 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant oxides,” The Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 265–291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adam, S.

S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 407–470 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

S. Jandhyala, G. Mordi, B. Lee, G. Lee, C. Floresca, P. R. Cha, J. Ahn, R. M. Wallace, Y. J. Chabal, M. J. Kim, L. Colombo, K. Cho, and J. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of dielectrics on graphene using reversibly physisorbed ozone,” ACS Nano 6, 2722–2730 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, M. J.

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Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
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A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14, 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Banszerus, M. Schmitz, S. Engels, J. Dauber, M. Oellers, F. Haupt, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, B. Beschoten, and C. Stampfer, “Ultrahigh-mobility graphene devices from chemical vapor deposition on reusable copper,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. F. Crommie, and A. Zettl, “Boron nitride substrates for high mobility chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242105 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. D. Fowler, M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, Y. Yang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Practical chemical sensors from chemically derived graphene,” ACS Nano 3, 301–306 (2009).
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Xia, F.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, M. Freitag, J. Tsang, and P. Avouris, “Role of contacts in graphene transistors: A scanning photocurrent study,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 245430 (2009).
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Yang, Y.

J. D. Fowler, M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, Y. Yang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Practical chemical sensors from chemically derived graphene,” ACS Nano 3, 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Z.

S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with Al2O3 dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
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Yeo, Y.

M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Ozyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and persistent switching of graphene plasmons on a ferroelectric substrate,” Nano Lett. 15, 4859–4864 (2015).
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Yota, J.

J. Yota, H. Shen, and R. Ramanathan, “Characterization of atomic layer deposition HfO2, Al2O3, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 as metal-insulator-metal capacitor dielectric for GaAs HBT technology,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A: Vacuum, Surfaces, Films 31, 01A134 (2013).
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T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
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W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. F. Crommie, and A. Zettl, “Boron nitride substrates for high mobility chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242105 (2011).
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M. D. Goldflam, M. K. Liu, B. C. Chapler, H. T. Stinson, A. J. Sternbach, A. S. McLeod, J. D. Zhang, K. Geng, M. Royal, B.-J. Kim, R. D. Averitt, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 041117 (2014).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature. 487, 82–85 (2012).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
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Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature. 487, 82–85 (2012).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
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Zhu, S.

Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, J. S. Wu, S. Dai, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, K. W. Post, S. Zhu, G. C. Janssen, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Edge and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 15, 8271–8276 (2015).
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J. D. Fowler, M. J. Allen, V. C. Tung, Y. Yang, R. B. Kaner, and B. H. Weiller, “Practical chemical sensors from chemically derived graphene,” ACS Nano 3, 301–306 (2009).
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S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jo, D. Shahrjerdi, L. Colombo, Z. Yao, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Realization of a high mobility dual-gated graphene field-effect transistor with Al2O3 dielectric,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 062107 (2009).
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W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. F. Crommie, and A. Zettl, “Boron nitride substrates for high mobility chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242105 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldflam, M. K. Liu, B. C. Chapler, H. T. Stinson, A. J. Sternbach, A. S. McLeod, J. D. Zhang, K. Geng, M. Royal, B.-J. Kim, R. D. Averitt, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 041117 (2014).
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T. B. Hoang and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 183107 (2016).
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J. Yota, H. Shen, and R. Ramanathan, “Characterization of atomic layer deposition HfO2, Al2O3, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 as metal-insulator-metal capacitor dielectric for GaAs HBT technology,” J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A: Vacuum, Surfaces, Films 31, 01A134 (2013).
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M. D. Goldflam, G. X. Ni, K. W. Post, Z. Fei, Y. Yeo, J. Y. Tan, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, B. Ozyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tuning and persistent switching of graphene plasmons on a ferroelectric substrate,” Nano Lett. 15, 4859–4864 (2015).
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V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-bn heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14, 3876–3880 (2014).
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M. M. Jadidi, A. B. Sushkov, R. L. Myers-Ward, A. K. Boyd, K. M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, M. S. Fuhrer, H. D. Drew, and T. E. Murphy, “Tunable terahertz hybrid metal-graphene plasmons,” Nano Lett. 15, 7099–7104 (2015).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett. 11, 4701–4705 (2011).
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J. Kim, E. G. Carnemolla, C. DeVault, A. M. Shaltout, D. Faccio, V. M. Shalaev, A. V. Kildishev, M. Ferrera, and A. Boltasseva, “Dynamic control of nanocavities with tunable metal oxides,” Nano Lett. 18, 740–746 (2018).
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Y. W. Huang, H. W. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16, 5319–5325 (2016).
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V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, J. J. Lopez, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined tunable mid-infrared plasmonics in graphene nanoresonators,” Nano Lett. 13, 2541–2547 (2013).
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Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, J. S. Wu, S. Dai, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, K. W. Post, S. Zhu, G. C. Janssen, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Edge and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 15, 8271–8276 (2015).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14, 421–425 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characteristic transport curves obtained from each device during application of variable bias (VG) across the gate dielectric with a constant source-drain voltage of 50 mV. (Inset) Schematic of the device showing the various layers. The sample is probed from the grating side during FTIR measurements. Dimensions are not to scale.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated reflectance demonstrating the effects of each additional element. Blue: Grating structure in the absense of graphene and with a dispersionless (n = 1.3) and lossless (k = 0) dielectric in place of SiO2. Green: Grating structure in the absence of graphene with realistic dielectric optical responses. Black: Simulated full device response including graphene and dispersive dielectrics. (b) Comparison of graphene absorption in full device (red) and total absorption (black) demonstrating increased graphene absorption in bands of tunability.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured voltage and frequency dependent reflectance map obtained from the smaller device. Black dots track the minima of each resonance. (b) Experimental voltage and frequency dependent reflectance map obtained from the larger device (c) Measured reflectance for the smaller device at voltages of smallest and largest graphene conductivity. (d) Measured reflectance of the larger device at voltages of smallest and largest graphene conductivity. (e) Measured (black) and simulated (blue) differential reflectance between VG = 1.75 V and −6 V and 0.3 and 0.7 eV respectively for the smaller device. (f) Measured (black) and simulated (blue) differential reflectance between VG = −6 V and 6 V and 0.3 and 0.7 eV for the larger device.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Maps of the real part of the y-component of the electric field near the graphene in one period of the larger device. Yellow rectangles represent the gold grating while the black dotted line corresponds to the location of the graphene. (a) Field map at 1053 cm−1 (9.5 μm) and EF = 0.4 eV. (b) Field map at 1053 cm−1 (9.5 μm) and EF = 0.8 eV. (c) Field map at 1250 cm−1 (8 μm) and EF = 0.4 eV. (d) Field map at 1250 cm−1 (8 μm) and EF = 0.8 eV.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated reflectance map for the larger device assuming ideal behavior. Black dots track the location of minima.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Graphene plasmon dispersion calculated for Fermi levels of 0.4 eV (black) and 0.7 eV (red).

Equations (1)

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E F = 0 2 v F 2 π | V G | e d

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