Abstract

While the industrial implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography for upcoming technology nodes is becoming ever more realistic, a number of challenges have yet to be overcome. Among them is the need for actinic mask inspection. We report on reflective-mode lensless imaging of a patterned multi-layer mask sample at extreme ultraviolet wavelength that provides a finely structured defect map of the sample under test. Here, we present the imaging results obtained using ptychography in reflection mode at 6° angle of incidence from the surface normal and 13.5 nm wavelength. Moreover, an extended version of the difference map algorithm is employed that substantially enhances the reconstruction quality by taking into account both long and short-term variations of the incident illumination.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

C. L. Porter, M. Tanksalvala, M. Gerrity, G. Miley, X. Zhang, C. Bevis, E. Shanblatt, R. Karl, M. M. Murnane, D. E. Adams, and H. C. Kapteyn, “General-purpose, wide field-of-view reflection imaging with a tabletop 13 nm light source,” Optica 4, 1552–1557 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Mamezaki, T. Harada, Y. Nagata, and T. Watanabe, “Imaging performance improvement of coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope with high-harmonic-generation extreme-ultraviolet source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 06GB01 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Phase imaging results of phase defect using micro-coherent extreme ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 021007 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Odstrčil, P. Baksh, S. A. Boden, R. Card, J. E. Chad, J. G. Frey, and W. S. Brocklesby, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging with orthogonal probe relaxation,” Opt. Express 24, 8360 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Mohacsi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning scattering contrast microscopy for actinic EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9778, 97781O (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Olivieri, A. Goel, A. Kleibert, and M. A. Brown, “Effect of X-ray spot size on liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 1528–1530 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

L. Juschkin, L. Loetgering, D. Rudolf, R. Xu, S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, and J. Miao, “Tabletop coherent diffraction imaging with a discharge plasma EUV source,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 9 (2013).

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV lithography for insertion into manufacturing: the IMEC EUV program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26, 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Uzzel, A. Garetto, K. Magnusson, and G. Tabbone, “A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 888029 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Finders and T. Hollink, “Mask 3D effects: impact on imaging and placement,” Proc. SPIE 7985, 79850I (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, B. La Fontaine, A. Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, “Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask,” Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010).

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Wavelength-specific reflections: a decade of extreme ultraviolet actinic mask inspection research,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E1–C6E10 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 75, 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and R. H. T. Bates, “The theory of super-resolution electron microscopy via Wigner-distribution deconvolution,” Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A 339, 521–553 (1992).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

W. Hoppe, “Beugung im inhomogenen Primärstrahlwellenfeld. III. Amplituden- und Phasenbestimmung bei unperiodischen Objekten,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 508–514 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Acome, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

Allezy, A. P.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Amano, T.

T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Phase imaging results of phase defect using micro-coherent extreme ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 021007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anderson, E. H.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baksh, P.

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bates, R. H. T.

J. M. Rodenburg and R. H. T. Bates, “The theory of super-resolution electron microscopy via Wigner-distribution deconvolution,” Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A 339, 521–553 (1992).
[Crossref]

Benk, M. P.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, A.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C.

C. L. Porter, M. Tanksalvala, M. Gerrity, G. Miley, X. Zhang, C. Bevis, E. Shanblatt, R. Karl, M. M. Murnane, D. E. Adams, and H. C. Kapteyn, “General-purpose, wide field-of-view reflection imaging with a tabletop 13 nm light source,” Optica 4, 1552–1557 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boden, S. A.

Brocklesby, W. S.

Brose, S.

L. Juschkin, L. Loetgering, D. Rudolf, R. Xu, S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, and J. Miao, “Tabletop coherent diffraction imaging with a discharge plasma EUV source,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 9 (2013).

Brown, M. A.

G. Olivieri, A. Goel, A. Kleibert, and M. A. Brown, “Effect of X-ray spot size on liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 1528–1530 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Card, R.

Cartier, S.

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K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

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I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
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T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
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G. Olivieri, A. Goel, A. Kleibert, and M. A. Brown, “Effect of X-ray spot size on liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 1528–1530 (2015).
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U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
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Liu, Y.

Loetgering, L.

L. Juschkin, L. Loetgering, D. Rudolf, R. Xu, S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, and J. Miao, “Tabletop coherent diffraction imaging with a discharge plasma EUV source,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 9 (2013).

Lorusso, G.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV lithography for insertion into manufacturing: the IMEC EUV program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26, 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macdougall, J. B.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Magnusson, K.

D. Uzzel, A. Garetto, K. Magnusson, and G. Tabbone, “A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 888029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maliakal, D.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mamezaki, D.

D. Mamezaki, T. Harada, Y. Nagata, and T. Watanabe, “Imaging performance improvement of coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope with high-harmonic-generation extreme-ultraviolet source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 06GB01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mancini, G. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Martin, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martin, L. S.

McNulty, I.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Menoni, C. S.

Menzel, A.

M. Odstrčil, A. Menzel, and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Iterative least-squares solver for generalized maximum-likelihood ptychography,” Opt. Express 26, 3108–3123 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mezza, D.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

Milanovic, V.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miley, G.

Mochi, I.

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, B. La Fontaine, A. Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, “Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask,” Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010).

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Wavelength-specific reflections: a decade of extreme ultraviolet actinic mask inspection research,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E1–C6E10 (2010).
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Mohacsi, I.

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Mohacsi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning scattering contrast microscopy for actinic EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9778, 97781O (2016).
[Crossref]

Mozzanica, A.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

C. L. Porter, M. Tanksalvala, M. Gerrity, G. Miley, X. Zhang, C. Bevis, E. Shanblatt, R. Karl, M. M. Murnane, D. E. Adams, and H. C. Kapteyn, “General-purpose, wide field-of-view reflection imaging with a tabletop 13 nm light source,” Optica 4, 1552–1557 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19, 22470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagata, Y.

D. Mamezaki, T. Harada, Y. Nagata, and T. Watanabe, “Imaging performance improvement of coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope with high-harmonic-generation extreme-ultraviolet source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 06GB01 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakasuji, M.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naulleau, P. P.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nolting, F.

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 75, 104102 (2007).
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Odstrcil, M.

Olivieri, G.

G. Olivieri, A. Goel, A. Kleibert, and M. A. Brown, “Effect of X-ray spot size on liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 1528–1530 (2015).
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Peele, A. G.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 75, 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollentier, I.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV lithography for insertion into manufacturing: the IMEC EUV program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26, 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Porter, C. L.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. L. Porter, M. Tanksalvala, M. Gerrity, G. Miley, X. Zhang, C. Bevis, E. Shanblatt, R. Karl, M. M. Murnane, D. E. Adams, and H. C. Kapteyn, “General-purpose, wide field-of-view reflection imaging with a tabletop 13 nm light source,” Optica 4, 1552–1557 (2017).
[Crossref]

Putkunz, C. T.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Quiney, H. M.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 75, 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Quitmann, C.

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rajeev, R.

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rajendran, R.

I. Mohacsi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning scattering contrast microscopy for actinic EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9778, 97781O (2016).
[Crossref]

Raymondson, D. A.

Rekawa, S. B.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
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Robinson, I. K.

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg and R. H. T. Bates, “The theory of super-resolution electron microscopy via Wigner-distribution deconvolution,” Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A 339, 521–553 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rong, L.

Ronse, K.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV lithography for insertion into manufacturing: the IMEC EUV program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26, 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruder, C.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rudolf, D.

L. Juschkin, L. Loetgering, D. Rudolf, R. Xu, S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, and J. Miao, “Tabletop coherent diffraction imaging with a discharge plasma EUV source,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 9 (2013).

Salmassi, F.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. Gullikson, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaedler, L.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schlotter, W. F.

Schmidt, T.

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, B.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seaberg, M. D.

Shanblatt, E.

Shanblatt, E. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, X.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, S.

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tabbone, G.

D. Uzzel, A. Garetto, K. Magnusson, and G. Tabbone, “A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 888029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanksalvala, M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. L. Porter, M. Tanksalvala, M. Gerrity, G. Miley, X. Zhang, C. Bevis, E. Shanblatt, R. Karl, M. M. Murnane, D. E. Adams, and H. C. Kapteyn, “General-purpose, wide field-of-view reflection imaging with a tabletop 13 nm light source,” Optica 4, 1552–1557 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tchikoulaeva, A.

I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, B. La Fontaine, A. Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, “Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask,” Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010).

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tinti, G.

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Townsend, E. L.

Uzzel, D.

D. Uzzel, A. Garetto, K. Magnusson, and G. Tabbone, “A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 888029 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Camp, D.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Every, E.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vandenberghe, G.

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV lithography for insertion into manufacturing: the IMEC EUV program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26, 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vine, D. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vytla, V. K.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

D. Mamezaki, T. Harada, Y. Nagata, and T. Watanabe, “Imaging performance improvement of coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope with high-harmonic-generation extreme-ultraviolet source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 06GB01 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Phase imaging results of phase defect using micro-coherent extreme ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 021007 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, L. W.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 75, 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

L. Juschkin, L. Loetgering, D. Rudolf, R. Xu, S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, and J. Miao, “Tabletop coherent diffraction imaging with a discharge plasma EUV source,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 9 (2013).

Yoshitake, S.

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zehm, D.

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. Gullikson, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. L. Porter, M. Tanksalvala, M. Gerrity, G. Miley, X. Zhang, C. Bevis, E. Shanblatt, R. Karl, M. M. Murnane, D. E. Adams, and H. C. Kapteyn, “General-purpose, wide field-of-view reflection imaging with a tabletop 13 nm light source,” Optica 4, 1552–1557 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zimoch, D.

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

W. Hoppe, “Beugung im inhomogenen Primärstrahlwellenfeld. III. Amplituden- und Phasenbestimmung bei unperiodischen Objekten,” Acta Crystallogr. A 25, 508–514 (1969).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

U. Flechsig, F. Nolting, A. Fraile Rodríguez, J. Krempaský, C. Quitmann, T. Schmidt, S. Spielmann, and D. Zimoch, “Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 319–322 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Instrum. (1)

A. Mozzanica, A. Bergamaschi, S. Cartier, R. Dinapoli, D. Greiffenberg, I. Johnson, J. Jungmann, D. Maliakal, D. Mezza, C. Ruder, L. Schaedler, B. Schmitt, X. Shi, and G. Tinti, “Prototype characterization of the JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL,” J. Instrum. 9, C05010 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS (3)

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, D. Kazazis, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 16, 041003 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Phase imaging results of phase defect using micro-coherent extreme ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” J. Micro. Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 021007 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Hendrickx, R. Gronheid, J. Hermans, G. Lorusso, P. Foubert, I. Pollentier, A.-M. Goethals, R. Jonckheere, G. Vandenberghe, and K. Ronse, “Readiness of EUV lithography for insertion into manufacturing: the IMEC EUV program,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 26, 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

G. Olivieri, A. Goel, A. Kleibert, and M. A. Brown, “Effect of X-ray spot size on liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 22, 1528–1530 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. A. Goldberg and I. Mochi, “Wavelength-specific reflections: a decade of extreme ultraviolet actinic mask inspection research,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, C6E1–C6E10 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Mamezaki, T. Harada, Y. Nagata, and T. Watanabe, “Imaging performance improvement of coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope with high-harmonic-generation extreme-ultraviolet source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56, 06GB01 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494, 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Thibault and M. Guizar-Sicairos, “Maximum-likelihood refinement for coherent diffractive imaging,” New J. Phys. 14, 063004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Optica (1)

Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and R. H. T. Bates, “The theory of super-resolution electron microscopy via Wigner-distribution deconvolution,” Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A 339, 521–553 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter (1)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 75, 104102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. Finders and T. Hollink, “Mask 3D effects: impact on imaging and placement,” Proc. SPIE 7985, 79850I (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Mohacsi, P. Helfenstein, R. Rajendran, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning scattering contrast microscopy for actinic EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 9778, 97781O (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Juschkin, L. Loetgering, D. Rudolf, R. Xu, S. Brose, S. Danylyuk, and J. Miao, “Tabletop coherent diffraction imaging with a discharge plasma EUV source,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 9 (2013).

D. Uzzel, A. Garetto, K. Magnusson, and G. Tabbone, “A novel method for utilizing AIMS to evaluate mask repair and quantify over-repair or under-repair condition,” Proc. SPIE 8880, 888029 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Goldberg, I. Mochi, M. P. Benk, A. P. Allezy, M. R. Dickinson, C. W. Cork, D. Zehm, J. B. Macdougall, E. H. Anderson, F. Salmassi, W. L. Chao, V. K. Vytla, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. DePonte, M. S. Jones, D. Van Camp, J. F. Gamsby, W. B. Ghiorso, H. Huang, W. Cork, E. Martin, E. Van Every, E. Acome, V. Milanovic, R. Delano, P. P. Naulleau, and S. B. Rekawa, “Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm,” Proc. SPIE 8679, 867919 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Mochi, K. A. Goldberg, B. La Fontaine, A. Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, “Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask,” Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010).

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (3)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. D. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “High contrast 3D imaging of surfaces near the wavelength limit using tabletop EUV ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 158, 98–104 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics (Roberts and Company Publishers, 2005), 3rd ed.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Simplified schematic setup of the SIM beamline and end-station (see Ref. [21]). The energy of 92 eV is preselected by adjusting the undulator gap and further refined via a plane grating monochromator. (b) End-station optical setup. The beam is focused by a spherical multilayer mirror (M1) and then projected onto the sample by a flat mirror (M2) at 6° angle of incidence. The resulting diffraction pattern is recorded on the CCD camera.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of the patterned mask. (b) Layout of the mask pattern according to the design file that was created in the GDSII image format in order to facilitate the subsequent electron beam exposure. The scale bars in both images correspond to 5 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic showing the probe positions where the algorithm uses independent probes for different sample areas. This image is only used to illustrate the method and does not accurately depict the actual probe positions during the experiment.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Due to neglecting optical elements of the beamline and aberrations, the initial guess of the probe differs in both magnitude (b) and phase (d) from the result of the reconstruction as depicted in (a) and (c). The scale is the same for all images.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reconstructed sample magnitude after 300 iterations of the DM algorithm and subsequent averaging of the last few iterations. The resolution can be increased by taking into account both short and long term effects. As the beam is highly monochromatic, the use of multiple probe modes has only a small effect. However, due to the extended acquisition time, allowing for multiple sequential probes results in an enhanced reconstruction quality. (a) 1 mode, 1 probe (b) 1 probe, 3 modes (c) 40 probes, 1 mode (d) 40 probes, 3 modes. The insets depict a close-up of the 500 nm half-pitch grating.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 One set of diffraction patterns for a single scan-position. The exposure times are (a) 65 ms, (b) 500 ms, and (c) 10000 ms. The combined image is shown in (d); (b) and (c) include saturated points and the effect of bleeding becomes evident at the longest exposure time.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Cross-sections taken from the 100 nm half-pitch grating. (a) and (b) 1 mode, 1 probe (c) and (d) 1 probe, 3 modes (e) and (f) 40 probes, 1 mode (g) and (h) 40 probes, 3 modes. The range for relative magnitude was set to [0.0, 0.7] for all cross-sections to show the difference in contrast for the different reconstructions. There is also a global shift induced by the use of multiple probe modes.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ j ( r ) = p ( r r j ) o ( r ) ,
F : ϕ j ϕ j F ,
ϕ j F ( r ) = 1 [ I j ( q ) ψ j ( q ) | ψ j ( q ) | ] .
O : ϕ j F ϕ j O .
ϕ j O ( r ) = p ¯ ( r r j ) o ¯ ( r ) .
d ( Ω ¯ , Ω ) = [ j | ϕ j F ( r ) p ¯ ( r r j ) o ¯ ( r ) | 2 d r ] 1 2
o ¯ ( r ) = j p ¯ * ( r r j ) ϕ j F ( r ) j | p ¯ ( r r j ) | 2 ,
p ¯ ( r ) = j o ¯ * ( r + r j ) ϕ j F ( r + r j ) j | o ¯ ( r + r j ) | 2 .
ϕ j ( r ) ϕ ¯ j ( r ) = A [ ϕ j ( r ) ] = O [ F [ ϕ j ( r ) ] ] .
ϕ j ( r ) ϕ ¯ j ( r ) = D [ ϕ j ( r ) ] = ϕ j ( r ) + γ [ O { ϕ j F ( r ) } . g F { ϕ j ( r ) } F { ϕ j ( r ) } . g O { ϕ j F ( r ) } ] ,
g O { ϕ j F ( r ) } = O { ϕ j F ( r ) } [ O { ϕ j F ( r ) } ϕ j F ( r ) ] / γ ,
g F { ϕ j ( r ) } = F { ϕ j ( r ) } [ F { ϕ j ( r ) } ϕ j ( r ) ] / γ ,
P ( r ) = n p n ( r ) ,
Φ j ( r ) = o ( r ) n p n ( r r j ) = n ϕ j , n ( r ) ,
Ψ j ( q ) = [ Φ j ( r ) ] = [ o ( r ) n p n ( r r j ) ] = n [ ϕ j , n ( q ) ] = n ψ j , n ( r ) .
Ψ j ( q , t ) = n ψ j , n ( q ) e i ω n t ,
j ( q , t ) = Ψ j ( q , t ) Ψ j * ( q , t ) = n , m ψ j , n ( q ) e i ω n t × ψ j , m * ( q ) e i ω m t = n , m ψ j , n ( q ) ψ j , m * ( q ) e i ( ω n ω m ) t .
I j ( q ) = j ( q , t ) = n , m ψ j , n ( q ) ψ j , m * ( q ) e i ( ω n ω m ) t = n , m ψ j , n ( q ) ψ j , m * ( q ) × δ n m = n I j , n ( q ) .
F : ϕ j , n ϕ j , n F ,
ϕ j , n F ( r ) = F 1 [ I j ( q ) ψ j , n ( q ) n | ψ j , n ( q ) | 2 ] .
O : ϕ j , n F ϕ j , n O ,
ϕ j , n O ( r ) = p ¯ n ( r r j ) o ¯ ( r ) .
d ( ζ ¯ , ζ ) = [ j n | ϕ j , n ( r ) p ¯ n ( r r j ) o ¯ ( r ) | 2 d r ] 1 2 .

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