Abstract

In the laundry industry, colorimetry is a common way to evaluate the stain removal efficiency of detergents and cleaning products. For ease of visualization, the soiling agent is treated with a dye before measurement. However, it effectively measures the dye removal rather than stain removal, and it cannot provide depth-resolved information of the sample. In this study, we show that full-field (FF) optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique is capable of measuring the cleaning effect on cotton fabric by imaging the sub-surface features of fabric samples. We used a broadband light-emitting diode (LED) source to power the FF-OCT system that achieves the resolution of 1 µm axially and 1.6 µm laterally. This allows the micron-sized cotton fibres/fibrils at different depth positions to be resolved. The clean, the soiled, and the washed samples can be differentiated from their cross-sectional images using OCT, where the cleaning effect can be correlated with the sub-surface fibre volume. The experimental results of the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with those of the standard colorimetry method. The proposed technique therefore offers an alternative way for measuring the stain removal from fabric substrate to assess the effectiveness of laundry detergent products.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2017 (2)

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, B. M. Williams, S. Lawman, D. Atkinson, Z. Zhang, Y. Shen, and Y. Zheng, “Non-destructive analysis of flake properties in automotive paints with full-field optical coherence tomography and 3D segmentation,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18614–18628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

S. Shivaji Biranje, A. Nathany, N. Mehra, and R. Adivarekar, “Optimisation of detergent ingredients for stain removal using statistical modelling,” J. Surfactants Deterg. 18(6), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. Li, J. A. Zeitler, Y. Dong, and Y.-C. Shen, “Non-destructive evaluation of polymer coating structures on pharmaceutical pellets using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Pharm. Sci. 103(1), 161–166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

I. Abdulhalim, “Spatial and temporal coherence effects in interference microscopy and full‐field optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Phys. 524(12), 787–804 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Lange, H. Howard, and J. Spooner, “Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840F (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Safrani and I. Abdulhalim, “Spatial coherence effect on layer thickness determination in narrowband full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 3021–3027 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

K. A. Serrels, M. K. Renner, and D. T. Reid, “Optical coherence tomography for non-destructive investigation of silicon integrated-circuits,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(9), 1785–1791 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

E. Ilec, B. Simončič, and A. Hladnik, “Evaluation of surfactant detergency using statistical analysis,” Text. Res. J. 79(4), 318–325 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. Tay, C. Quan, and M. Li, “Investigation of a dual-layer structure using vertical scanning interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(8), 907–913 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

I. Abdulhalim, “Competence between spatial and temporal coherence in full field optical coherence tomography and interference microscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(11), 952–958 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

I. Abdulhalim, “Spatial and temporal coherence effects in interference microscopy and full‐field optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Phys. 524(12), 787–804 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Safrani and I. Abdulhalim, “Spatial coherence effect on layer thickness determination in narrowband full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 3021–3027 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abdulhalim, “Competence between spatial and temporal coherence in full field optical coherence tomography and interference microscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(11), 952–958 (2006).
[Crossref]

Abraham, E.

Adivarekar, R.

S. Shivaji Biranje, A. Nathany, N. Mehra, and R. Adivarekar, “Optimisation of detergent ingredients for stain removal using statistical modelling,” J. Surfactants Deterg. 18(6), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akcay, C.

Akiba, M.

Atkinson, D.

Bashkansky, M.

Beaurepaire, E.

Benattar, L.

Blanchot, L.

Boccara, A. C.

Boccara, A.-C.

Boccara, C.

Bordenave, E.

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chan, K. P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cid, M.

Cucu, R.

Dabu, R.

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Martino, A.

Dobre, G.

Don, A.

G. van Dalen, A. Don, J. Veldt, E. Krijnen, and M. Gribnau, “Colour analysis of inhomogeneous stains on textile using flatbed scanning and image analysis,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 53–57.

Dong, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, S. Lawman, Y. Zheng, D. Williams, J. Zhang, and Y.-C. Shen, “Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 55(13), 3695–3700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. A. Zeitler, Y. Dong, and Y.-C. Shen, “Non-destructive evaluation of polymer coating structures on pharmaceutical pellets using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Pharm. Sci. 103(1), 161–166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drévillon, B.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubois, A.

Duncan, M.

Duncan, M. D.

Dunkers, J. P.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, M.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Everett, M. J.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flynn, K. M.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, K. C.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Green, W. H.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gribnau, M.

G. van Dalen, A. Don, J. Veldt, E. Krijnen, and M. Gribnau, “Colour analysis of inhomogeneous stains on textile using flatbed scanning and image analysis,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 53–57.

Grieve, K.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hladnik, A.

E. Ilec, B. Simončič, and A. Hladnik, “Evaluation of surfactant detergency using statistical analysis,” Text. Res. J. 79(4), 318–325 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ho, L.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Howard, H.

H. Liang, R. Lange, H. Howard, and J. Spooner, “Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840F (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunston, D. L.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ilec, E.

E. Ilec, B. Simončič, and A. Hladnik, “Evaluation of surfactant detergency using statistical analysis,” Text. Res. J. 79(4), 318–325 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jonusauskas, G.

Kahn, M.

Kleinebudde, P.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krijnen, E.

G. van Dalen, A. Don, J. Veldt, E. Krijnen, and M. Gribnau, “Colour analysis of inhomogeneous stains on textile using flatbed scanning and image analysis,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 53–57.

Lange, R.

H. Liang, R. Lange, H. Howard, and J. Spooner, “Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840F (2011).
[Crossref]

Lassègues, M.

Laude, B.

Lawman, S.

Lebec, M.

Lecaque, R.

Lewis Iii, D.

Li, C.

C. Li, J. A. Zeitler, Y. Dong, and Y.-C. Shen, “Non-destructive evaluation of polymer coating structures on pharmaceutical pellets using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Pharm. Sci. 103(1), 161–166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

C. Tay, C. Quan, and M. Li, “Investigation of a dual-layer structure using vertical scanning interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(8), 907–913 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, R. Lange, H. Howard, and J. Spooner, “Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840F (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, M. Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, A. Podoleanu, J. Pedro, and D. Saunders, “En-face optical coherence tomography - a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6133–6144 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markl, D.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

May, R. K.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mehra, N.

S. Shivaji Biranje, A. Nathany, N. Mehra, and R. Adivarekar, “Optimisation of detergent ingredients for stain removal using statistical modelling,” J. Surfactants Deterg. 18(6), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref]

Minot, P. E.

Moneron, G.

Müller, R.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagata, T.

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nathany, A.

S. Shivaji Biranje, A. Nathany, N. Mehra, and R. Adivarekar, “Optimisation of detergent ingredients for stain removal using statistical modelling,” J. Surfactants Deterg. 18(6), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neagu, L.

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

Niizuma, T.

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oberlé, J.

Okazaki, H.

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Parnas, R. S.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Parrein, P.

Pedro, J.

Pepper, M.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peterson, R. C.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phelan, F. R.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

Podoleanu, A.

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Radiol. 78(935), 976–988 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, C.

C. Tay, C. Quan, and M. Li, “Investigation of a dual-layer structure using vertical scanning interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(8), 907–913 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rades, T.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

K. A. Serrels, M. K. Renner, and D. T. Reid, “Optical coherence tomography for non-destructive investigation of silicon integrated-circuits,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(9), 1785–1791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reintjes, J.

Renner, M. K.

K. A. Serrels, M. K. Renner, and D. T. Reid, “Optical coherence tomography for non-destructive investigation of silicon integrated-circuits,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(9), 1785–1791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rolland, J. P.

Rullière, C.

Safrani, A.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Sakai, M.

Sanders, D. P.

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, O.

Sato, M.

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saunders, D.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, L.

Serrels, K. A.

K. A. Serrels, M. K. Renner, and D. T. Reid, “Optical coherence tomography for non-destructive investigation of silicon integrated-circuits,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(9), 1785–1791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, B. M. Williams, S. Lawman, D. Atkinson, Z. Zhang, Y. Shen, and Y. Zheng, “Non-destructive analysis of flake properties in automotive paints with full-field optical coherence tomography and 3D segmentation,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18614–18628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.-C.

Y. Dong, S. Lawman, Y. Zheng, D. Williams, J. Zhang, and Y.-C. Shen, “Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 55(13), 3695–3700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. A. Zeitler, Y. Dong, and Y.-C. Shen, “Non-destructive evaluation of polymer coating structures on pharmaceutical pellets using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Pharm. Sci. 103(1), 161–166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shivaji Biranje, S.

S. Shivaji Biranje, A. Nathany, N. Mehra, and R. Adivarekar, “Optimisation of detergent ingredients for stain removal using statistical modelling,” J. Surfactants Deterg. 18(6), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simoncic, B.

E. Ilec, B. Simončič, and A. Hladnik, “Evaluation of surfactant detergency using statistical analysis,” Text. Res. J. 79(4), 318–325 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spooner, J.

H. Liang, R. Lange, H. Howard, and J. Spooner, “Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840F (2011).
[Crossref]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surlève, B. J.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tanno, N.

Tay, C.

C. Tay, C. Quan, and M. Li, “Investigation of a dual-layer structure using vertical scanning interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(8), 907–913 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsurumachi, N.

Vabre, L.

van Dalen, G.

G. van Dalen, A. Don, J. Veldt, E. Krijnen, and M. Gribnau, “Colour analysis of inhomogeneous stains on textile using flatbed scanning and image analysis,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 53–57.

Veldt, J.

G. van Dalen, A. Don, J. Veldt, E. Krijnen, and M. Gribnau, “Colour analysis of inhomogeneous stains on textile using flatbed scanning and image analysis,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 53–57.

Watanabe, Y.

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. M.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, B. M. Williams, S. Lawman, D. Atkinson, Z. Zhang, Y. Shen, and Y. Zheng, “Non-destructive analysis of flake properties in automotive paints with full-field optical coherence tomography and 3D segmentation,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18614–18628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D.

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitler, J. A.

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. A. Zeitler, Y. Dong, and Y.-C. Shen, “Non-destructive evaluation of polymer coating structures on pharmaceutical pellets using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Pharm. Sci. 103(1), 161–166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Z.

Zheng, Y.

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zimba, C. G.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

I. Abdulhalim, “Spatial and temporal coherence effects in interference microscopy and full‐field optical coherence tomography,” Ann. Phys. 524(12), 787–804 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (8)

A. Safrani and I. Abdulhalim, “Spatial coherence effect on layer thickness determination in narrowband full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 50(18), 3021–3027 (2011).
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O. Sasaki, H. Okazaki, and M. Sakai, “Sinusoidal phase modulating interferometer using the integrating-bucket method,” Appl. Opt. 26(6), 1089–1093 (1987).
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A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and C. Boccara, “Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 43(14), 2874–2883 (2004).
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E. Bordenave, E. Abraham, G. Jonusauskas, N. Tsurumachi, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, P. E. Minot, M. Lassègues, and B. J. Surlève, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography: imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 41(10), 2059–2064 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A.-C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, “High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 805–812 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Laude, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, L. Benattar, and L. Schwartz, “Full-field optical coherence tomography with thermal light,” Appl. Opt. 41(31), 6637–6645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Akcay, P. Parrein, and J. P. Rolland, “Estimation of longitudinal resolution in optical coherence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41(25), 5256–5262 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, S. Lawman, Y. Zheng, D. Williams, J. Zhang, and Y.-C. Shen, “Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 55(13), 3695–3700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Radiol. (1)

A. G. Podoleanu, “Optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Radiol. 78(935), 976–988 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. (1)

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30(2), 139–145 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

I. Abdulhalim, “Competence between spatial and temporal coherence in full field optical coherence tomography and interference microscopy,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(11), 952–958 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Pharm. Sci. (2)

C. Li, J. A. Zeitler, Y. Dong, and Y.-C. Shen, “Non-destructive evaluation of polymer coating structures on pharmaceutical pellets using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Pharm. Sci. 103(1), 161–166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, Y. Dong, D. Markl, B. M. Williams, Y. Zheng, Y. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Measurement of the Intertablet Coating Uniformity of a Pharmaceutical Pan Coating Process With Combined Terahertz and Optical Coherence Tomography In-Line Sensing,” J. Pharm. Sci. 106(4), 1075–1084 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Surfactants Deterg. (1)

S. Shivaji Biranje, A. Nathany, N. Mehra, and R. Adivarekar, “Optimisation of detergent ingredients for stain removal using statistical modelling,” J. Surfactants Deterg. 18(6), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

K. A. Serrels, M. K. Renner, and D. T. Reid, “Optical coherence tomography for non-destructive investigation of silicon integrated-circuits,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(9), 1785–1791 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Sato, T. Nagata, T. Niizuma, L. Neagu, R. Dabu, and Y. Watanabe, “Quadrature fringes wide-field optical coherence tomography and its applications to biological tissues,” Opt. Commun. 271(2), 573–580 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (3)

J. P. Dunkers, F. R. Phelan, D. P. Sanders, M. J. Everett, W. H. Green, D. L. Hunston, and R. S. Parnas, “The application of optical coherence tomography to problems in polymer matrix composites,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35(3), 135–147 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Zhong, Y.-C. Shen, L. Ho, R. K. May, J. A. Zeitler, M. Evans, P. F. Taday, M. Pepper, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, R. Müller, and P. Kleinebudde, “Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(3), 361–365 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Tay, C. Quan, and M. Li, “Investigation of a dual-layer structure using vertical scanning interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 45(8), 907–913 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Liang, R. Lange, H. Howard, and J. Spooner, “Non-invasive investigations of a wall painting using optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8084, 80840F (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Text. Res. J. (1)

E. Ilec, B. Simončič, and A. Hladnik, “Evaluation of surfactant detergency using statistical analysis,” Text. Res. J. 79(4), 318–325 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. van Dalen, A. Don, J. Veldt, E. Krijnen, and M. Gribnau, “Colour analysis of inhomogeneous stains on textile using flatbed scanning and image analysis,” in Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), pp. 53–57.

A. K. R. Choudhury, “Colour-difference assessment,” in Principles of Colour and Appearance Measurement, M. L. Gulrajani, eds. (Elsevier, 2014).

J. A. Izatt, M. A. Choma, and A. Dhalla, “Theory of Optical Coherence Tomography,” in Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Applications, W. Drexler, and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation of the proposed FF-OCT image reconstruction scheme. (a) Simulated sample signal with three layers. (b) Simulated light source spectrum centred at 600 nm and an FWHM of 200 nm. (c) Simulated mirror interference signal. (d) Reconstructed A-scan (blue) based on the four-step phase-shift (PS) method and the A-scans after averaging N signals to enhance SNR (yellow: N = 20; green: N = 50; red: N = 100), compared with the A-scan reconstructed using the proposed method (black).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the FF-OCT setup. LED - broadband LED light source; BS – beam splitter; MO - microscope objectives; Ref - reference mirror; L - plano-convex lens.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Axial and lateral resolutions. (a) Measured axial response (red) and its corresponding tomography signal (black) demodulated by the proposed method, achieving an axial resolution of 1 µm and (b) a lateral resolution of 1.6 µm determined using a standard test target USAF 1951 (red box).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Microscopic images corresponding to the fabric samples in each group taken from the sample arm of the FF-OCT. The region-of-interest where the depth-resolved scanning was performed is highlighted with shade/green.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sub-surface imaging of the fabric samples in the two groups showing OCT measurements with cross-sectional images (B-scans) and depth profiles (A-scans), where the representative B-scans are selected from their correspondingly reconstructed 3D datacube, and the representative A-scans are extracted from their corresponding B-scans. (a–e) and (f) are the B-scan and the A-scan results of the samples in group A. (g–k) and (l) are the B-scan and the A-scan results of the samples in group B. Note that, (e) and (k) are the B-scans of the clean samples in wet state.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Marked surface area (red) and detectable sub-surface fibres of the imaged fabric samples in the two groups. (a–d) and (e–h) are the results corresponding to the samples in group A and group B, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Cleaning effects demonstrated by detectable sub-surface fibre volume related to FF-OCT measurement and stain removal index related to colorimetric measurement.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison measurement between the soiled samples with and without dying. (a) and (b) the B-scan maps of the soiled sample CS-63S and its corresponding non-dye sample. (c) and (d) the B-scan maps of the soiled sample CS-46B and its corresponding non-dye sample. Each measurement is performed to obtain a 3D datacube with the size of 60 × 60 × 100 µm3, and the B-scans are extracted from the reconstructed 3D datacubes.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Measured cotton samples

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Table 2 Colorimetric measurement result and stain removal index of the fabric samples after washing with a detergent formulation at 20 and 40 °C

Equations (6)

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I FFOCT (x,y,Δz)= S(ω) ( R Ref (x,y)+ i=1 N R Samplith (x,y) + 2 i=1 N R Ref (x,y) R Sampl-ith (x,y) cos[ϕ(x,y,Δz)] )dω
I FFOCT (x,y,Δz)= I DC (x,y)+ I Cross (x,y,Δz)cosϕ(x,y,Δz)
I FFOCT l (x,y,Δz)= I DC (x,y)+ I Cross (x,y,Δz)cos( ϕ(x,y,Δz)+ lπ 2 )
I Cross (x,y,Δz) [ I FFOCT l=0 I FFOCT l=2 ] 2 + [ I FFOCT l=1 I FFOCT l=3 ] 2
I FFOCT ' (x,y,Δz)= I FFOCT (x,y,Δz) I Mirror (Δz')
I Cross ' (x,y,Δz)= [ I FFOCT ' (x,y,Δz) ] 2 + [ H{ I FFOCT ' (x,y,Δz)} ] 2

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