Abstract

In this work, optical properties of a cubic blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) in photonic microstructures were investigated. The experiments were carried out in microcapillaries with different inner diameters and in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). For the first time, white-light beam propagation through a BPLC (BP II) in a microcapillary with a 60-μm inner diameter at a distance of 26 mm was demonstrated. Furthermore, it was conclusively shown that the cylindrical geometry and the size of its inner diameter influence BP domains orientation, which can lead to a uniform texture of the BPLC with a dominant Bragg wavelength. This study also proves that a BPLC-filled PCF provides very attractive tunable properties. It was presented that by applying an external electric field, a control of the transmitted light intensity for particular wavelengths can be achieved, depending on the input polarization. Moreover, a range of the wavelengths corresponding to low transmission appeared to be tunable, whereas for x- and y-polarized light, respectively, both narrowing (from 16 nm to 9 nm) as well widening (from 13 nm to 22 nm) of the bandgaps were observed. Finally, the obtained experimental results were found qualitatively consistent.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (4)

S. S. Gandhi, Y. Li, D. Luo, and L.-C. Chien, “Laser Emission in a 3D Nanoporous Polymer Replica of Amorphous Blue Phase III,” J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 56, 551–557 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Budaszewski, A. Siarkowska, M. Chychłowski, B. Jankiewicz, B. Bartosewicz, R. Dabrowski, and T. Woliński, “Nanoparticles-enhanced photonic liquid crystal fibers,” J Mol Liq. 267, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, M. Sierakowski, A. Siarkowska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Influence of cylindrical geometry and alignment layers on the growth process and selective reflection of blue phase domains,” Opt. Mater. 75, 211–215 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, F. A. Sala, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “The influence of orienting layers on blue phase liquid crystals in rectangular geometries,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 10, 100–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

C.-W. Chen, C.-T. Hou, C.-C. Li, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Wang, C.-L. Hong, D.-Y. Guo, C.-Y. Wang, S.-P. Chiang, T. Bunning, I.-C. Khoo, and T.-H. Lin, “Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Commun. 8, 727 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Martínez-González, J. Hernández-Ortiz, A. Ramirez-Hernández, Y. Zhou, M. Sadati, R. Zhang, P. Nealey, and J. de Pablo, “Mesoscale martensitic transformation in single crystals of topological defects,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114, 10011–10016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. DeSmet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Investigation of the Kerr effect in a blue phase liquid crystal using a wedge-cell technique,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 9, 54–56 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wahle, J. Ebel, D. Wilkes, and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Asymmetric band gap shift in electrically addressed blue phase photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 24, 22718–22729 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

J. Martínez-González, Y. Zhou, M. Rahimi, E. Bukusoglu, N. Abbott, and J. de Pablo, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112, 13195–13200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. Martínez-González, J. de Pablo, and N. Abbott, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6892–6898 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanaka, H. Yoshida, Y. Kawata, R. Kuwahara, R. Nishi, and M. Ozaki, “Double-twist cylinders in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases observed by transmission electron microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, S.-T. Hur, S. Kim, S.-Y. Jo, B. R. Lee, M. H. Song, and S.-W. Choi, “A well-aligned simple cubic blue phase for a liquid crystal laser,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 5383–5388 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J.-D. Lin, Y.-M. Lin, T.-S. Mo, and C.-R. Lee, “Photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap device and laser in a dyedoped blue phase with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 22, 9171–9181 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Chojnowska, R. Dabrowski, J. Yan, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optical properties of photochemically stable polymer-stabilized blue-phase material,” J. Appl. Phys. 116, 213505 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Poudereux, K. Orzechowski, O. Chojnowska, M. Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, and J. M. Otón, “Infiltration of a photonic crystal fiber with cholesteric liquid crystal and blue phase,” Proc. SPIE 9290, 92900 (2014).

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 960–967 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

H. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic switching in liquid crystal blue phase II,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Lee, Y. Li, H.-Y. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Design of polarization-insensitive multi-electrode GRIN lens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19, 17402–17407 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lorenz and H.-S. Kitzerow, “Efficient electro-optic switching in a photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 241106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Kao, C.-P. Yu, S.-M. Yeh, W.-H. Cheng, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo and electrical tunable effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 18, 2814–2821 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 49–51 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H.-S. Chen, H.-C. Lin, Y.-S. Tsou, H.-K. Hsu, and W.-Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Coles and S. Morris, “A well-aligned simple cubic blue phase for a liquid crystal laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Cerqueira, “Recent progress and novel applications of photonic crystal fibers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Light. Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. R. Woliński, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domański, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wójcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985–991 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. P.-M. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. Crooker, “Effect of chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pierański, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France 50, 2991–2998 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Pierański, P. Cladis, T. Garel, and R. Barbet-Massin, “Orientation of crystals of blue phases by electric fields,” J. Physique 47, 139–143 (1986).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

S. Meiboom and M. Sammon, “Structure of the blue phase of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 882–885 (1980).
[Crossref]

Abbott, N.

J. Martínez-González, Y. Zhou, M. Rahimi, E. Bukusoglu, N. Abbott, and J. de Pablo, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112, 13195–13200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. Martínez-González, J. de Pablo, and N. Abbott, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6892–6898 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anucha, K.

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbet-Massin, R.

P. Pierański, P. Cladis, T. Garel, and R. Barbet-Massin, “Orientation of crystals of blue phases by electric fields,” J. Physique 47, 139–143 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bartosewicz, B.

D. Budaszewski, A. Siarkowska, M. Chychłowski, B. Jankiewicz, B. Bartosewicz, R. Dabrowski, and T. Woliński, “Nanoparticles-enhanced photonic liquid crystal fibers,” J Mol Liq. 267, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Budaszewski, D.

D. Budaszewski, A. Siarkowska, M. Chychłowski, B. Jankiewicz, B. Bartosewicz, R. Dabrowski, and T. Woliński, “Nanoparticles-enhanced photonic liquid crystal fibers,” J Mol Liq. 267, 271–278 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bukusoglu, E.

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. Martínez-González, J. de Pablo, and N. Abbott, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6892–6898 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Martínez-González, Y. Zhou, M. Rahimi, E. Bukusoglu, N. Abbott, and J. de Pablo, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112, 13195–13200 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunning, T.

C.-W. Chen, C.-T. Hou, C.-C. Li, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Wang, C.-L. Hong, D.-Y. Guo, C.-Y. Wang, S.-P. Chiang, T. Bunning, I.-C. Khoo, and T.-H. Lin, “Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Commun. 8, 727 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, P. P.-M. W.

P. P.-M. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cates, M.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 107801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerqueira, A.

A. Cerqueira, “Recent progress and novel applications of photonic crystal fibers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 024401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, C.-W.

Chen, H.-S.

Y.-H. Lin, H.-S. Chen, H.-C. Lin, Y.-S. Tsou, H.-K. Hsu, and W.-Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-M.

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 49–51 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

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H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orzechowski, K.

M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, F. A. Sala, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “The influence of orienting layers on blue phase liquid crystals in rectangular geometries,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 10, 100–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, M. Sierakowski, A. Siarkowska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Influence of cylindrical geometry and alignment layers on the growth process and selective reflection of blue phase domains,” Opt. Mater. 75, 211–215 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Investigation of the Kerr effect in a blue phase liquid crystal using a wedge-cell technique,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 9, 54–56 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. DeSmet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Poudereux, K. Orzechowski, O. Chojnowska, M. Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, and J. M. Otón, “Infiltration of a photonic crystal fiber with cholesteric liquid crystal and blue phase,” Proc. SPIE 9290, 92900 (2014).

Otón, J. M.

D. Poudereux, K. Orzechowski, O. Chojnowska, M. Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, and J. M. Otón, “Infiltration of a photonic crystal fiber with cholesteric liquid crystal and blue phase,” Proc. SPIE 9290, 92900 (2014).

Ozaki, M.

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanaka, H. Yoshida, Y. Kawata, R. Kuwahara, R. Nishi, and M. Ozaki, “Double-twist cylinders in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases observed by transmission electron microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 960–967 (2014).
[Crossref]

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G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pierański, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France 50, 2991–2998 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Pierański, P. Cladis, T. Garel, and R. Barbet-Massin, “Orientation of crystals of blue phases by electric fields,” J. Physique 47, 139–143 (1986).
[Crossref]

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D. Poudereux, K. Orzechowski, O. Chojnowska, M. Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, and J. M. Otón, “Infiltration of a photonic crystal fiber with cholesteric liquid crystal and blue phase,” Proc. SPIE 9290, 92900 (2014).

Rahimi, M.

J. Martínez-González, Y. Zhou, M. Rahimi, E. Bukusoglu, N. Abbott, and J. de Pablo, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112, 13195–13200 (2015).
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J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
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J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
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M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, F. A. Sala, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “The influence of orienting layers on blue phase liquid crystals in rectangular geometries,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 10, 100–102 (2018).
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K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. DeSmet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
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M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, F. A. Sala, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “The influence of orienting layers on blue phase liquid crystals in rectangular geometries,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 10, 100–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, M. Sierakowski, A. Siarkowska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Influence of cylindrical geometry and alignment layers on the growth process and selective reflection of blue phase domains,” Opt. Mater. 75, 211–215 (2018).
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D. Budaszewski, A. Siarkowska, M. Chychłowski, B. Jankiewicz, B. Bartosewicz, R. Dabrowski, and T. Woliński, “Nanoparticles-enhanced photonic liquid crystal fibers,” J Mol Liq. 267, 271–278 (2018).
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M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, M. Sierakowski, A. Siarkowska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Influence of cylindrical geometry and alignment layers on the growth process and selective reflection of blue phase domains,” Opt. Mater. 75, 211–215 (2018).
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K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Investigation of the Kerr effect in a blue phase liquid crystal using a wedge-cell technique,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 9, 54–56 (2017).
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K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. DeSmet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
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M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, F. A. Sala, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “The influence of orienting layers on blue phase liquid crystals in rectangular geometries,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 10, 100–102 (2018).
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K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Investigation of the Kerr effect in a blue phase liquid crystal using a wedge-cell technique,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 9, 54–56 (2017).
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D. Poudereux, K. Orzechowski, O. Chojnowska, M. Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, and J. M. Otón, “Infiltration of a photonic crystal fiber with cholesteric liquid crystal and blue phase,” Proc. SPIE 9290, 92900 (2014).

Tone, H.

Tsou, Y.-S.

Y.-H. Lin, H.-S. Chen, H.-C. Lin, Y.-S. Tsou, H.-K. Hsu, and W.-Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 113505 (2010).
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M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, M. Sierakowski, A. Siarkowska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Influence of cylindrical geometry and alignment layers on the growth process and selective reflection of blue phase domains,” Opt. Mater. 75, 211–215 (2018).
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M. M. Sala-Tefelska, K. Orzechowski, F. A. Sala, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “The influence of orienting layers on blue phase liquid crystals in rectangular geometries,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 10, 100–102 (2018).
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K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, O. Strzeżysz, and P. Kula, “Investigation of the Kerr effect in a blue phase liquid crystal using a wedge-cell technique,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 9, 54–56 (2017).
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K. Orzechowski, M. W. Sierakowski, M. Sala-Tefelska, P. Joshi, T. R. Woliński, and H. DeSmet, “Polarization properties of cubic blue phases of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. 69, 259–264 (2017).
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D. Poudereux, K. Orzechowski, O. Chojnowska, M. Tefelska, T. R. Woliński, and J. M. Otón, “Infiltration of a photonic crystal fiber with cholesteric liquid crystal and blue phase,” Proc. SPIE 9290, 92900 (2014).

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Wu, S.-T.

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J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
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J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
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J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
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J. Yan, H.-C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S.-T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 071105 (2010).
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Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
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H. Yoshida, K. Anucha, Y. Ogawa, Y. Kawata, M. Ozaki, J. ichi Fukuda, and H. Kikuchi, “Bragg reflection band width and optical rotatory dispersion of cubic blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 94, 042703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanaka, H. Yoshida, Y. Kawata, R. Kuwahara, R. Nishi, and M. Ozaki, “Double-twist cylinders in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases observed by transmission electron microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 1–9 (2015).
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H. Yoshida, S. Yabu, H. Tone, Y. Kawata, H. Kikuchi, and M. Ozaki, “Secondary electro-optic effect in liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 960–967 (2014).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Bukusoglu, X. Wang, J. Martínez-González, J. de Pablo, and N. Abbott, “Blue-phase liquid crystal droplets,” Adv. Mater. 27, 6892–6898 (2015).
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J. Disp. Technol. (1)

K.-M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond gray-level response time of a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 49–51 (2010).
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G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pierański, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. France 50, 2991–2998 (1989).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

C.-W. Chen, C.-T. Hou, C.-C. Li, H.-C. Jau, C.-T. Wang, C.-L. Hong, D.-Y. Guo, C.-Y. Wang, S.-P. Chiang, T. Bunning, I.-C. Khoo, and T.-H. Lin, “Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Commun. 8, 727 (2017).
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P. P.-M. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1, 111–113 (2002).
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Opt. Mater. (2)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of molecular ordering in: (a) double-twist cylinder, and cubic structures corresponding to a unit cell of (b) BP I and (c) BP II. Orange molecules mean connected helices in neighboring cylinders, and green rods correspond to an array of liquid-crystalline disclinations in a unit cell. It is worth to notice that the relation between chiral pitch p and lattice constant a (defined as the size of a cube) of presented cubic structures is as follows: p = a for BP I, and p = 2a for BP II.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Cross-section of the investigated PCF structure, and (b) scheme of the setup to study of the spectral properties of BPLC-filled PCF under the influence of an external electric field. Spectral properties of the BPLC-filled PCF were studied for two linear polarizations defined as follows: ‖ for y-axis and ⊥ for x-axis. The orientation of the coordinate frame is imposed by an external electric field E, where E ‖ y.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fiber-optic structure composed of a microcapillary with 60 μm inner diameter filled with the 1912 mixture with a length of 26 mm in different temperatures corresponding to the following phases: (a) isotropic, (b) BP II, (c) BP I, and (d) chiral nematic (N*). The images on the left and the right side present the output of a BPLC-core fiber-optic microstructure and the longitudinal section of the analyzed BPLC-filled microcapillary for appropriate BPLC-phases, respectively. Textures of BP II and BP I were obtained for a rapid cooling process from the isotropic phase. However, texture of N* was recorded after filling the microcapillary by capillary action at room temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polarizing microscope images of the BPLC in a microcapillary with different inner diameters: 15 μm [4(a) and 4(e)], 60 μm [4(b) and 4(f)], 80 μm [4(c) and 4(g)], and 128 μm [4(d) and 4(h)] obtained at 59 °C (for BP II). The images on the left and right sides correspond to the textures obtained in a cooling process from the isotropic phase with a speed of 0.1 °C/min without and with the crystal growth process near isotropic-BP II phase transition, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polarizing microscope images of BPLC in PCF obtained at different temperatures: (a) 60 °C (BP II), (b) 58 °C (BP I), and (c) 56 °C (N*).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The spectral characteristics of BPLC-filled PCF obtained at different temperatures for the following phases: isotropic (62 °C), BP II (60 °C), BP I (58 °C), and N* (56 °C). The results were measured for two orthogonal linearly polarized light waves (a) parallel to y-axis (‖; y-polarized light) and (b) perpendicular to y-axis (⊥; x-polarized light).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The effect of an electric field applied to PCF filled with BPLC at 60 °C (BP II). The images refer to: (a) the voltage-off state, (b) voltage-on state, and (c) voltage-off state after applied an electric field.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The influence of an electric field on spectral properties of PCF infiltrated with BPLC at 60 °C (BP II). The results were obtained for light polarization parallel to the external electric field (y-polarized light). Graph from (b) represents results from the graph (a) in the shaded area.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The influence of an electric field on spectral properties of PCF infiltrated with BPLC at 60 °C (BP II). The results were obtained for light polarization perpendicular to the external electric field (x-polarized light). Graph from (b) represents results from the graph (a) in the shaded area.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Effective refractive index of the modes in the BP-filled PCF as a function of the wavelength, and (b) profile of higher order modes allowing light propagating in considered photonic structure. The results were obtained for x-polarized light, and in the voltage-off state, assuming isotropic material inside the PCF. The points (and colorful area) on graph (a) refer to the modes for which light beam propagation is allowed, and the color indicates on guided mode for specific wavelengths. The points with red envelope correspond to guided modes with low power.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Effective refractive index of the modes in the BP-filled PCF as a function of the wavelength, and (b) profile of fundamental (1 and 2) and higher order (3–5) modes allowing light propagating in considered photonic structure. The results were obtained for x-polarized light, and the electric field of 4.8 V/μm. The points (and colorful area) on graph (a) refer to the modes for which light beam propagation is allowed, and the color indicates on guided mode for specific wavelengths. The points with red envelope correspond to guided modes with low power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The Refractive Index of 1912 LC Mixture in a Function of an Electric Field Measured in BP II

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