Abstract

An electromagnetic interference (EMI)-free wide-range indoor dust monitoring system that employs the optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based visible-light communication (VLC) is proposed. For the long-term transmission of dust information, VLC can be utilized even in EMI-restricted areas, such as medical centers, emergency rooms, and nursing homes. Discrete cosine transform-based optical OFDM is adopted to transmit a large amount of dust information. For robust light detection from eliminate ambient light and low-frequency noise, an average voltage-tracking technique is utilized and as a result LED illumination is detected over 18 m distance with reliable error rate. Wide-range dust information from multiple dust sensors are clearly displayed through the designed user interface. Users can then monitor the air quality in real-time, improving the environmental awareness of individuals.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2019 (1)

N. Q. Pham, V. P. Rachim, and W. Y. Chung, “EMI-free bidirectional real-time indoor environment monitoring system,” IEEE Access 7, 5714–5722 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical transmission for EMI-free indoor fine particulate matter monitoring,” IEEE Access 6, 74885–74894 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Single-LED multichannel optical transmission with SCMA for indoor healthcare,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(23), 107–113 (2017).

J. An, Q. N. Pham, and W. Y. Chung, “Single cell three-channel wavelength division multiplexing in visible light communication,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25477–25485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. N. Pham, V. P. Rachim, J. Y. An, and W. Y. Chung, “Ambient light rejection using a novel average voltage tracking in visible light communication system,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 670 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. F. Xing, Y. H. Xu, M. H. Shi, and Y. X. Lian, “The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system,” J. Thorac. Dis. 8(1), E69–E74 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

M. Alvarado, F. Gonzalez, A. Fletcher, and A. Doshi, “Towards the development of a low cost airborne sensing system to monitor dust particles after blasting at open-pit mine sites,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19667–19687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Y. Qiao, Z. Cai, and Y. Ji, “Asymmetrically clipped optical fast OFDM based on discrete cosine transform for IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(9), 1920–1927 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

H. S. Kim, D. R. Kim, S. H. Yang, Y. H. Son, and S. K. Han, “An indoor visible light communication positioning system using a RF carrier allocation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 134–144 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Devasmitha and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(7), 1063–1072 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ritter and R. M. Carpena, “Performance evaluation of hydrological models: Statistical significance for reducing subjectivity in goodness-of-fit assessments,” J. Hydrol. (Amst.) 480, 33–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarado, M.

M. Alvarado, F. Gonzalez, A. Fletcher, and A. Doshi, “Towards the development of a low cost airborne sensing system to monitor dust particles after blasting at open-pit mine sites,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19667–19687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, J.

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical transmission for EMI-free indoor fine particulate matter monitoring,” IEEE Access 6, 74885–74894 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Single-LED multichannel optical transmission with SCMA for indoor healthcare,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(23), 107–113 (2017).

J. An, Q. N. Pham, and W. Y. Chung, “Single cell three-channel wavelength division multiplexing in visible light communication,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25477–25485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, J. Y.

Q. N. Pham, V. P. Rachim, J. Y. An, and W. Y. Chung, “Ambient light rejection using a novel average voltage tracking in visible light communication system,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andoh, M.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anselmi, S.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Arai, S.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

S. Devasmitha and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(7), 1063–1072 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baltensperger, U.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhatnagar, A.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brook, J. R.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brook, R. D.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, R. T.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cagnoil, M.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Cai, Z.

Calle, E. E.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpena, R. M.

A. Ritter and R. M. Carpena, “Performance evaluation of hydrological models: Statistical significance for reducing subjectivity in goodness-of-fit assessments,” J. Hydrol. (Amst.) 480, 33–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carslaw, K.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. Y.

N. Q. Pham, V. P. Rachim, and W. Y. Chung, “EMI-free bidirectional real-time indoor environment monitoring system,” IEEE Access 7, 5714–5722 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical transmission for EMI-free indoor fine particulate matter monitoring,” IEEE Access 6, 74885–74894 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. An, Q. N. Pham, and W. Y. Chung, “Single cell three-channel wavelength division multiplexing in visible light communication,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25477–25485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Single-LED multichannel optical transmission with SCMA for indoor healthcare,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(23), 107–113 (2017).

Q. N. Pham, V. P. Rachim, J. Y. An, and W. Y. Chung, “Ambient light rejection using a novel average voltage tracking in visible light communication system,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, G.

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Decesari, S.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Denier van der Gon, H.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devasmitha, S.

Diez-Roux, A. V.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, W.

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Donato, E.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Doshi, A.

M. Alvarado, F. Gonzalez, A. Fletcher, and A. Doshi, “Towards the development of a low cost airborne sensing system to monitor dust particles after blasting at open-pit mine sites,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19667–19687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elshout, S.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Evans, J. S.

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Facchini, M. C.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, A.

M. Alvarado, F. Gonzalez, A. Fletcher, and A. Doshi, “Towards the development of a low cost airborne sensing system to monitor dust particles after blasting at open-pit mine sites,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19667–19687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fnais, M.

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowler, D.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuzzi, S.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giannadaki, D.

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilardoni, S.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gombert, D.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Gonzalez, F.

M. Alvarado, F. Gonzalez, A. Fletcher, and A. Doshi, “Towards the development of a low cost airborne sensing system to monitor dust particles after blasting at open-pit mine sites,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19667–19687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, S. K.

Han, Y.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harada, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heich, H.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Ho, Y. H.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holguin, F.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, H. H.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. T.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. T.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ito, K.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, Y.

Jovicic, A.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kagawa, K.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, J. D.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawahito, S.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. R.

Kim, H. S.

Koren, I.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krewski, D.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lad, C.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Langford, B.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. C.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Leger, K.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Lelieveld, J.

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lian, Y. X.

Y. F. Xing, Y. H. Xu, M. H. Shi, and Y. X. Lian, “The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system,” J. Thorac. Dis. 8(1), E69–E74 (2016).
[PubMed]

Liu, H. M.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lohmann, U.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luepker, R. V.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lung, S. C. C.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luts, M.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Mahajan, S.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, M. A.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemitz, E.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nussio, F.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Okada, H.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pandis, S.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peters, A.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, N. Q.

N. Q. Pham, V. P. Rachim, and W. Y. Chung, “EMI-free bidirectional real-time indoor environment monitoring system,” IEEE Access 7, 5714–5722 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pham, Q. N.

J. An, Q. N. Pham, and W. Y. Chung, “Single cell three-channel wavelength division multiplexing in visible light communication,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25477–25485 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. N. Pham, V. P. Rachim, J. Y. An, and W. Y. Chung, “Ambient light rejection using a novel average voltage tracking in visible light communication system,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pope, C. A.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pozzer, A.

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, Y.

Rachim, V. P.

N. Q. Pham, V. P. Rachim, and W. Y. Chung, “EMI-free bidirectional real-time indoor environment monitoring system,” IEEE Access 7, 5714–5722 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. N. Pham, V. P. Rachim, J. Y. An, and W. Y. Chung, “Ambient light rejection using a novel average voltage tracking in visible light communication system,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rajagopalan, S.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richardson, T.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riipinen, I.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ritter, A.

A. Ritter and R. M. Carpena, “Performance evaluation of hydrological models: Statistical significance for reducing subjectivity in goodness-of-fit assessments,” J. Hydrol. (Amst.) 480, 33–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudich, Y.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schaap, M.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. J. C.

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, M. H.

Y. F. Xing, Y. H. Xu, M. H. Shi, and Y. X. Lian, “The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system,” J. Thorac. Dis. 8(1), E69–E74 (2016).
[PubMed]

Siscovick, D.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slowik, J. G.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. C.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snijder, A.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

Son, Y. H.

Song, J.

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spracklen, D. V.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takai, I.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, S.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thun, M. J.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurston, G. D.

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vignati, E.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Whitsel, L.

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wild, M.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Williams, M.

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. C.

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xing, B.

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, Y. F.

Y. F. Xing, Y. H. Xu, M. H. Shi, and Y. X. Lian, “The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system,” J. Thorac. Dis. 8(1), E69–E74 (2016).
[PubMed]

Xu, Y. H.

Y. F. Xing, Y. H. Xu, M. H. Shi, and Y. X. Lian, “The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system,” J. Thorac. Dis. 8(1), E69–E74 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yamazato, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. H.

Yasutomi, K.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yendo, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

Q. N. Pham, V. P. Rachim, J. Y. An, and W. Y. Chung, “Ambient light rejection using a novel average voltage tracking in visible light communication system,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 670 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni, “Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(14), 8217–8299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Circulation (1)

R. D. Brook, S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, M. A. Mittleman, A. Peters, D. Siscovick, S. C. Smith, L. Whitsel, J. D. Kaufman, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 121(21), 2331–2378 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Ind. (1)

W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Song, “A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications,” Comput. Ind. 68, 170–178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Environ. Pollut. (1)

Y. Han, M. Qi, Y. Chen, H. Shen, J. Liu, Y. Huang, H. Chen, W. Liu, X. Wang, J. Liu, B. Xing, and S. Tao, “Influences of ambient air PM2.5 and meteorological condition on the indoor PM2.5 concentrations,” Environ. Pollut. 205, 307–314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Access (3)

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. C. Lee, H. C. Wu, H. M. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, Y. T. Huang, and S. C. C. Lung, “An open framework for participatory PM2.5 monitoring in smart cities,” IEEE Access 5, 14441–14454 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. An and W. Y. Chung, “Wavelength-division multiplexing optical transmission for EMI-free indoor fine particulate matter monitoring,” IEEE Access 6, 74885–74894 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Q. Pham, V. P. Rachim, and W. Y. Chung, “EMI-free bidirectional real-time indoor environment monitoring system,” IEEE Access 7, 5714–5722 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong and B. J. C. Schmidt, “Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(5), 343–345 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, “Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 26–32 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Internet Things J. (1)

L. J. Chen, Y. H. Ho, H. H. Hsieh, S. T. Huang, H. C. Lee, and S. Mahajan, “ADF: An anomaly detection framework for large-scale PM2.5 sensing systems,” IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 559–570 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s Single-LED OFDM-based wireless link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

J. Song, W. Ding, F. Yang, H. Yang, B. Yu, and H. Zhang, “An indoor broadband broadcasting system based on PLC and VLC,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 61(2), 299–308 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hydrol. (Amst.) (1)

A. Ritter and R. M. Carpena, “Performance evaluation of hydrological models: Statistical significance for reducing subjectivity in goodness-of-fit assessments,” J. Hydrol. (Amst.) 480, 33–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Thorac. Dis. (1)

Y. F. Xing, Y. H. Xu, M. H. Shi, and Y. X. Lian, “The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system,” J. Thorac. Dis. 8(1), E69–E74 (2016).
[PubMed]

JAMA (1)

C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, and G. D. Thurston, “Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution,” JAMA 287(9), 1132–1141 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Pervasive Mobile Comput. (1)

Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mobile Comput. 25, 88–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

M. Alvarado, F. Gonzalez, A. Fletcher, and A. Doshi, “Towards the development of a low cost airborne sensing system to monitor dust particles after blasting at open-pit mine sites,” Sensors (Basel) 15(8), 19667–19687 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

Columbia Tribune, We spend too much of our lives indoors. [Online] Available: http://www.coumbiatribune.com/arts_life/community/we-spend-too-much-of-out-lives-indoors/article_8aee8294%E2%80%9308fa-11e3%E2%80%939c55%E2%80%9310604b9f6eda.html .

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D. Astharini, K. Azrina, D. Gunawan, D. I. Savitri, and O. N. Samijayani, “Design of visible light communication with DCT and M-ary PAM in Xilinx system generator,” in International Conference on Engineering Technologies and Applied Sciences (ICETAS),20185th International Conference On (IEEE 2018), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

D. Mintz, “Technical assistance document for the reporting of daily air quality – the air quality index (AQI),” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dec. 2016.

S. Elshout, K. Leger, F. Nussio, M. Cagnoil, D. Gombert, S. Anselmi, E. Donato, H. Heich, C. Lad, M. Luts, and A. Snijder, “Air quality index - comparing urban air quality across borders,” Eur. Union (2012).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 DCT-DCO-OFDM symbols with 16-PAM and 64-order DCT. (a) IDCT output. (b) DC-bias output.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fixed-point DCT symbol (8-bit digit).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 BER simulation with fixed-point implementation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PM2.5 measurement based on the moving-average method.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Correlation between the measured data of PMS5003 and GCMs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Wide-range PM monitoring with DCT-OFDM-based VLC.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Block diagram of DCT-OFDM VLC for wide-range PM monitoring.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Interface between the microcontroller and sensors.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 FreeRTOS-based task loops (slave microcontroller). (a) FreeRTOS-based slave MCU tasks. (b) Loop for task1–task4. (c) Loop for task5. (d) Loop for task6.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Transmitter with the sensor module
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Receiver module.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Experimental setup.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Received light intensity.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 BER for optical transmission.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Designed user interface for wide-range PM monitoring (PC version, monitoring of data from 8 dust sensors at a transmission distance of 18 m).
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Indoor PM2.5 history measured by (a) S3, S4, and S8; (b) S2 and S8; and (c) S5, S7, and S8.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Analysis of correlation (a) between S3 and S8, (b) between S8 and S4, (c) between S2 and S8, (d) between S5 and S7, and (e) between S7 and S8.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Abbreviations and acronyms

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Table 2 Comparison of conventional OFDM and DCT-based OFDM

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Table 3 Computational complexity of N-DCT and N-FFT

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Table 4 Experimental parameters

Equations (10)

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s n = 2 N k=0 N1 α k S k cos( π(2n+1)k 2N ),0nN1 ,
S k = 2 N α k n=0 N1 s n cos( π(2n+1)k 2N ),0kN1 ,
x n ={ s n +β, s n >β 0, s n β ,
β=a E { s n } 2 .
S k = 2 N α k n=0 N/21 ( s n + (1) k s N1n )cos( π(2n+1)k 2N ) .
Y k = 2 N α k n=0 N1 s ^ n cos( π(2n+1)k 2N ) = 2 N α k n=0 N/21 ( s ^ n + (1) k s ^ N1n ) cos( π(2n+1)k 2N ).
D=2Bηbits/s,
B= B W e N f s Hz,
η= k=0 B W e 1 sgn(M) log 2 M N+ N cp bits/s/Hz,
η 1 = k=0 B W e 1 log 2 M N bits/s/Hz.

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