Abstract

We numerically investigate the group delay spread (GDS) characteristics in few-mode coupled multicore fibers (FM-CMCFs) in weak random-bending conditions by using a coupled-wave theory. We qualitatively show the modal coupling between modes in the intra- and the inter-mode group generated by bending. The results indicate that the modes of FM-CMCFs are less likely to couple with each other in weak random-bending conditions in contradiction to single-mode coupled multicore fibers. To resolve this problem, we demonstrate an optimum index profile and core pitch, where the GDS can be reduced even if the different mode groups do not couple strongly.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  13. M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 450–457 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh, T. Fujisawa, and T. Sato, “Coiling size dependence of group delay spread in coupled multicore fibers without intentional twisting,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(20), 4559–4566 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: a comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun. 393, 232–237 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: an effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9583–9591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Arik, K. P. Ho, and J. M. Kahn, “Group delay management and multiinput multioutput signal processing in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(11), 2867–2880 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 31–42 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(21), 3119–3128 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, N. Bai, I. Ozdur, X. Zhou, and G. Li, “Supermodes for optical transmission,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16653–16664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme : application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abe, Y.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adamiecki, A.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aikawa, K.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amma, Y.

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Antonelli, C.

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Intensity impulse response of SDM links,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5738–5743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Delay spread in strongly coupled multi-core fibers for SDM transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Th4C.2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aozasa, S.

Arik, S. O.

S. O. Arik, K. P. Ho, and J. M. Kahn, “Group delay management and multiinput multioutput signal processing in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(11), 2867–2880 (2016).
[Crossref]

Awaji, Y.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 31–42 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

Ben Yoo, S. J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chida, Y.

Y. Chida, T. Fujisawa, and K. Saitoh, “Impulse response analysis of air-hole added coupled six-core fibers,” in Proc. OECC., MC2 (2016).

Desgroseilliers, M.

Ercan, B.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.

R. Ryf and R. Essiambre, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Essiambre, R. J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fan, S.

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujisawa, T.

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: a comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun. 393, 232–237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh, T. Fujisawa, and T. Sato, “Coiling size dependence of group delay spread in coupled multicore fibers without intentional twisting,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(20), 4559–4566 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: an effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9583–9591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yoshida, T. Fujisawa, T. Sato, and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of few-mode, coupled 3-core fibres : optimum index profile and maximum transmission distance for strong coupling regime,” in Proc. ECOC, P1.SC1.8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chida, T. Fujisawa, and K. Saitoh, “Impulse response analysis of air-hole added coupled six-core fibers,” in Proc. OECC., MC2 (2016).

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 450–457 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 450–457 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. P.

S. O. Arik, K. P. Ho, and J. M. Kahn, “Group delay management and multiinput multioutput signal processing in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(11), 2867–2880 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(21), 3119–3128 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

S. O. Arik, K. P. Ho, and J. M. Kahn, “Group delay management and multiinput multioutput signal processing in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(11), 2867–2880 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(21), 3119–3128 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Fan and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in multimode waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30(2), 135–137 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme : application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuwaki, N.

Li, G.

Mao, W.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, R.

Matsui, T.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Sato, R. Maruyama, N. Kuwaki, S. Matsuo, and M. Ohashi, “Optimized graded index two-mode optical fiber with low DMD, large A(eff) and low bending loss,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16231–16238 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Intensity impulse response of SDM links,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5738–5743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Delay spread in strongly coupled multi-core fibers for SDM transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Th4C.2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mizuno, T.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mori, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 31–42 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mumtaz, S.

Nagashima, T.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, K.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, M.

Ozdur, I.

Panicker, R. A.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Raybon, G.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Y. Xiao, R.-J. Essiambre, M. Desgroseilliers, A. M. Tulino, R. Ryf, S. Mumtaz, and G. P. Agrawal, “Theory of intermodal four-wave mixing with random linear mode coupling in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32039–32059 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 31–42 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf and R. Essiambre, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, PDP5C.2 (2012).

Saitoh, K.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of coupled-multicore fibers: a comparison between weak and tight bending conditions,” Opt. Commun. 393, 232–237 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Saitoh, T. Fujisawa, and T. Sato, “Coiling size dependence of group delay spread in coupled multicore fibers without intentional twisting,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(20), 4559–4566 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of strongly coupled 3-core fibers: an effect of bending and twisting,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9583–9591 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme : application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshida, T. Fujisawa, T. Sato, and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of few-mode, coupled 3-core fibres : optimum index profile and maximum transmission distance for strong coupling regime,” in Proc. ECOC, P1.SC1.8 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chida, T. Fujisawa, and K. Saitoh, “Impulse response analysis of air-hole added coupled six-core fibers,” in Proc. OECC., MC2 (2016).

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, S.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sato, K.

Sato, T.

K. Saitoh, T. Fujisawa, and T. Sato, “Coiling size dependence of group delay spread in coupled multicore fibers without intentional twisting,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(20), 4559–4566 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshida, T. Fujisawa, T. Sato, and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of few-mode, coupled 3-core fibres : optimum index profile and maximum transmission distance for strong coupling regime,” in Proc. ECOC, P1.SC1.8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Scott, R. P.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shemirani, M. B.

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shibahara, K.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shtaif, M.

A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Intensity impulse response of SDM links,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5738–5743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Delay spread in strongly coupled multi-core fibers for SDM transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Th4C.2 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takenaga, K.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tobita, T. Fujisawa, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Saitoh, K. Takenaga, K. Aikawa, S. Aozasa, K. Nakajima, and K. Saitoh, “Optimal design of 4LP-mode multicore fibers for high spatial multiplicity,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5697–5709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tamura, Y.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 450–457 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taru, T.

T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 450–457 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tobita, Y.

Tulino, A. M.

Urushibara, A.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wada, M.

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P.

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 31–42 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

Xiao, Y.

Yamamoto, F.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, K.

K. Yoshida, T. Fujisawa, T. Sato, and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of few-mode, coupled 3-core fibres : optimum index profile and maximum transmission distance for strong coupling regime,” in Proc. ECOC, P1.SC1.8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

T. Morioka, Y. Awaji, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 31–42 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme : application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T. Fujisawa, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, S. Matsuo, K. Aikawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Crosstalk analysis of heterogeneous multicore fibers using coupled-mode theory,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lit. Technol. (8)

M. B. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. A. Panicker, and J. M. Kahn, “Principal modes in graded-index multimode fiber in presence of spatial- and polarization-mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 27(10), 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Six-mode seven-core fiber for repeated dense space-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(5), 1226–1232 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. O. Arik, K. P. Ho, and J. M. Kahn, “Group delay management and multiinput multioutput signal processing in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(11), 2867–2880 (2016).
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K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Statistics of group delays in multimode fiber with strong mode coupling,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(21), 3119–3128 (2011).
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T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Fiber twisting- and bending-induced adiabatic/nonadiabatic super-mode transition in coupled multicore fiber,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(4), 1228–1237 (2016).
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T. Hayashi, Y. Tamura, T. Hasegawa, and T. Taru, “Record-low spatial mode dispersion and ultra-low loss coupled multi-core fiber for ultra-long-haul transmission,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(3), 450–457 (2017).
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K. Saitoh, T. Fujisawa, and T. Sato, “Coiling size dependence of group delay spread in coupled multicore fibers without intentional twisting,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(20), 4559–4566 (2017).
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T. Sakamoto, T. Mori, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, F. Yamamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Coupled few-mode multicore fiber with low differential mode delay characteristics,” J. Lit. Technol. 35(6), 1222–1227 (2017).
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Other (9)

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Few-mode multi-core fiber technologies for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. SUM, 145−146 (2018).
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B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, J. Cang, R. Ryf, and R. Essiambre, “Minimizing the modal delay spread in coupled-core two- core fiber,” in Proc. CLEO, STu1F.3 (2016).
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C. Antonelli, A. Mecozzi, and M. Shtaif, “Delay spread in strongly coupled multi-core fibers for SDM transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Th4C.2 (2015).
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T. Fujisawa and K. Saitoh, “A principal mode analysis of strongly-coupled 3-core fibres,” in Pcoc. ECOC, We.1.4.6 (2015).

Y. Chida, T. Fujisawa, and K. Saitoh, “Impulse response analysis of air-hole added coupled six-core fibers,” in Proc. OECC., MC2 (2016).

T. Sakamoto, K. Saitoh, S. Saitoh, K. Shibahara, M. Wada, Y. Abe, A. Urushibara, K. Takenaga, T. Mizuno, T. Matsui, K. Aikawa, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Nakajima, “High spatial density six-mode seven-core fibre for repeated dense SDM transmission,” in Proc. ECOC, PDP.A.6 (2017).
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K. Yoshida, T. Fujisawa, T. Sato, and K. Saitoh, “Group delay spread analysis of few-mode, coupled 3-core fibres : optimum index profile and maximum transmission distance for strong coupling regime,” in Proc. ECOC, P1.SC1.8 (2017).
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R. Ryf and R. Essiambre, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200-km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, PDP5C.2 (2012).

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, B. Guan, R. J. Essiambre, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Adamiecki, G. Raybon, B. Ercan, R. P. Scott, S. J. Ben Yoo, T. Hayashi, T. Nagashima, and T. Sasaki, “1705-km transmission over coupled-core fibre supporting 6 spatial modes,” in Proc. ECOC, PD.3.2 (2014).
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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross sections of (a) coupled three-core fiber and (b) coupled four-core fiber, (c) GI profile of each core, and (d) supermode field distributions of nine modes of 2LP-mode C3CF
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the fiber with the random-bending.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Core pitch dependence of calculated extinction ratio of each mode group as a function of the transmission distance with Λ = (a) 25, (b) 30, (c) 35, and (d) 40 μm, when a LP01-based mode (1st supermode) is input.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Core pitch dependence of calculated extinction ratio of each mode group as a function of the transmission distance with Λ = (a) 25, (b) 30, (c) 35, and (d) 40 μm, when a LP11-based mode (4th supermode) is input.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 GDS after 10000-km transmission of the 2LP-mode C3CF with SI profile as a function of the core pitch.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 DMGD between each mode and 1st mode of the 2LP-mode C3CF as a function of the α-parameter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 GDS of the 2LP-mode C3CF as a function of the transmission distance.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 GDS slope calculated from Fig. 7 as a function of the transmission distance.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 IRs of the 2LP-mode C3CF with α = 2.4.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 GDS of the 2LP-mode C3CF as a function of the transmission distance.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 IRs of the 2LP-mode C3CF with α = 2.38.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 GDS slope of the 2LP-mode C3CF as a function of the transmission distance.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 α-parameter dependence of GDS after 10000-km transmission in the 2LP-mode C3CF as a function of the wavelength.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 IR waveform after 100 and 1000-km transmission
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 DMGD between each mode and 1st mode of the 2LP-mode C4CF as a function of the α-parameter.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 (a) GDS and (b) GDS slope as a function of the transmission distance.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 α-parameter dependence of GDS after 10000-km transmission as a function of the core pitch.

Equations (8)

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d A m dz =j β m A m j mn N κ mn A n
κ mn =ω ε 0 ( n bend 2 ( x,y, R x , R y ) n st 2 ( x,y ) ) E m E n dxdy
n bend 2 ( x,y, R x , R y )= n st 2 ( x,y )( 1+ 2x R x + 2y R y )
A(L)=T(ω)A(0)= i=0 M1 T Mi (ω)A(0)
F(ω)jT (ω) 1 dT(ω) dω
GDS= 1 N i=1 N τ i 2
P m (z)={ im,iG | t mi (z) | 2 ( G: intra-mode group ) iG | t mi (z) | 2 ( G: inter-mode group )
d a m dz =j β 0m a m β 1m a m τ +j β 2m 2 2 a m τ 2 j mn κ mn a n α m 2 j npq γ mnpq a n * a p a q e jΔ β mnpq z

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