Abstract

The time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TI-ADC) is a good option to realize high-speed data conversion for both single-carrier and multi-carrier optical communication systems. Offset mismatch is one of its drawbacks, which causes distortion in the sampled data and degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of communication systems. In this article, a low-complexity online digital offset mismatch compensation (OMC) scheme based on time-domain averaging is proposed and implemented with a commercial off-the-shelf field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip for high-speed optical OFDM communications. The proposed OMC scheme is experimentally demonstrated in real-time direct-detection optical OFDM receiver with a 5 GS/s TI-ADC. The experimental results show that the BER performance can be improved by more than an order of magnitude, by using the proposed OMC scheme, for both 16- and 64-QAM modulation formats. The receiver sensitivity can be improved by more than 5-dB in terms of the received optical power at the BER of 1e-3. What’s more, the real-time measured BER performance is similar to that of by using offline DSP approaches and has good stability during the measurement period. Numerical simulations are performed under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel to fully verify the performance of the OMC scheme. It exhibits that the error floor in BER performance can be eliminated by using the OMC scheme and a negligible signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty can be achieved compared with that of offset mismatch-free case.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  2. F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Effect of offset mismatch in time-interleaved ADC circuits on OFDM-BER performance,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 64(8), 2195–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time high-level QAM-encoded direct-detection optical OFDM systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 33(22), 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Laperle and M. O’Sullivan, “Advances in high-speed DACs, ADCs, and DSP for optical coherent transceivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 629–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Oh and B. Murmann, “System embedded ADC calibration for OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 53(8), 1693–1703 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I. Fundam. Theory Appl. 48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Almenar, V.

Benlachtar, Y.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Bouziane, R.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Bruno, J. S.

Buchali, F.

Cao, Z.

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time high-level QAM-encoded direct-detection optical OFDM systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 33(22), 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time high-level QAM-encoded direct-detection optical OFDM systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 33(22), 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Corral, J. L.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2011, paper PDPD7.

Dong, Z.

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time high-level QAM-encoded direct-detection optical OFDM systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 33(22), 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dyer, K.

K. Dyer, D. Fu, S. H. Lewis, and P. J. Hurst, “A comparison of monolithic background calibration in two time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. 1, 13–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eklund, J. E.

J. E. Eklund and F. Gustafsson, “Digital offset compensation of time-interleaved ADC using random chopper sampling,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. 3, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fan, Q.

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time high-level QAM-encoded direct-detection optical OFDM systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 33(22), 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, D.

K. Dyer, D. Fu, S. H. Lewis, and P. J. Hurst, “A comparison of monolithic background calibration in two time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. 1, 13–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Glick, M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Gustafsson, F.

J. E. Eklund and F. Gustafsson, “Digital offset compensation of time-interleaved ADC using random chopper sampling,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. 3, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref]

He, G.

Y. Zheng, Z. Yan, J. Ma, and G. He, “DC offset mismatch calibration for time-interleaved ADCs in high-speed OFDM receivers,” Proc. Nat. Conf. Comput. Eng. Technol., 221–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, J.

M. Chen, J. He, Q. Fan, Z. Dong, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of real-time high-level QAM-encoded direct-detection optical OFDM systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 33(22), 4632–4639 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoe, J. C.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Huang, M.-F.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2011, paper PDPD7.

Huang, Y.-K.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2011, paper PDPD7.

Huang, Z. R.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hurst, P. J.

K. Dyer, D. Fu, S. H. Lewis, and P. J. Hurst, “A comparison of monolithic background calibration in two time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. 1, 13–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huynh, V.-T.-D.

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Effect of offset mismatch in time-interleaved ADC circuits on OFDM-BER performance,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 64(8), 2195–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Offset mismatch calibration for TI-ADCs in high-speed OFDM systems,” Proc. IEEE SCVT, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2011, paper PDPD7.

Killey, R. I.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Kobayashi, H.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I. Fundam. Theory Appl. 48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Kobayashi, K.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I. Fundam. Theory Appl. 48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Koutsoyannis, R.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Kurosawa, N.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I. Fundam. Theory Appl. 48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Laperle, C.

Lewis, S. H.

K. Dyer, D. Fu, S. H. Lewis, and P. J. Hurst, “A comparison of monolithic background calibration in two time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. 1, 13–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Li, X.

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Ma, J.

Y. Zheng, Z. Yan, J. Ma, and G. He, “DC offset mismatch calibration for time-interleaved ADCs in high-speed OFDM receivers,” Proc. Nat. Conf. Comput. Eng. Technol., 221–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, K.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I. Fundam. Theory Appl. 48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Milder, P.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Murmann, B.

Y. Oh and B. Murmann, “System embedded ADC calibration for OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 53(8), 1693–1703 (2006).
[Crossref]

Noels, N.

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Effect of offset mismatch in time-interleaved ADC circuits on OFDM-BER performance,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 64(8), 2195–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Offset mismatch calibration for TI-ADCs in high-speed OFDM systems,” Proc. IEEE SCVT, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan, M.

Oh, Y.

Y. Oh and B. Murmann, “System embedded ADC calibration for OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 53(8), 1693–1703 (2006).
[Crossref]

Puschel, M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Qian, D.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2011, paper PDPD7.

Shi, S.

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Steendam, H.

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Effect of offset mismatch in time-interleaved ADC circuits on OFDM-BER performance,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 64(8), 2195–2206 (2017).
[Crossref]

V.-T.-D. Huynh, N. Noels, and H. Steendam, “Offset mismatch calibration for TI-ADCs in high-speed OFDM systems,” Proc. IEEE SCVT, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, H.

N. Kurosawa, H. Kobayashi, K. Maruyama, H. Sugawara, and K. Kobayashi, “Explicit analysis of channel mismatch effects in time-interleaved ADC systems,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I. Fundam. Theory Appl. 48(3), 261–271 (2001).

Tang, J.

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valls, J.

Wang, T.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2011, paper PDPD7.

Watts, P. M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Puschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” Proc. ECOC2009, paper 2.4.

Wu, X.

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Yan, J. Ma, and G. He, “DC offset mismatch calibration for time-interleaved ADCs in high-speed OFDM receivers,” Proc. Nat. Conf. Comput. Eng. Technol., 221–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

M. Chen, X. Xiao, Z. R. Huang, J. Yu, F. Li, Q. Chen, and L. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of an IFFT/FFT size efficient DFT-spread OFDM for short reach optical transmission systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 34(9), 2100–2105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Li, Z. Cao, M. Chen, X. Li, J. Yu, S. Shi, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Demonstration of four channel CWDM 560 Gbit/s 128QAM-OFDM for optical inter-connection,” Proc. OFC2016, paper W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, Z. Yan, J. Ma, and G. He, “DC offset mismatch calibration for time-interleaved ADCs in high-speed OFDM receivers,” Proc. Nat. Conf. Comput. Eng. Technol., 221–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Chen, J. He, J. Tang, X. Wu, and L. Chen, “Real-time 10.4-Gb/s single-band optical 256/64/16QAM receiver for OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2012–2015 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I (2)

Y. Oh and B. Murmann, “System embedded ADC calibration for OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.-I 53(8), 1693–1703 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of a hardware implementation of the proposed OMC scheme.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup. Inset is the RTL schematic of the proposed real-time OFDM receiver with OMC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Offline (a) estimated offset and (b) measured BER performance versus batch size
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Power spectra and estimated SNR versus SC index: (a), (c) w/o OMC and (b), (d) w/ OMC.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Constellation diagrams for 64/16-QAM on the 64-th SC: (a), (e) w/o OMC and w/o ISFA, (b), (f) w/o OMC and w/ ISFA, (c), (g) w/ OMC and w/o ISFA, and (d), (h) w/ OMC and w/ ISFA
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Recorded error counts from ChipScope Pro over 65,536 OFDM frames.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Real-time (RT) and offline (OL) measured BER performance versus ROP: (a) 16-QAM and (b) 64-QAM.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Real-time BER measurement over 60 minutes.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Estimated SNR versus subcarrier index under AWGN channel.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Simulated BER performance under AWGN channel.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 FPGA Chip Resource Usage

Equations (2)

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r( n )=s( n )h( n )+ o nmodM +w( n )= s ( n )+ o nmodM +w( n )
o ^ m = 1 N b d=0 N b 1 r( dM+m ) = o m + 1 N b d=0 N b 1 ( s ( dM+m )+w( dM+m ) )

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