Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) bismuthene can find its wide potential applications due to its appealing optical and electronic properties. Especially, bismuthene exhibits layer-count dependent direct bandgaps and strong light-matter interaction, enabling its applications in all-optical signal processing area that can overcome the bottle-neck in existing electrical signal processing. However, light-bismuthene interaction based on main stream optical fiber systems and its application in all-optical signal processing is relatively less investigated. In this work, few-layer bismuthene, synthesized with facile solution processing method, is coated onto a piece of microfiber. The experimental results show that this device can operate as an optical Kerr switcher and a four-wave-mixing-based wavelength converter under different configuration. The results including wavelength applicability, information bandwidth, eye diagrams in combination with bit-error rate (BER) performance and stability measurements confirm its feasibility in optical fiber systems. To the best of our knowledge, it is first prototypic device reported in this work for bismuthene in all-optical signal processing optical fiber systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

L. Lu, Z. M. Liang, L. M. Wu, Y. X. Chen, Y. F. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Q. Dong, Y. J. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer Bismuthene: Sonochemical Exfoliation, Nonlinear Optics and Applications for Ultrafast Photonics with Enhanced Stability,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700221 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, S. Guo, Z. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Gao, J. Gómez-Herrero, P. Ares, F. Zamora, Z. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Recent progress in 2D group-VA semiconductors: from theory to experiment,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47(3), 982–1021 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

M. Pumera and Z. Sofer, “2D Monoelemental Arsenene, Antimonene, and Bismuthene: Beyond Black Phosphorus,” Adv. Mater. 29(21), 1605299 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, F. Pan, M. Ye, X. Sun, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, Y. Pan, Z. Song, J. Yang, and J. Lu, “Monolayer Bismuthene-Metal Contacts: A Theoretical Study,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 23128–23140 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. F. Xia, S. Y. Xiong, Y. Y. He, Z. B. Shao, X. J. Zhang, and J. S. Jie, “Tuning the Electronic and Optical Properties of Monolayers As, Sb, and Bi via Surface Charge Transfer Doping,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(35), 19530–19537 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Kadioglu, S. B. Kilic, S. Demirci, O. U. Akturk, E. Akturk, and S. Ciraci, “Modification of electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of bismuthene by point defects,” Phys. Rev. B 96(24), 245424 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, W. H. Wang, L. M. Wu, X. T. Jiang, Y. J. Xiang, J. Q. Li, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “All-Optical Switching of Two Continuous Waves in Few Layer Bismuthene Based on Spatial Cross-Phase Modulation,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2852–2861 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zheng, Z. H. Yang, C. Si, Z. M. Liang, X. Chen, R. Cao, Z. N. Guo, K. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. H. Ji, M. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Based All-Optical-Signal-Processing: Toward High Performances and Enhanced Stability,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1466–1476 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zheng, X. Tang, Z. H. Yang, Z. M. Liang, Y. X. Chen, K. Wang, Y. F. Song, Y. Zhang, J. H. Ji, Y. Liu, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-Layer Phosphorene-Decorated Microfiber for All-Optical Thresholding and Optical Modulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(9), 1700026 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Hu, A. Wang, M. Zeng, Y. Long, L. Zhu, L. Fu, and J. Wang, “Graphene-assisted multiple-input high-base optical computing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32911 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Zhang, M. Xie, F. Li, Z. Yan, Y. Li, E. Kan, W. Liu, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Semiconducting Group 15 Monolayers: A Broad Range of Band Gaps and High Carrier Mobilities,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(5), 1666–1669 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yoshida, T. Hirooka, K. Kasai, and M. Nakazawa, “Single-channel 40 Gbit/s digital coherent QAM quantum noise stream cipher transmission over 480 km,” Opt. Express 24(1), 652–661 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang and X. Hu, “Recent Advances in Graphene-Assisted Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing,” J. Nanotechnol. 2016, 1–18 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Akturk, O. U. Akturk, and S. Ciraci, “Single and bilayer bismuthene: Stability at high temperature and mechanical and electronic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 94(1), 014115 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (15)

J. O. Island, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Environmental instability of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2d Mater 2(1), 011002 (2015).

R. A. Doganov, E. C. T. O’Farrell, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, A. Ziletti, A. Carvalho, D. K. Campbell, D. F. Coker, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Transport properties of pristine few-layer black phosphorus by van der Waals passivation in an inert atmosphere,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6647 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, L. Kou, T. Frauenheim, and T. Heine, “Robust two-dimensional topological insulators in methyl-functionalized bismuth, antimony, and lead bilayer films,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1083–1089 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Aguilera, C. Friedrich, and S. Blugel, “Electronic phase transitions of bismuth under strain from relativistic self-consistent GW calculations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 91(12), 125129 (2015).

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3(2), A56–A63 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Balendhran, S. Walia, H. Nili, S. Sriram, and M. Bhaskaran, “Elemental analogues of graphene: silicene, germanene, stanene, and phosphorene,” Small 11(6), 640–652 (2015).
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H. Zhang, “Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials,” ACS Nano 9(10), 9451–9469 (2015).
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A. J. Mannix, X. F. Zhou, B. Kiraly, J. D. Wood, D. Alducin, B. D. Myers, X. Liu, B. L. Fisher, U. Santiago, J. R. Guest, M. J. Yacaman, A. Ponce, A. R. Oganov, M. C. Hersam, and N. P. Guisinger, “Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs,” Science 350(6267), 1513–1516 (2015).
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S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
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S. Yu, C. Meng, B. Chen, H. Wang, X. Wu, W. Liu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Su, and L. Tong, “Graphene decorated microfiber for ultrafast optical modulation,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10764–10770 (2015).
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S. Zhang, Z. Yan, Y. Li, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Atomically thin arsenene and antimonene: semimetal-semiconductor and indirect-direct band-gap transitions,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(10), 3112–3115 (2015).
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O. U. Akturk, V. O. Ozcelik, and S. Ciraci, “Single-layer crystalline phases of antimony: Antimonenes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 91(23), 235446 (2015).

S. K. Gupta, Y. Sonvane, G. X. Wang, and R. Pandey, “Size and edge roughness effects on thermal conductivity of pristine antimonene allotropes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 641, 169–172 (2015).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
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M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. H. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
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2014 (10)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Li, J. Wu, Z. Yin, and H. Zhang, “Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS₂ and WSe₂ nanosheets,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47(4), 1067–1075 (2014).
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A. E. Willner, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, and O. F. Yilmaz, “All-optical signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 660–680 (2014).

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M. E. Davila, L. Xian, S. Cahangirov, A. Rubio, and G. Le Lay, “Germanene: a novel two-dimensional germanium allotrope akin to graphene and silicene,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 095002 (2014).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
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H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8(4), 4033–4041 (2014).
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J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
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L. Cheng, H. J. Liu, X. J. Tan, J. Zhang, J. Wei, H. Y. Lv, J. Shi, and X. F. Tang, “Thermoelectric Properties of a Monolayer Bismuth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(2), 904–910 (2014).
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2013 (3)

Y. Ohtsubo, L. Perfetti, M. O. Goerbig, P. Le Fevre, F. Bertran, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, “Non-trivial surface-band dispersion on Bi(111),” New J. Phys. 15(3), 033041 (2013).

M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113(5), 3766–3798 (2013).
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G. Eda and S. A. Maier, “Two-dimensional crystals: managing light for optoelectronics,” ACS Nano 7(7), 5660–5665 (2013).
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2012 (3)

Z. Yin, H. Li, H. Li, L. Jiang, Y. Shi, Y. Sun, G. Lu, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors,” ACS Nano 6(1), 74–80 (2012).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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C. Ataca, H. Sahin, and S. Ciraci, “Stable, Single-Layer MX2 Transition-Metal Oxides and Dichalcogenides in a Honeycomb-Like Structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(16), 8983–8999 (2012).
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2011 (3)

A. H. Castro Neto and K. Novoselov, “Two-Dimensional Crystals: Beyond Graphene,” Mater. Express 1(1), 10–17 (2011).
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R. Mas-Ballesté, C. Gómez-Navarro, J. Gómez-Herrero, and F. Zamora, “2D materials: to graphene and beyond,” Nanoscale 3(1), 20–30 (2011).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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2010 (3)

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “Graphene field-effect transistors with high on/off current ratio and large transport band gap at room temperature,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 715–718 (2010).
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2009 (4)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18364–18370 (2009).
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K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and Y. W. Song, “A widely tunable wavelength converter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a carbon-nanotube-deposited D-shaped fiber,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7664–7669 (2009).
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2007 (1)

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
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2004 (2)

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Performance of electrical equalizers in optically amplified OOK and DPSK systems,” Ieee Photonic Tech L 16(5), 1397–1399 (2004).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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2003 (2)

G. Monaco, S. Falconi, W. A. Crichton, and M. Mezouar, “Nature of the first-order phase transition in fluid phosphorus at high temperature and pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(25 Pt 1), 255701 (2003).
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S. Ostanin, V. Trubitsin, J. B. Staunton, and S. Y. Savrasov, “Density functional study of the phase diagram and pressure-induced superconductivity in p: implication for spintronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(8), 087002 (2003).
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2001 (2)

G. Franzese, G. Malescio, A. Skibinsky, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, “Generic mechanism for generating a liquid-liquid phase transition,” Nature 409(6821), 692–695 (2001).
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T. Morishita, “Liquid-liquid phase transitions of phosphorus via constant-pressure first-principles molecular dynamics simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 105701 (2001).
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2000 (2)

M. I. McMahon, O. Degtyareva, and R. J. Nelmes, “Ba-IV-type incommensurate crystal structure in group-V metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(23), 4896–4899 (2000).
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Y. Katayama, T. Mizutani, W. Utsumi, O. Shimomura, M. Yamakata, and K. Funakoshi, “A first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in phosphorus,” Nature 403(6766), 170–173 (2000).
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1997 (2)

H. Iwasaki and T. Kikegawa, “Structural systematics of the high-pressure phases of phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth,” Acta Crystallogr. B 53(3), 353–357 (1997).
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S. Bigo, O. Leclerc, and E. Desurvire, “All-optical fiber signal processing and regeneration for soliton communications,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 3(5), 1208–1223 (1997).
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1996 (1)

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, “40-Gb/s demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI),” Ieee Photonic Tech L 8(12), 1695–1697 (1996).
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1966 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Electrostriction Optical Kerr Effect and Self-Focusing of Laser Beams,” Phys. Lett. 20(4), 378–380 (1966).
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Aguilera, I.

I. Aguilera, C. Friedrich, and S. Blugel, “Electronic phase transitions of bismuth under strain from relativistic self-consistent GW calculations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 91(12), 125129 (2015).

Akturk, E.

Y. Kadioglu, S. B. Kilic, S. Demirci, O. U. Akturk, E. Akturk, and S. Ciraci, “Modification of electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of bismuthene by point defects,” Phys. Rev. B 96(24), 245424 (2017).
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E. Akturk, O. U. Akturk, and S. Ciraci, “Single and bilayer bismuthene: Stability at high temperature and mechanical and electronic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 94(1), 014115 (2016).
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Akturk, O. U.

Y. Kadioglu, S. B. Kilic, S. Demirci, O. U. Akturk, E. Akturk, and S. Ciraci, “Modification of electronic structure, magnetic structure, and topological phase of bismuthene by point defects,” Phys. Rev. B 96(24), 245424 (2017).
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E. Akturk, O. U. Akturk, and S. Ciraci, “Single and bilayer bismuthene: Stability at high temperature and mechanical and electronic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 94(1), 014115 (2016).
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O. U. Akturk, V. O. Ozcelik, and S. Ciraci, “Single-layer crystalline phases of antimony: Antimonenes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 91(23), 235446 (2015).

Alducin, D.

A. J. Mannix, X. F. Zhou, B. Kiraly, J. D. Wood, D. Alducin, B. D. Myers, X. Liu, B. L. Fisher, U. Santiago, J. R. Guest, M. J. Yacaman, A. Ponce, A. R. Oganov, M. C. Hersam, and N. P. Guisinger, “Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs,” Science 350(6267), 1513–1516 (2015).
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Andrekson, P. A.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
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Ares, P.

S. Zhang, S. Guo, Z. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Gao, J. Gómez-Herrero, P. Ares, F. Zamora, Z. Zhu, and H. Zeng, “Recent progress in 2D group-VA semiconductors: from theory to experiment,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47(3), 982–1021 (2018).
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Ataca, C.

C. Ataca, H. Sahin, and S. Ciraci, “Stable, Single-Layer MX2 Transition-Metal Oxides and Dichalcogenides in a Honeycomb-Like Structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(16), 8983–8999 (2012).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “Graphene field-effect transistors with high on/off current ratio and large transport band gap at room temperature,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 715–718 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balendhran, S.

S. Balendhran, S. Walia, H. Nili, S. Sriram, and M. Bhaskaran, “Elemental analogues of graphene: silicene, germanene, stanene, and phosphorene,” Small 11(6), 640–652 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertran, F.

Y. Ohtsubo, L. Perfetti, M. O. Goerbig, P. Le Fevre, F. Bertran, and A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, “Non-trivial surface-band dispersion on Bi(111),” New J. Phys. 15(3), 033041 (2013).

Bhaskaran, M.

S. Balendhran, S. Walia, H. Nili, S. Sriram, and M. Bhaskaran, “Elemental analogues of graphene: silicene, germanene, stanene, and phosphorene,” Small 11(6), 640–652 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bigo, S.

S. Bigo, O. Leclerc, and E. Desurvire, “All-optical fiber signal processing and regeneration for soliton communications,” Ieee J Sel Top Quant 3(5), 1208–1223 (1997).
[Crossref]

Blugel, S.

I. Aguilera, C. Friedrich, and S. Blugel, “Electronic phase transitions of bismuth under strain from relativistic self-consistent GW calculations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 91(12), 125129 (2015).

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogris, A.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buldyrev, S. V.

G. Franzese, G. Malescio, A. Skibinsky, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley, “Generic mechanism for generating a liquid-liquid phase transition,” Nature 409(6821), 692–695 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cahangirov, S.

M. E. Davila, L. Xian, S. Cahangirov, A. Rubio, and G. Le Lay, “Germanene: a novel two-dimensional germanium allotrope akin to graphene and silicene,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 095002 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campbell, D. K.

R. A. Doganov, E. C. T. O’Farrell, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, A. Ziletti, A. Carvalho, D. K. Campbell, D. F. Coker, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Transport properties of pristine few-layer black phosphorus by van der Waals passivation in an inert atmosphere,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6647 (2015).
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Cao, R.

J. L. Zheng, Z. H. Yang, C. Si, Z. M. Liang, X. Chen, R. Cao, Z. N. Guo, K. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. H. Ji, M. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Based All-Optical-Signal-Processing: Toward High Performances and Enhanced Stability,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1466–1476 (2017).
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Carvalho, A.

R. A. Doganov, E. C. T. O’Farrell, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, A. Ziletti, A. Carvalho, D. K. Campbell, D. F. Coker, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Transport properties of pristine few-layer black phosphorus by van der Waals passivation in an inert atmosphere,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6647 (2015).
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Castellanos-Gomez, A.

J. O. Island, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Environmental instability of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2d Mater 2(1), 011002 (2015).

Castro Neto, A. H.

R. A. Doganov, E. C. T. O’Farrell, S. P. Koenig, Y. Yeo, A. Ziletti, A. Carvalho, D. K. Campbell, D. F. Coker, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Transport properties of pristine few-layer black phosphorus by van der Waals passivation in an inert atmosphere,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6647 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Castro Neto and K. Novoselov, “Two-Dimensional Crystals: Beyond Graphene,” Mater. Express 1(1), 10–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

S. Yu, C. Meng, B. Chen, H. Wang, X. Wu, W. Liu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Su, and L. Tong, “Graphene decorated microfiber for ultrafast optical modulation,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10764–10770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113(5), 3766–3798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. S.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Q.

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

J. L. Zheng, Z. H. Yang, C. Si, Z. M. Liang, X. Chen, R. Cao, Z. N. Guo, K. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. H. Ji, M. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Black Phosphorus Based All-Optical-Signal-Processing: Toward High Performances and Enhanced Stability,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1466–1476 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, L. L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Fan, “Few-Layer Topological Insulator for All-Optical Signal Processing Using the Nonlinear Kerr Effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Yin, H. Li, H. Li, L. Jiang, Y. Shi, Y. Sun, G. Lu, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors,” ACS Nano 6(1), 74–80 (2012).
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S. Zhang, M. Xie, F. Li, Z. Yan, Y. Li, E. Kan, W. Liu, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Semiconducting Group 15 Monolayers: A Broad Range of Band Gaps and High Carrier Mobilities,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55(5), 1666–1669 (2016).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Atomic structure of synthesized bismuthene. (a) HRTEM images. (b) XRD pattern. (c) Raman spectra. (d) AFM images
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup based on bismuthene-coated microfiber: (a) optical Kerr switcher. (b) four-wave mixing.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output spectra obtained after the polarizer with (a) pump signal turned off and (b) pump signal turned on. (c) The evolution of the output spectra under different pump power from 1.9 mW to ~90 mW. (d) The relation of the probe transmittance against the incident pump power. (e) The output spectra versus the wavelength of probe light tuned from 1541.18 nm to 1559.168 nm and (f) extinction ratio versus the wavelength of probe light tuned from 1541.18 nm to 1559.168 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output spectra after the bismuthene-coated microfiber: (a) without 10 GHz-RF modulation. (b) with 10 GHz-RF modulation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Output FWM spectra against wavelength detuning. (b) Conversion efficiency and extinction ratio against wavelength detuning. (c) Output FWM spectra against pump power. (d) Conversion efficiency and extinction ratio against pump power.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Experimental spectrum against different RF frequency. (b) Extinction ratio and conversion efficiency against different RF frequency. (c) Details of signal light under different RF frequency. (d) Details of FWM light under different RF frequencies.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured results: (a) waveforms for original modulated light. (b) eye diagram for original modulated light. (c) waveforms for FWM light. (d) eye diagram for FWM light.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic illustration of bismuthene preparation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Microscopic image of the fabricated bismuthene-coated microfiber.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Schematic diagram of the optical Kerr switcher based on bismuthene-coated microfiber.

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