Abstract

Fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) device with volume-filling autostereoscopic imagery provides a unique solution to the accommodation-convergence mismatch problem in a conventional stereoscopic 3D display. We demonstrate a volumetric 3D display consisting of a stack of sequentially-driven transparent cholesteric films that illuminate every point in the display volume to generate a synthetic 3D image. Transparent cholesteric films comprise of the reverse-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture (R-PSCT) that exhibits > 85% transmittance in its off-state (Grandjean texture) and <15% transmittance in its on-state (focal-conic texture). The polymer network in the R-PSCT is formed with the mixture of reactive monomers: RM6 and RM257. The electro-optical measurements show a strongly influence of concentration of each reactive monomer in the total mixture on the optical contrast and driving voltage of R-PSCT films. Hence, we optimize the composition of reactive monomers in R-PSCT to achieve a low driving voltage, high optical contrast and high electro-mechanical stability. Furthermore, we fabricate a multi-surface and a see-through volumetric 3D display prototype that consists an optical element with 15 R-PSCT films that are sequentially-switched with a microcontroller and operated at 250 Hz. A high-speed DLP projector is used to project a time-multiplexed series of two-dimensional images that are used to build the multi-planar volumetric images.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Fall Joint Computer Conference, Part I on - AFIPS ’68 (Fall, Part I) (1968), p. 757.
    [Crossref]
  2. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observations,” Displays 29(2), 106–116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Drascic and P. Milgram, “Perceptual Issues in Augmented Reality,” in Proc. of SPIE (1996), pp. 123–134.
  6. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. S. Leung, R. Beach, N. A. Ives, and G. Eng, “Three-dimensional real image volumetric display system and method,” U.S. patent US05745197A (1998).
  8. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. O. Bimber and R. Raskar, Spatial Augmented Reality Merging Real and Virtual Worlds(A K Peters, 2005).
  12. J. Geng, “A vol 3D display based on a DLP projection engine.pdf,” Displays 34(1), 39–48 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. S. Sadovnik and A. Rizkin, “3-D Volume Visualization Display,” U.S. patent US5764317 (1998).
  14. Allan Sullivan, “Multi-planar volumetric display system including optical elemnts made from liquid crystal having polymer stabilized cholesteric textures,” U.S. patent US 20020163482A1 (2002).
  15. A. Sullivan, “A Solid-state Multi-planar Volumetric Display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1531–1533 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Geng, “A vol 3D display based on a DLP projection engine.pdf,” Displays 34(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observations,” Displays 29(2), 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ardey, G.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bahr, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bezecny, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bimber, O.

O. Bimber and R. Raskar, Spatial Augmented Reality Merging Real and Virtual Worlds(A K Peters, 2005).

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dorval, R. K.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “A vol 3D display based on a DLP projection engine.pdf,” Displays 34(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guill, C.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hands, P. J. W.

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. M.

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, and M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homann, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Howarth, P. A.

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observations,” Displays 29(2), 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

IJsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kirby, A. K.

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Langhans, K.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Love, G. D.

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oltmann, K.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

O. Bimber and R. Raskar, Spatial Augmented Reality Merging Real and Virtual Worlds(A K Peters, 2005).

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rieper, E.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, I. E.

I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Fall Joint Computer Conference, Part I on - AFIPS ’68 (Fall, Part I) (1968), p. 757.
[Crossref]

Ukai, K.

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observations,” Displays 29(2), 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Displays (2)

J. Geng, “A vol 3D display based on a DLP projection engine.pdf,” Displays 34(1), 39–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Ukai and P. A. Howarth, “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: Background, theories, and observations,” Displays 29(2), 106–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Lambooij, W. IJsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual Discomfort and Visual Fatigue of Stereoscopic Displays: A Review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (80-.). (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science (80-.). 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

M. S. Leung, R. Beach, N. A. Ives, and G. Eng, “Three-dimensional real image volumetric display system and method,” U.S. patent US05745197A (1998).

O. Bimber and R. Raskar, Spatial Augmented Reality Merging Real and Virtual Worlds(A K Peters, 2005).

I. E. Sutherland, “A head-mounted three dimensional display,” in Fall Joint Computer Conference, Part I on - AFIPS ’68 (Fall, Part I) (1968), p. 757.
[Crossref]

D. Drascic and P. Milgram, “Perceptual Issues in Augmented Reality,” in Proc. of SPIE (1996), pp. 123–134.

L. S. Sadovnik and A. Rizkin, “3-D Volume Visualization Display,” U.S. patent US5764317 (1998).

Allan Sullivan, “Multi-planar volumetric display system including optical elemnts made from liquid crystal having polymer stabilized cholesteric textures,” U.S. patent US 20020163482A1 (2002).

A. Sullivan, “A Solid-state Multi-planar Volumetric Display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 34(1), 1531–1533 (2003).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The video shows the three-dimensional image captured from volumetric 3D device

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The prototype of volumetric 3D display having projector (1), a neutral density filter (2), a focusing lens (3), a stack of optical shutters (4), Arduino Uno (5) with a viewer (6) that observes the generated 3D image (7).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of a R-PSCT film in transparent (left) and scattered state (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Static electro-optic response of R-PSCT containing 100% RM6 [a] and 100% RM257 [b]. Transmittance at 0 V and contrast ratio of the R-PSCT test cell as a function of proportion of RM257 in the reactive monomer mixture [c].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM photographs of polymer network formed with 100% RM6 [a] and 100% RM257 [b].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 [a] Driving scheme for electro-mechanical stress test. [b] Transmittance at 0V and contrast ratio as a function of proportion of RM257 measured before and after electro-mechanical stress test. [c] Cell images of R-PSCT test cell with 100% RM6 (left) and 80% RM6 + 20% RM257 (right) at 0V after E-M stress test.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 [a] Time response for the optical shutter designed for volumetric 3D display measured between 0V and 24 V. [b] Optical contrast of the shutter between transparent state (0 V) and light-scattering state (24 V) at wide viewing angle. [c] A plot of transmittance vs wavelength measured for optical shutter designed for volumetric 3D display.

Equations (1)

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Hysteresis=  V 50, RU  V 50, RD V min *100%.

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