Abstract

Ultrafast surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) were observed in a silver nanoshell grating, which was produced by depositing a roughly sinusoidal dielectric grating with a continuous layer of silver. Two SPP modes were observed to propagate along the top and bottom surfaces of the silver nanoshell, modulating the reflection spectra in the space above and below the silver nanoshell, respectively. These two SPP modes are located independently at a shorter and a longer wavelength, exciting the asymmetric and symmetric oscillation of the plasmonic electrons, respectively. The asymmetric mode was excited by the diffraction anomaly along the silver/air interface, whereas, the symmetric by the waveguide mode within the ITO grating layer, which was defined by the high reflection at the ITO/silver interface and the total reflection at the ITO/substrate interface. Different optical switching performance with different lifetimes was measured for the two resonance modes.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Characteristics of surface plasmon–polariton waves excited on 2D periodically patterned columnar thin films of silver

Jhuma Dutta, S. Anantha Ramakrishna, and Akhlesh Lakhtakia
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(9) 1697-1704 (2016)

Grating-coupled surface plasmon polaritons and waveguide modes in a silver-dielectric-silver structure

Zhuo Chen, Ian R. Hooper, and J. Roy Sambles
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(11) 3547-3553 (2007)

Measurement of propagation of ultrafast surface plasmon polariton pulses using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy

Yuta Masaki, Keita Tomita, Yasuhiro Kojima, and Fumihiko Kannari
Appl. Opt. 58(21) 5595-5601 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, “25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7693–7702 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Samoc, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, and B. Luther-Davies, “Tuning the properties of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) for use in all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1241–1243 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y. H. Lin and X. P. Zhang, “Ultrafast multipolar plasmon for unidirectional optical switching in a hemisphere-nanoshell array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1601088 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Clavero, “Plasmon-induced hot-electron generation at nanoparticle/metal-oxide interfaces for photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 95–103 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. V. Hartland, “Optical studies of dynamics in noble metal nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3858–3887 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. L. Brongersma, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 25–34 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin and X. P. Zhang, “Ultrafast multipolar plasmon for unidirectional optical switching in a hemisphere-nanoshell array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1601088 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Brongersma, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 25–34 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

C. Clavero, “Plasmon-induced hot-electron generation at nanoparticle/metal-oxide interfaces for photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 95–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Hartland, “Optical studies of dynamics in noble metal nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3858–3887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, “25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7693–7702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Abb, M.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akimov, I. A.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Albella, P.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alú, A.

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baranov, D. G.

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Belotelov, V. I.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Besteiro, L. V.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolten, J.

Bouillard, J. S.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 25–34 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, Z.

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. Z.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Clavero, C.

C. Clavero, “Plasmon-induced hot-electron generation at nanoparticle/metal-oxide interfaces for photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 95–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dickson, W.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, X. H.

Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fatti, N. D.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Flytzanis, C.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Först, M.

Friend, R. H.

X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y. L.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q. H.

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z. B.

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gonzalo, J.

X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopal, A. V.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gosztola, D. J.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottheil, M.

Govorov, A. O.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, P. J.

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

M. L. Brongersma, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 25–34 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamanaka, Y.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hanss, J.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartland, G. V.

G. V. Hartland, “Optical studies of dynamics in noble metal nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3858–3887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harutyunyan, H.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J. F.

X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendren, W.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodgkiss, J. M.

X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. Y.

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasarla, S. R.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kasture, S.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ketterson, J. B.

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khorashad, L. K.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A. V.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasnok, A.

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

Lepeshov, S.

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lewin, M.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, X. H.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, S. Y.

Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin and X. P. Zhang, “Ultrafast multipolar plasmon for unidirectional optical switching in a hemisphere-nanoshell array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1601088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F. F.

X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, X. C.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

MacDonald, K. F.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martinson, A. B. F.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maß, T. W. W.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McPolin, C. P.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, A. K.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morea, R.

X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, H. R.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Muskens, O. L.

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, A.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nikolaenko, A. E.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, X. X.

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

M. L. Brongersma, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 25–34 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connor, D.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Olivier, N.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omi, S.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ou, J. Y.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Palpant, B.

X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plötzing, T.

Plum, E.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pohl, M.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pollard, R.

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Z.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, M.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenmann, D.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Savelev, R.

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schaller, R. D.

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, B. Q.

X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taubner, T.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vallee, F.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vengurlekar, A. S.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Wang, F. F.

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. M.

X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. W.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weng, Y. X.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodruff, M.

Wurtz, G. A.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuttig, M.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, J. Y.

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, D. R.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X. Y.

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. L.

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. P.

Y. H. Lin and X. P. Zhang, “Ultrafast multipolar plasmon for unidirectional optical switching in a hemisphere-nanoshell array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1601088 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zvezdin, A. K.

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Guo, Z. Qin, Z. Wang, Y. X. Weng, X. Liu, G. Xie, and J. Qiu, “Broadly tunable plasmons in doped oxide nanoparticles for ultrafast and broadband mid-infrared all-optical switching,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12770–12777 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. Ren, B. Jia, J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, A. E. Nikolaenko, J. Xu, M. Gu, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured plasmonic medium for terahertz bandwidth all-optical switching,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5540–5544 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. P. Zhang, B. Q. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

Y. H. Lin and X. P. Zhang, “Ultrafast multipolar plasmon for unidirectional optical switching in a hemisphere-nanoshell array,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1601088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, X. Y. Hu, F. F. Wang, X. X. Niu, J. Y. Xie, and Q. H. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(7), 1–21 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Hu, X. Y. Yang, Z. B. Gong, F. F. Wang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, “On-chip optical switch based on plasmon–photon hybrid nanostructure-coated multicomponent nanocomposite,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(8), 1159–1166 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, S. R. Kasarla, A. J. Taylor, Z. Tian, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, and J. F. O’Hara, “Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole arrays at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Wang, H. R. Mu, X. H. Li, J. Yuan, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, Y. L. Gao, and J. He, “Observation of large nonlinear responses in a graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure at a telecommunication wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221901 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850–2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. D. Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

G. V. Hartland, “Optical studies of dynamics in noble metal nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3858–3887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C. P. McPolin, N. Olivier, J. S. Bouillard, D. O’Connor, A. V. Krasavin, W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Universal switching of plasmonic signals using optical resonator modes,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16237 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Abb, P. Albella, J. Aizpurua, and O. L. Muskens, “All-optical control of a single plasmonic nanoantenna-ITO hybrid,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2457–2463 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Morea, J. Gonzalo, and B. Palpant, “Coupling localized plasmonic and photonic modes tailors and boosts ultrafast light modulation by gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2633–2639 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

Y. H. Lin, X. P. Zhang, X. H. Fang, and S. Y. Liang, “A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1421–1429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. Li, X. Yang, T. W. W. Maß, J. Hanss, M. Lewin, A. K. Michel, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of highly confined phonon-polaritons with an ultrathin phase-change material,” Nat. Mater. 15(8), 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

H. Harutyunyan, A. B. F. Martinson, D. Rosenmann, L. K. Khorashad, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Anomalous ultrafast dynamics of hot plasmonic electrons in nanostructures with hot spots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(9), 770–774 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Brongersma, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 25–34 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (4)

C. Clavero, “Plasmon-induced hot-electron generation at nanoparticle/metal-oxide interfaces for photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 95–103 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. J. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photon. 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

A. Krasnok, S. Li, S. Lepeshov, R. Savelev, D. G. Baranov, and A. Alú, “All-optical switching and unidirectional plasmon launching with nonlinear dielectric nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(1), 014015 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Pohl, V. I. Belotelov, I. A. Akimov, S. Kasture, A. S. Vengurlekar, A. V. Gopal, A. K. Zvezdin, D. R. Yakovlev, and M. Bayer, “Plasmonic crystals for ultrafast nanophotonics: Optical switching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. P. Zhang, J. F. He, Y. M. Wang, and F. F. Liu, “Terahertz beat oscillation of plasmonic electrons interacting with femtosecond light pulses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image for top view of the Ag-coated ITO grating. (b) SEM image for the cross-sectional view of the silver shell and the ITO grating with structural parameters included. (c) Transmissive optical extinction spectra measured on the pure ITO grating (blue) and on that with the 30-nm Ag shell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Geometric scheme for the measurements on the optical extinction spectra for bottom-surface (RB) and top-surface (RT) reflection and for transmission (T) modes. (b), (c), and (d): Optical extinction spectra measured at an incident angle of 10° for RT, RB, and T modes, respectively. (e) Schematic illustration of the plasmon polaritons excited on the top (blue) and the bottom (red) surface of the Ag shell. (f) and (g): Distribution of the oscillating charges and the optical electric field intensity, respectively, in the Ag shell at an excitation wavelength of 450 nm. (h) and (i): Distribution of the oscillating charges and the optical electric field intensity, respectively, at an excitation wavelength of 730 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical extinction spectra measured on the silver nanoshell grating for TM and TE polarizations by the black and red curves, respectively. Inset: SEM image measured on the cross-sectional profile of the silver nanoshell grating.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The schematic geometry for pump-probe measurement. (b) A 3D plot of the directly measured TA dynamics by ΔA as a function of time delay and wavelength. (c) TA spectrum at a time delay with the chirp compensated, as highlighted by the dashed line in (b). (d) TA dynamics at 433, 439, 445, 451, 457, and 463 nm. (e) TA dynamics at 730 and 753 nm. Dashed lines in green: guidelines showing dynamic stages with different lifetimes.

Metrics