Abstract

In this work, the size-dependent effect for InGaN/GaN-based blue micro-light emitting diodes (µLEDs) is numerically investigated. Our results show that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the optical power density drop drastically as the device size decreases when sidewall defects are induced. The observations are owing to the higher surface-to-volume ratio for small µLEDs, which makes the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) non-radiative recombination at the sidewall defects not negligible. The sidewall defects also severely affect the injection capability for electrons and holes, such that the electrons and holes are captured by sidewall defects for the SRH recombination. Thus, the poor carrier injection shall be deemed as a challenge for achieving high-brightness µLEDs. Our studies also indicate that the sidewall defects form current leakage channels, and this is reflected by the current density-voltage characteristics. However, the improved current spreading effect can be obtained when the chip size decreases. The better current spreading effect takes account for the reduced forward voltage.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template

Hongjian Li, Matthew S. Wong, Michel Khoury, Bastien Bonef, Haojun Zhang, YiChao Chow, Panpan Li, Jared Kearns, Aidan A. Taylor, Philippe De Mierry, Zainuriah Hassan, Shuji Nakamura, and Steven P. DenBaars
Opt. Express 27(17) 24154-24160 (2019)

High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition

Matthew S. Wong, David Hwang, Abdullah I. Alhassan, Changmin Lee, Ryan Ley, Shuji Nakamura, and Steven P. DenBaars
Opt. Express 26(16) 21324-21331 (2018)

Light output performance of red AlGaInP-based light emitting diodes with different chip geometries and structures

Jeong-Tak Oh, Sang-Youl Lee, Yong-Tae Moon, Ji Hyung Moon, Sunwoo Park, Ki Yong Hong, Ki Young Song, Chanhyoung Oh, Jong-In Shim, Hwan-Hee Jeong, June-O Song, Hiroshi Amano, and Tae-Yeon Seong
Opt. Express 26(9) 11194-11200 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: A very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 669–675 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Rae, P. P. Manousiadis, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, J. Carreira, J. J. D. Mckendry, B. Guilhabert, I. D. W. Samuel, G. A. Turnbull, N. Laurand, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer-printed micro-LED and polymer-based transceiver for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31474–31483 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. McPhillimy, B. Guilhabert, C. Klitis, M. D. Dawson, M. Sorel, and M. J. Strain, “High accuracy transfer printing of single-mode membrane silicon photonic devices,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16679–16688 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 215(10), 1700508 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Han, S. Ma, Z. Jia, P. Liu, W. Jia, H. Dong, L. Shang, G. Zhai, and B. Xu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of a InGaN/GaN micro-square array light-emitting diode chip,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3261 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21324–21331 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Piprek and S. Nakamura, “Physics of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 145–151 (2002).
  22. L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(4), 045312 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (7)

K. Rae, P. P. Manousiadis, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, J. Carreira, J. J. D. Mckendry, B. Guilhabert, I. D. W. Samuel, G. A. Turnbull, N. Laurand, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer-printed micro-LED and polymer-based transceiver for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31474–31483 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. McPhillimy, B. Guilhabert, C. Klitis, M. D. Dawson, M. Sorel, and M. J. Strain, “High accuracy transfer printing of single-mode membrane silicon photonic devices,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16679–16688 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 215(10), 1700508 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Han, S. Ma, Z. Jia, P. Liu, W. Jia, H. Dong, L. Shang, G. Zhai, and B. Xu, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of a InGaN/GaN micro-square array light-emitting diode chip,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3261 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: A very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 669–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(4), 045312 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Piprek and S. Nakamura, “Physics of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 145–151 (2002).

Alhassan, A. I.

Aventurier, B.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bi, W.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bonafede, S.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bower, C. A.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bulashevich, K. A.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 215(10), 1700508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Carreira, J.

Castaldini, A.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(4), 045312 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cavallini, A.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(4), 045312 (2008).
[Crossref]

Che, J.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chong, W. C.

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, C.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y. C.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cok, R. S.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corbett, B.

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

K. Rae, P. P. Manousiadis, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, J. Carreira, J. J. D. Mckendry, B. Guilhabert, I. D. W. Samuel, G. A. Turnbull, N. Laurand, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer-printed micro-LED and polymer-based transceiver for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31474–31483 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. McPhillimy, B. Guilhabert, C. Klitis, M. D. Dawson, M. Sorel, and M. J. Strain, “High accuracy transfer printing of single-mode membrane silicon photonic devices,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16679–16688 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

Dupré, L.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fecioru, A.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geng, C.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gomez, D.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goodwin, S.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

Guo, W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

Hahn, B.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, D.

Hasanov, N.

Hines, P.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hong, K. B.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, G.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang Chen, S.-W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Islim, M. S.

Ji, Y.

Jia, W.

Jia, Z.

Jiang, J.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Q.

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Kachi, T.

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Karpov, S. Y.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 215(10), 1700508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Klitis, C.

Kogiso, T.

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Konoplev, S. S.

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 215(10), 1700508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kou, J.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, P. C.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H.-C.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kyaw, Z.

Largeron, C.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lau, K. M.

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laurand, N.

Lee, C.

Lee, C.-F.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, P. T.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ley, R.

Li, C.-K.

C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, S.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Loi, R.

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

Ma, Z.

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Manousiadis, P. P.

Massoubre, D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mckendry, J. J. D.

K. Rae, P. P. Manousiadis, M. S. Islim, L. Yin, J. Carreira, J. J. D. Mckendry, B. Guilhabert, I. D. W. Samuel, G. A. Turnbull, N. Laurand, H. Haas, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer-printed micro-LED and polymer-based transceiver for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31474–31483 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

McPhillimy, J.

Meitl, M.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Melnik, G.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moore, T.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mughal, A.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

M. S. Wong, D. Hwang, A. I. Alhassan, C. Lee, R. Ley, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “High efficiency of III-nitride micro-light-emitting diodes by sidewall passivation using atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 26(16), 21324–21331 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek and S. Nakamura, “Physics of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 145–151 (2002).

Narita, T.

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Olivier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peng, D.

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek and S. Nakamura, “Physics of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 145–151 (2002).

Prevatte, C.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pynn, C. D.

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Radauscher, E.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rae, K.

Raymond, B.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rigutti, L.

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(4), 045312 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rosmeulen, M.

C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rotzoll, R.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Shang, L.

Shao, H.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sher, C.-W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Simoen, E.

C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

Strain, M. J.

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, S. T.

Tang, X.

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Templier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: A very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 669–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

Teng, C. H.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, K.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, P.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tirano, S.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tokuda, Y.

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tomita, K.

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Trindade, A. J.

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. L.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turnbull, G. A.

Tzou, A. J.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. W.

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, I. M.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. M.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. S.

Wu, T.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-R.

C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Xu, S.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhai, G.

Zhang, B.

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. H.

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, K.

Zhou, W.

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

D. Hwang, A. Mughal, C. D. Pynn, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Sustained high external quantum efficiency in ultrasmall blue III–nitride micro-LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 032101 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, G. Hu, J. Lin, J. Jiang, M. Liu, Y. Yang, G. Hu, Y. Lin, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “High-performance, single-pyramid micro light-emitting diode with leakage current confinement layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, C. Geng, S. Xu, H. V. Demir, and X. W. Sun, “On the hole accelerator for III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(15), 151105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Kyaw, W. Liu, Y. Ji, L. Wang, S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole modulator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 063501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and Micro-LED: Promising Candidates for the Next Generation Display Technology,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

J. Piprek and S. Nakamura, “Physics of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 149, 145–151 (2002).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Z. Tang, Q. Jiang, Y. Lu, S. Huang, S. Yang, X. Tang, and K. J. Chen, “600-V Normally Off SiNX/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(11), 1373–1375 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. Electron Dev. (2)

C.-K. Li, M. Rosmeulen, E. Simoen, and Y.-R. Wu, “Study on the Optimization for Current Spreading Effect of Lateral GaN/InGaN LEDs,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 61(2), 511–517 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, D. Peng, W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, and Z. Liu, “Investigation of Photon-Generated Leakage Current for High-Performance Active Matrix Micro-LED Displays,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 63(12), 4832–4838 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114508 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Narita, Y. Tokuda, T. Kogiso, K. Tomita, and T. Kachi, “The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(16), 161405 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

F. Templier, “GaN-based emissive microdisplays: A very promising technology for compact, ultra-high brightness display systems,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 669–675 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. S. Cok, M. Meitl, R. Rotzoll, G. Melnik, A. Fecioru, A. J. Trindade, B. Raymond, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, E. Radauscher, S. Goodwin, P. Hines, and C. A. Bower, “Inorganic light-emitting diode displays using micro-transfer printing,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 25(10), 589–609 (2017).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

J. Che, C. Chu, K. Tian, J. Kou, H. Shao, Y. Zhang, W. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN Current Spreading Layer for AlGaN-based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

L. Rigutti, A. Castaldini, and A. Cavallini, “Anomalous deep-level transients related to quantum well piezoelectric fields in InyGa1−yN/GaN-heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 77(4), 045312 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. S. Konoplev, K. A. Bulashevich, and S. Y. Karpov, “From Large-Size to Micro-LEDs: Scaling Trends Revealed by Modeling,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 215(10), 1700508 (2018).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Corbett, R. Loi, W. Zhou, D. Liu, and Z. Ma, “Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. W. Wang, K. B. Hong, Y. L. Tsai, C. H. Teng, A. J. Tzou, Y. C. Chu, P. T. Lee, P. C. Ku, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42962 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structures for LEDs I, II and III without sidewall damages and LEDs A, B, C with sidewall damages. The usable area ratios for LEDs A, B and C are 85%, 75% and 36%, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) EQE, and (b) optical power density in terms of the injection current density for LEDs I, II, III, A, B and C, respectively. Inset figure shows the measured EQE in terms of the injection current density for the 100 × 100 µm2 µLEDs and 20 × 20 µm2 µLEDs, respectively. The experimental data are extracted from [19].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Numerically calculated current density-voltage characteristics for LEDs I, II, III, A, B and C, respectively. Inset figure shows the current-voltage characteristics in semi-log scale for LEDs III and C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Numerically calculated electron concentration profiles in the MQW region for (a) LEDs I, II and III (b) LEDs A, B and C, respectively. Data are calculated when the injection current is 100 A/cm2. Inset figure shows the position along which the electron concentration profiles are captured.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Numerically calculated electron concentration profiles in the p-EBL and p-GaN layer for (a) LEDs I, II and III, (b) LEDs A, B and C, respectively. Data are calculated when the injection current is 100 A/cm2. Inset figure shows the zoom-in electron concentration profiles in the p-GaN layer. Inset figure shows the position along which the electron concentration profiles are captured.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Numerically calculated hole concentration profiles in the MQW region for (a) LEDs I, II and III, (b) LEDs A, B and C, respectively. Data are calculated when the injection current is 100 A/cm2. Inset figure shows the position along which the hole concentration profiles are captured.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Numerically calculated carrier concentration profiles in the first quantum well near the p-region for (a) LED III, and (b) LED C, respectively. Data are calculated when the injection current is 100 A/cm2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Numerically calculated carrier concentration profiles in the first quantum well near the p-region for LEDs I, II and III, respectively. Data are calculated when the injection current is 100 A/cm2. Inset in Fig. 8(a) shows the position along which the carrier concentration profiles are captured for LEDs I, II and III.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Numerically calculated carrier concentration profiles in the first quantum well near the p-region for LEDs A, B and C, respectively. Data are calculated when the injection current is 100 A/cm2. Inset in Fig. 9(a) shows the position along which the carrier concentration profiles are captured for LEDs A, B and C.

Metrics