Abstract

Multi-functional metasurfaces have exhibited powerful abilities of manipulating electromagnetic (EM) wave in predetermined manners, largely improving their information capacities. However, most works are implemented with EM functions controlled by one of the intrinsic properties of EM wave, such as polarization, frequency, etc. Herein, we propose a coding scheme to design a broadband and high-efficient multi-functional metasurface independently controlled by both frequency and polarization. To achieve this goal, we design anisotropic coding particles to realize independent phase functions and polarization-selectivity in the microwave region. Meta-atoms are finally optimized to exhibit 2-bit phase responses insensitive to incident polarization in the X-band while showing a 1-bit phase shift sensitive to incident polarization in the Ku-band. As a proof of concept, a metasurface is configured as an isotropic lens in the X-band, whereas the metasurface is designed as an anisotropic beam deflector in the Ku-band with or without polarization-conversion functionality dependent on the input polarization. The measured results, which agree well with the simulated ones, show excellent performances in the designed dual bands. Such a multi-functional coding metasurface may provide a flexible and robust approach to manipulate EM wave of multiple frequencies, as well as to integrate diverse functionalities into a single flat device.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  17. Y. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Gong, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051901 (2016).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  22. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  33. B. Sima, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Combining frequency-selective scattering and specular reflection through phase-dispersion tailoring of a metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064043 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Low-Scattering tri-band metasurface using combination of diffusion, absorption and cancellation,” IEEE Access 6, 17306–17312 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  35. W.-L. Guo, G.-M. Wang, K.-Y. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhuang, and Q.-C. Ge, “Design of single-layered ultrawideband high-efficiency circularly polarized reflectarray,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 17(8), 1386–1390 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. H.-P. Li, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, J.-G. Liang, and X.-J. Gao, “Phase- and amplitude-control metasurfaces for antenna main-lobe and sidelobe manipulations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(10), 5121–5129 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  37. B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W.-J. Huo, Z. Xing, B.-G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  38. C. Saeidi and D. van der Weide, “A figure of merit for focusing metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 113110 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (11)

V. S. Asadchy, A. Diaz-Rubio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1069–1094 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-Effciency metasurfaces: principles, realizations,and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990–21002 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Dai, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of harmonic amplitudes and phases via a time-domain digital coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 90 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sima, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Combining frequency-selective scattering and specular reflection through phase-dispersion tailoring of a metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064043 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Low-Scattering tri-band metasurface using combination of diffusion, absorption and cancellation,” IEEE Access 6, 17306–17312 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Guo, G.-M. Wang, K.-Y. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhuang, and Q.-C. Ge, “Design of single-layered ultrawideband high-efficiency circularly polarized reflectarray,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 17(8), 1386–1390 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-P. Li, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, J.-G. Liang, and X.-J. Gao, “Phase- and amplitude-control metasurfaces for antenna main-lobe and sidelobe manipulations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(10), 5121–5129 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W.-J. Huo, Z. Xing, B.-G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Liu, W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, H. P. Li, and G. Liu, “A novel broadband bi-functional metasurface for vortex generation and simultaneous RCS reduction,” IEEE Access 6, 63999–64007 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, L. Jiang, and W. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Groever, W. T. Chen, and F. Capasso, “Meta-Lens doublet in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4902–4907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, T. J. Li, H. P. Li, Y. Q. Zhuang, and H. S. Hou, “Ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface for polarized beam splitting and reflected beam steering applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(42), 425305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Gong, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051901 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. Saeidi and D. van der Weide, “A figure of merit for focusing metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 113110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231116 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Masud, B. Ijaz, I. Ullah, and B. Braaten, “A compact dual-band emi metasurface shield with an actively tunable polarized lower band,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 54(5), 1182–1185 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. M. Soukoulis and M. Wegener, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of three-dimensional photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 523–530 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambrosio, A.

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501258 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asadchy, V. S.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Diaz-Rubio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1069–1094 (2018).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balthasar Mueller, J. P.

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo Li, Y.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
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Braaten, B.

M. M. Masud, B. Ijaz, I. Ullah, and B. Braaten, “A compact dual-band emi metasurface shield with an actively tunable polarized lower band,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 54(5), 1182–1185 (2012).
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Cai, T.

H.-P. Li, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, J.-G. Liang, and X.-J. Gao, “Phase- and amplitude-control metasurfaces for antenna main-lobe and sidelobe manipulations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(10), 5121–5129 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Groever, W. T. Chen, and F. Capasso, “Meta-Lens doublet in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4902–4907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
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M. Khorasaninejad, A. Ambrosio, P. Kanhaiya, and F. Capasso, “Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501258 (2016).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, K.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhary, K.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K. W.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Chen, J.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Chen, J.-W.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
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Chen, K.

B. Sima, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Combining frequency-selective scattering and specular reflection through phase-dispersion tailoring of a metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064043 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990–21002 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
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Chen, M.

M. Chen, L. Jiang, and W. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Groever, W. T. Chen, and F. Capasso, “Meta-Lens doublet in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4902–4907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

J. Y. Dai, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of harmonic amplitudes and phases via a time-domain digital coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 90 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, P.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W.-J. Huo, Z. Xing, B.-G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

J. Y. Dai, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of harmonic amplitudes and phases via a time-domain digital coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 90 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, J. Y.

J. Y. Dai, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of harmonic amplitudes and phases via a time-domain digital coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 90 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz-Rubio, A.

V. S. Asadchy, A. Diaz-Rubio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1069–1094 (2018).
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Ding, G.

Ding, J.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
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Ding, X.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, Z.-W.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eriksen, R. L.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

B. Sima, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Combining frequency-selective scattering and specular reflection through phase-dispersion tailoring of a metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064043 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990–21002 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.-J.

H.-P. Li, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, J.-G. Liang, and X.-J. Gao, “Phase- and amplitude-control metasurfaces for antenna main-lobe and sidelobe manipulations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(10), 5121–5129 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ge, Q.-C.

W.-L. Guo, G.-M. Wang, K.-Y. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhuang, and Q.-C. Ge, “Design of single-layered ultrawideband high-efficiency circularly polarized reflectarray,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 17(8), 1386–1390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, S.

Y. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Gong, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Groever, B.

B. Groever, W. T. Chen, and F. Capasso, “Meta-Lens doublet in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4902–4907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Balthasar Mueller, N. A. Rubin, R. C. Devlin, B. Groever, and F. Capasso, “Metasurface polarization optics: independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal states of polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(11), 113901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, J. X.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W.-J. Huo, Z. Xing, B.-G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, W. L.

K. Y. Liu, W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, H. P. Li, and G. Liu, “A novel broadband bi-functional metasurface for vortex generation and simultaneous RCS reduction,” IEEE Access 6, 63999–64007 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, T. J. Li, H. P. Li, Y. Q. Zhuang, and H. S. Hou, “Ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface for polarized beam splitting and reflected beam steering applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(42), 425305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.-L.

W.-L. Guo, G.-M. Wang, K.-Y. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhuang, and Q.-C. Ge, “Design of single-layered ultrawideband high-efficiency circularly polarized reflectarray,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 17(8), 1386–1390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, J. G.

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-Effciency metasurfaces: principles, realizations,and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, H. S.

W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, T. J. Li, H. P. Li, Y. Q. Zhuang, and H. S. Hou, “Ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface for polarized beam splitting and reflected beam steering applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(42), 425305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.-G.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W.-J. Huo, Z. Xing, B.-G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band linear-polarization conversion and circular polarization in reflection mode using a symmetric anisotropic metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. W.

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-W.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
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Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
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H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
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K. Y. Liu, W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, H. P. Li, and G. Liu, “A novel broadband bi-functional metasurface for vortex generation and simultaneous RCS reduction,” IEEE Access 6, 63999–64007 (2018).
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W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, T. J. Li, H. P. Li, Y. Q. Zhuang, and H. S. Hou, “Ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface for polarized beam splitting and reflected beam steering applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(42), 425305 (2016).
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H.-P. Li, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, J.-G. Liang, and X.-J. Gao, “Phase- and amplitude-control metasurfaces for antenna main-lobe and sidelobe manipulations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(10), 5121–5129 (2018).
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Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-hologram,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3122–3127 (2015).
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Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-Effciency metasurfaces: principles, realizations,and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
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T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
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Xu, H.-X.

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
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Xu, Q.

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Yue, F.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
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Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Zhang, L.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
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S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
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Zhang, Q.

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Low-Scattering tri-band metasurface using combination of diffusion, absorption and cancellation,” IEEE Access 6, 17306–17312 (2018).
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S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
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Zhang, S.

L. Li, T. Jun Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. Bo Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Y. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Gong, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051901 (2016).
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Zhang, W. L.

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
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Zhang, X.

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
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Zhao, J.

J. Y. Dai, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of harmonic amplitudes and phases via a time-domain digital coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 90 (2018).
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G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990–21002 (2018).
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B. Sima, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Combining frequency-selective scattering and specular reflection through phase-dispersion tailoring of a metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10(6), 064043 (2018).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1601102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Low-Scattering tri-band metasurface using combination of diffusion, absorption and cancellation,” IEEE Access 6, 17306–17312 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-Effciency metasurfaces: principles, realizations,and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, S. Tang, G. Wang, T. Cai, W. Huang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Multifunctional microstrip array combining a linear polarizer and focusing metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 64(8), 3676–3682 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Zhu, A. Y.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
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Zhu, B.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, L. Cui, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Dynamic control of asymmetric electromagnetic wave transmission by active chiral metamaterial,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42802 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. Hung Chu, J.-W. Chen, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen, B. Xu, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “Broadband achromatic optical metasurface devices,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 187 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y.

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Low-Scattering tri-band metasurface using combination of diffusion, absorption and cancellation,” IEEE Access 6, 17306–17312 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y. Q.

W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, T. J. Li, H. P. Li, Y. Q. Zhuang, and H. S. Hou, “Ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface for polarized beam splitting and reflected beam steering applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(42), 425305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Y.-Q.

W.-L. Guo, G.-M. Wang, K.-Y. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhuang, and Q.-C. Ge, “Design of single-layered ultrawideband high-efficiency circularly polarized reflectarray,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 17(8), 1386–1390 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C. W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

T. Cai, S. W. Tang, G. M. Wang, H. X. Xu, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-performance bifunctional metasurfaces in transmission and reflection geometries,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. He, S. Sun, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “High-Effciency metasurfaces: principles, realizations,and applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800415 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Yang, Q. Xu, Y. Yang, A. Noor, Q. Zhang, S. Iqbal, X. Wan, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Frequency-Dependent dual-functional coding metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 1965–1973 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, and S. Gong, “Ultra-wideband and high-efficiency polarization rotator based on metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051901 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Saeidi and D. van der Weide, “A figure of merit for focusing metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 113110 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (2)

K. Y. Liu, W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, H. P. Li, and G. Liu, “A novel broadband bi-functional metasurface for vortex generation and simultaneous RCS reduction,” IEEE Access 6, 63999–64007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhuang, G. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Low-Scattering tri-band metasurface using combination of diffusion, absorption and cancellation,” IEEE Access 6, 17306–17312 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

W.-L. Guo, G.-M. Wang, K.-Y. Liu, Y.-Q. Zhuang, and Q.-C. Ge, “Design of single-layered ultrawideband high-efficiency circularly polarized reflectarray,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 17(8), 1386–1390 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (3)

H.-P. Li, G.-M. Wang, T. Cai, J.-G. Liang, and X.-J. Gao, “Phase- and amplitude-control metasurfaces for antenna main-lobe and sidelobe manipulations,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 66(10), 5121–5129 (2018).
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M. Chen, L. Jiang, and W. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
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Light Sci. Appl. (3)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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J. Y. Dai, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Independent control of harmonic amplitudes and phases via a time-domain digital coding metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 90 (2018).
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Nano Lett. (6)

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer metasurface with controllable multiwavelength functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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B. Groever, W. T. Chen, and F. Capasso, “Meta-Lens doublet in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4902–4907 (2017).
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Nanophotonics (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Functions of the designed MS varied with frequency and incident polarization. (a) and (b) depict the function of isotropic meta-lens immune to incident polarization in X-band. (c) Simultaneous beam deflection and polarization-conversion in Ku-band when the metasurface is illuminated by x(y)-polarized incidence. (d) Anomalous beam deflection in co-polarized operation when the metasurface is illuminated by ± 45°-polarized incidence in Ku-band. Here, ± 45°-polarization means the polarized direction is ± 45° deviated from x-axis in xoz plane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Designed meta-atom and its surface current distribution. (a) Top view and (b) perspective view of the designed element. (c) and (d) depict the surface current intensity at 9 GHz and 15 GHz under y-polarized incidence.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflectivity and phase response of the proposed element varied with l and φ. (a) Co-polarized reflection coefficient, (b) co-polarized reflection phase and (c) cross-polarized reflection phase with φ fixed for 45° but l altered from 6.5 mm to 10.5 mm. (d) Co-polarized reflection coefficient, (e) co-polarized reflection phase and (f) cross-polarized reflection phase with l fixed for 6.5mm and 10.5 mm but φ jumped from 45° to −45°.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Element topology and phase response in Ku-band. (a) Element topology for the analysis of polarization-conversion effect. (b) Reflectivity of rxx and phase difference of ΔΦ with parameters (l, φ) set as (8.9mm, 45°).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Co-polarized reflectivity and phase response under 45°-polarized incidence. (a) Co-polarized reflectivity and (b) co-polarized phase shift with φ fixed for −45° but l varied from 10.5 mm to 6.5 mm. (c) Co-polarized reflectivity with l fixed for 10.5 mm and 6.5 mm but φ jumping from −45° to 45°. (d) Phase difference between φ = 45° and φ = −45° when l is fixed for 10.5 mm and 6.5 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Phase profile of the discrete hyperbolical phase profile in X-band. (b) Phase profile of the discrete gradient phase profile in Ku-band. (c) Configured metasurface.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Power distribution on xoz plane at 9 GHz. (b) Normalized power distribution on the line of (x = 0, y = 0). (c) Normalized power distribution on the line of (x = 0, y = 0) in the frequency bandwidth of 8 - 10GHz. (d) Power distribution on the plane of z = 90 mm at 9 GHz. (b) Normalized power distribution on the line of (y = 0, z = 90 mm). (c) Normalized power distribution on the line of (y = 0, z = 90 mm) in the frequency bandwidth of 8 - 10GHz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Simulated 3D scattering pattern with x-polarized excitation at 15 GHz. (b) Normalized scattering pattern on xoz plane at 15 GHz. (c) Scattering patterns of co-polarized component on xoz plane within 12 - 18 GHz. (d) Scattering patterns of cross-polarized component on xoz plane within 12 - 18 GHz.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated results of the metasurface under 45°-polarized excitation. (a) Normalized power distribution on the line of (x = 0, y = 0) at 9 GHz. (b) Scattering pattern of the metasurface on xoz plane at 15 GHz. (c) Synthesized power distribution on the line of (x = 0, y = 0) versus frequency. (d) Scattering patterns of co-polarized mode on xoz plane versus frequency.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Application and validation of the meta-lens in X-band. (a) Designed metasurface assembled with a Vivaldi antenna. (b) Simulated results of Re(Ex) on xoz plane. (c) far-field characteristic of the meta-lens illuminated by the Vivaldi point source.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Fabricated metasurface sample. (b) Measured setup of of the prototype in X-band. (c) Measured setup in Ku-band, where a horn source that is right ahead of the MS is employed to emit quasi-plane wave. Simulated (Sim.) and measured (Mea.) far-field patterns of co-polarization (Co-Pol.) and cross-polarization (X-Pol.) at 15 GHz on xoz plane under (d) x-polarized incidence and (e) 45°-polarized incidence. (f) Gain performances across the bandwidth of 8 - 10 GHz with x-polarized excitation.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a), (c) Normalized scattering pattern on xoz plane at 15 GHz under x- and 45°-polarized incidence. (b), (d) Scattering patterns of cross-polarized components on xoz plane within 12 - 18 GHz under x- and 45°-polarized incidence.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Coding elements for multifunctional MS

Equations (6)

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E y 2 | E x i | 2 ( 1cosΔΦ )/2 + E x 2 | E x i | 2 ( 1+cosΔΦ )/2 =1.
E r = E x i 2 { y ^ [ exp(j Φ v )exp(j Φ u ) ]+ x ^ [ exp(j Φ v )+exp(j Φ u ) ] }.
r yx = exp(j Φ v )exp(j Φ u ) 2 .
r xy = exp(j Φ u )exp(j Φ v ) 2 .
Φ( x,y )= 2π λ ( x 2 + y 2 + F 2 F ),
θ r = sin 1 ( λ L ),

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