Abstract

Femtosecond enhancement cavities have enabled multi-10-MHz-repetition-rate coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with photon energies exceeding 100 eV – albeit with rather severe limitations of the net conversion efficiency and of the duration of the XUV emission. Here, we explore the possibility of circumventing both these limitations by harnessing spatiotemporal couplings in the driving field, similar to the “attosecond lighthouse,” in theory and experiment. Our results predict dramatically improved output coupling efficiencies and efficient generation of isolated XUV attosecond pulses.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

T. Saule, S. Heinrich, J. Schötz, N. Lilienfein, M. Högner, O. deVries, M. Plötner, J. Weitenberg, D. Esser, J. Schulte, P. Russbueldt, J. Limpert, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and I. Pupeza, “High-flux ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy at 18.4 MHz pulse repetition rate,” Nat. Commun. 10, 458 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Högner, T. Saule, and I. Pupeza, “Efficiency of cavity-enhanced high harmonic generation with geometric output coupling,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 075401 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

G. Porat, C. M. Heyl, S. B. Schoun, C. Benko, N. Dörre, K. L. Corwin, and J. Ye, “Phase-matched extreme-ultraviolet frequency-comb generation,” Nat. Photonics 12, 387–391 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Saule, M. Högner, N. Lilienfein, O. de Vries, M. Plötner, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, and I. Pupeza, “Cumulative plasma effects in cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in gases,” APL Photonics 3, 101301 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5, 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Högner, T. Saule, N. Lilienfein, V. Pervak, and I. Pupeza, “Tailoring the transverse mode of a high-finesse optical resonator with stepped mirrors,” J. Opt. 20, 024003 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert, “Ultrafast thulium fiber laser system emitting more than 1 kW of average power,” Opt. Lett. 43, 5853–5856 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, K. Fai Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm−1,” Light. Sci. Appl. 7, 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

E. Balogh, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, F. Quere, P. Corkum, C. H. Nam, and K. T. Kim, “Dynamic wavefront rotation in the attosecond lighthouse,” Optica 4, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Schötz, B. Förg, M. Förster, W. A. Okell, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Reconstruction of Nanoscale Near Fields by Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, S. Holzberger, C. Matzer, P. Zimmermann, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, and I. Pupeza, “Enhancement cavities for few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 42, 271–274 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Högner, V. Tosa, and I. Pupeza, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with enhancement cavities—a theoretical study,” New J. Phys. 19, 033040 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: A theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Carstens, M. Högner, T. Saule, S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, A. Guggenmos, C. Jocher, T. Eidam, D. Esser, V. Tosa, V. Pervak, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “High-harmonic generation at 250 MHz with photon energies exceeding 100 eV,” Optica 3, 366 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, M. Laatiaoui, J. B. Neumayr, H.-J. Maier, H.-F. Wirth, C. Mokry, J. Runke, K. Eberhardt, C. E. Düllmann, N. G. Trautmann, and P. G. Thirolf, “Direct detection of the 229th nuclear clock transition,” Nature 533, 47–51 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, M. Trubetskov, H. Carstens, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Enhancement cavities for zero-offset-frequency pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2165–2168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, I. Pupeza, T. Udem, H.-D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Geometrical on-axis access to high-finesse resonators by quasi-imaging: a theoretical description,” J. Opt. 17, 025609 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, H. Carstens, T. Saule, M. Högner, F. Lücking, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Femtosecond Enhancement Cavities in the Nonlinear Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Louisy, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, E. W. Larsen, S. N. Bengtsson, D. Kroon, M. Kotur, D. Guénot, L. Rading, P. Rudawski, F. Brizuela, F. Campi, B. Kim, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, A. L’Huillier, and C. M. Heyl, “Gating attosecond pulses in a noncollinear geometry,” Optica 2, 563–566 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Corrigendum: Noncollinear optical gating (2014 New J. Phys. 16 052001),” New J. Phys. 16, 109501 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, M. Högner, J. Weitenberg, S. Holzberger, D. Esser, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, and V. Yakovlev, “Cavity-Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation with Spatially Tailored Driving Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Benko, T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, L. Hua, F. Labaye, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s,” Nat. Photonics 8, 530–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, T. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7, 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Carstens, S. Holzberger, J. Kaster, J. Weitenberg, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, E. Fill, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Large-mode enhancement cavities,” Opt. Express 21, 11606–11617 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2009 (1)

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1 S − 2 S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052505 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Wu and H. Zeng, “Cavity-enhanced noncollinear high-harmonic generation for extreme ultraviolet frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3315–3317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Jones, K. Moll, M. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201(2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, “Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics,” Opt. Commun. 242, 599–604 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, “Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics,” Opt. Commun. 242, 599–604 (2004).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5, 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Benko, T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, L. Hua, F. Labaye, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s,” Nat. Photonics 8, 530–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

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C. Benko, T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, L. Hua, F. Labaye, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s,” Nat. Photonics 8, 530–536 (2014).
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J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Opt. Express 19, 9551–9561 (2011).
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T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
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I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, T. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7, 608–612 (2013).
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A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
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N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
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M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Süßmann, F.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutter, D.

J. Zhang, K. Fai Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm−1,” Light. Sci. Appl. 7, 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thirolf, P. G.

L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, M. Laatiaoui, J. B. Neumayr, H.-J. Maier, H.-F. Wirth, C. Mokry, J. Runke, K. Eberhardt, C. E. Düllmann, N. G. Trautmann, and P. G. Thirolf, “Direct detection of the 229th nuclear clock transition,” Nature 533, 47–51 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thorpe, M.

R. Jones, K. Moll, M. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201(2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosa, V.

Trautmann, N. G.

L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, M. Laatiaoui, J. B. Neumayr, H.-J. Maier, H.-F. Wirth, C. Mokry, J. Runke, K. Eberhardt, C. E. Düllmann, N. G. Trautmann, and P. G. Thirolf, “Direct detection of the 229th nuclear clock transition,” Nature 533, 47–51 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, “Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics,” Opt. Commun. 242, 599–604 (2004).
[Crossref]

Trubetskov, M.

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, S. Holzberger, C. Matzer, P. Zimmermann, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, and I. Pupeza, “Enhancement cavities for few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 42, 271–274 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, M. Trubetskov, H. Carstens, F. Lücking, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Enhancement cavities for zero-offset-frequency pulse trains,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2165–2168 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, H. Carstens, T. Saule, M. Högner, F. Lücking, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Femtosecond Enhancement Cavities in the Nonlinear Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trushin, S. A.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

H. Carstens, M. Högner, T. Saule, S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, A. Guggenmos, C. Jocher, T. Eidam, D. Esser, V. Tosa, V. Pervak, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “High-harmonic generation at 250 MHz with photon energies exceeding 100 eV,” Optica 3, 366 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, H. Carstens, T. Saule, M. Högner, F. Lücking, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Femtosecond Enhancement Cavities in the Nonlinear Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, M. Högner, J. Weitenberg, S. Holzberger, D. Esser, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, and V. Yakovlev, “Cavity-Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation with Spatially Tailored Driving Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, T. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7, 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, I. Pupeza, T. Udem, H.-D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Geometrical on-axis access to high-finesse resonators by quasi-imaging: a theoretical description,” J. Opt. 17, 025609 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, T. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7, 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1 S − 2 S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052505 (2009).
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A. Ozawa, A. Vernaleken, W. Schneider, I. Gotlibovych, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Non-collinear high harmonic generation: a promising outcoupling method for cavity-assisted XUV generation,” Opt. Express 16, 6233–6239 (2008).
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C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vernaleken, A.

Villeneuve, D. M.

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vincenti, H.

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
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D. G. Voelz, Computational fourier optics – a MATLAB® tutorial (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash, 2011).
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L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, M. Laatiaoui, J. B. Neumayr, H.-J. Maier, H.-F. Wirth, C. Mokry, J. Runke, K. Eberhardt, C. E. Düllmann, N. G. Trautmann, and P. G. Thirolf, “Direct detection of the 229th nuclear clock transition,” Nature 533, 47–51 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitenberg, J.

T. Saule, S. Heinrich, J. Schötz, N. Lilienfein, M. Högner, O. deVries, M. Plötner, J. Weitenberg, D. Esser, J. Schulte, P. Russbueldt, J. Limpert, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and I. Pupeza, “High-flux ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy at 18.4 MHz pulse repetition rate,” Nat. Commun. 10, 458 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, I. Pupeza, T. Udem, H.-D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Geometrical on-axis access to high-finesse resonators by quasi-imaging: a theoretical description,” J. Opt. 17, 025609 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, M. Högner, J. Weitenberg, S. Holzberger, D. Esser, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, and V. Yakovlev, “Cavity-Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation with Spatially Tailored Driving Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Carstens, S. Holzberger, J. Kaster, J. Weitenberg, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, E. Fill, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Large-mode enhancement cavities,” Opt. Express 21, 11606–11617 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, T. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7, 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, T. Eidam, and I. Pupeza, “Transverse mode tailoring in a quasi-imaging high-finesse femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Opt. Express 19, 9551–9561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, M. G.

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5, 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wintersperger, K.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, H.-F.

L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, M. Laatiaoui, J. B. Neumayr, H.-J. Maier, H.-F. Wirth, C. Mokry, J. Runke, K. Eberhardt, C. E. Düllmann, N. G. Trautmann, and P. G. Thirolf, “Direct detection of the 229th nuclear clock transition,” Nature 533, 47–51 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

Wu, J.

Yakovlev, V.

I. Pupeza, M. Högner, J. Weitenberg, S. Holzberger, D. Esser, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, and V. Yakovlev, “Cavity-Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation with Spatially Tailored Driving Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

T. Saule, M. Högner, N. Lilienfein, O. de Vries, M. Plötner, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, and I. Pupeza, “Cumulative plasma effects in cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in gases,” APL Photonics 3, 101301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

G. Porat, C. M. Heyl, S. B. Schoun, C. Benko, N. Dörre, K. L. Corwin, and J. Ye, “Phase-matched extreme-ultraviolet frequency-comb generation,” Nat. Photonics 12, 387–391 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Benko, T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, L. Hua, F. Labaye, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s,” Nat. Photonics 8, 530–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14, 8189–8197 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jones, K. Moll, M. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201(2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

C. Benko, T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, L. Hua, F. Labaye, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s,” Nat. Photonics 8, 530–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, C.

E. Balogh, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, F. Quere, P. Corkum, C. H. Nam, and K. T. Kim, “Dynamic wavefront rotation in the attosecond lighthouse,” Optica 4, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, K. Fai Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm−1,” Light. Sci. Appl. 7, 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, P.

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5, 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, P.

APL Photonics (1)

T. Saule, M. Högner, N. Lilienfein, O. de Vries, M. Plötner, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, and I. Pupeza, “Cumulative plasma effects in cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in gases,” APL Photonics 3, 101301 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Schötz, B. Förg, M. Förster, W. A. Okell, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Reconstruction of Nanoscale Near Fields by Attosecond Streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

M. Högner, T. Saule, N. Lilienfein, V. Pervak, and I. Pupeza, “Tailoring the transverse mode of a high-finesse optical resonator with stepped mirrors,” J. Opt. 20, 024003 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, I. Pupeza, T. Udem, H.-D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Geometrical on-axis access to high-finesse resonators by quasi-imaging: a theoretical description,” J. Opt. 17, 025609 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Högner, T. Saule, and I. Pupeza, “Efficiency of cavity-enhanced high harmonic generation with geometric output coupling,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 52, 075401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Light. Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Zhang, K. Fai Mak, N. Nagl, M. Seidel, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and O. Pronin, “Multi-mW, few-cycle mid-infrared continuum spanning from 500 to 2250 cm−1,” Light. Sci. Appl. 7, 17180 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

T. Saule, S. Heinrich, J. Schötz, N. Lilienfein, M. Högner, O. deVries, M. Plötner, J. Weitenberg, D. Esser, J. Schulte, P. Russbueldt, J. Limpert, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and I. Pupeza, “High-flux ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy at 18.4 MHz pulse repetition rate,” Nat. Commun. 10, 458 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Förg, J. Schötz, F. Süßmann, M. Förster, M. Krüger, B. Ahn, W. A. Okell, K. Wintersperger, S. Zherebtsov, A. Guggenmos, V. Pervak, A. Kessel, S. A. Trushin, A. M. Azzeer, M. I. Stockman, D. Kim, F. Krausz, P. Hommelhoff, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (7)

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1, 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7, 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, G. G. Brown, K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond pulses measured from the attosecond lighthouse,” Nat. Photonics 10, 171–175 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, T. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7, 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Benko, T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, L. Hua, F. Labaye, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s,” Nat. Photonics 8, 530–536 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Lilienfein, C. Hofer, M. Högner, T. Saule, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, E. Fill, C. Riek, A. Leitenstorfer, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Temporal solitons in free-space femtosecond enhancement cavities,” Nat. Photonics 13, 214–218 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Porat, C. M. Heyl, S. B. Schoun, C. Benko, N. Dörre, K. L. Corwin, and J. Ye, “Phase-matched extreme-ultraviolet frequency-comb generation,” Nat. Photonics 12, 387–391 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. von der Wense, B. Seiferle, M. Laatiaoui, J. B. Neumayr, H.-J. Maier, H.-F. Wirth, C. Mokry, J. Runke, K. Eberhardt, C. E. Düllmann, N. G. Trautmann, and P. G. Thirolf, “Direct detection of the 229th nuclear clock transition,” Nature 533, 47–51 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

M. Högner, V. Tosa, and I. Pupeza, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with enhancement cavities—a theoretical study,” New J. Phys. 19, 033040 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, S. N. Bengtsson, S. Carlström, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Corrigendum: Noncollinear optical gating (2014 New J. Phys. 16 052001),” New J. Phys. 16, 109501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, “Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics,” Opt. Commun. 242, 599–604 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knünz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schüssler, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1 S − 2 S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 052505 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Auguste, O. Gobert, T. Ruchon, and F. Quéré, “Attosecond lighthouses in gases: A theoretical and numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033825 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pupeza, M. Högner, J. Weitenberg, S. Holzberger, D. Esser, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, and V. Yakovlev, “Cavity-Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation with Spatially Tailored Driving Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 103902 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jones, K. Moll, M. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201(2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme Nonlinear Optics in a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 183903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Holzberger, N. Lilienfein, H. Carstens, T. Saule, M. Högner, F. Lücking, M. Trubetskov, V. Pervak, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, E. Fill, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza, “Femtosecond Enhancement Cavities in the Nonlinear Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 023902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Struct. Dyn. (1)

C. Corder, P. Zhao, J. Bakalis, X. Li, M. D. Kershis, A. R. Muraca, M. G. White, and T. K. Allison, “Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet photoemission without space charge,” Struct. Dyn. 5, 054301 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

D. G. Voelz, Computational fourier optics – a MATLAB® tutorial (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash, 2011).
[Crossref]

G. Scoles, Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods (Oxford University Press, 1988).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Working principle of transverse mode gating: one lobe of a TEM01 resonator mode (wave fronts indicated by gray lines) is delayed by an odd number of half cycles using a half-sided delay mirror (DM). After a focusing mirror (FM), this leads to an on-axis maximum around the focus where the high-harmonic generation gas target is placed, with a wavefront rotation (WFR) adjustable by the step height of the DM. After the focus, the alteration of the mode is reversed, permitting low-diffraction-loss propagation in the resonator. Operating with negligible WFR affords high-efficiency geometric output coupling of the harmonic radiation emitted by all NIR half cycles. A larger WFR can be used to spatially isolate the harmonic emission of a single NIR half cycle, thus gating an isolated attosecond pulse.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Figures of merit for transverse mode gating. (a) Output coupling efficiency with the TMG mode (bold black lines) vs. hole output coupling with the fundamental mode (thin red lines), for HHG in argon (H33 at a peak intensity of 1.5×1014 W/cm2, dashed lines) and neon (H79 at a peak intensity of 3.0×1014 W/cm2, solid lines), with 40-fs pulses centered at 1025 nm and the output coupling slit/hole dimensions chosen so that the round-trip loss in both cases remains below 1%. (b) Expected on-axis inter-burst contrast ratio versus gas target position using 17.5-fs pulses and an accordingly chosen delay (solid black line) and with the demonstrated 40-fs pulses (dashed red line), in both cases computed for H79 in neon at a peak intensity of 3.0×1014 W/cm2. The gray continuations of the curves identify when pulse energies >80 μJ are needed to reach the corresponding peak intensities. The vertical dotted lines labeled with A, B and C mark the z position for the data shown in Figs. 5(b), 4 and 5(d), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup. IC: input coupler, HR: highly reflective mirror, DM: HR delay mirror with a stepped surface profile, FM: focusing HR mirror, OM: FM with an on-axis hole for output coupling, BS: IR/XUV beam splitter, diag.: diagnostics. Optional, for imaging the spatial dispersion: BP: Brewster plate, BF: optical bandpass filter, and an attenuator consisting of a half-wave plate (λ/2) and a polarizing beam splitter (PBS)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Top: Transverse intensity profiles of the cavity mode 305 μm in front of the focus, imaged with the arrangement shown in Fig. 3, and filtered for different wavelengths. The blue lines mark the position (solid) and 1/e2-width (dotted) of Gaussian functions fitted to the central lobe of the horizontally integrated profile. Bottom: The intracavity spectrum (gray) and, for each depicted profile, the corresponding spectrum transmitted through the bandpass filter (black, normalized). The diamonds mark the central lobe positions and corresponding central wavelengths of the filtered spectra. A linear fit (blue solid line) of the lobe position vs. frequency yields a spatial dispersion of −44 μm/PHz, compared to a theoretical value of −53 μm/PHz (blue dotted line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transverse intensity profile of the cavity mode measured without target gas (color scale), integrated profiles in horizontal and vertical direction (gray lines), and integrated profiles with the target gas (black dotted lines). (b) Output-coupled high-harmonic spectrum (black) generated in an argon target placed 450 μm in front of the focus, after transmission through a 300-nm Al filter (blue). (c,d) Same for a neon target placed 150 μm in front of the focus, using a 300-nm Zr filter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) Beam radius in y direction of a fundamental Gaussian mode fitted to the central lobe of the simulated TMG mode (delay 0.5 cycles, black) and of the fundamental Gaussian mode with the same complex beam parameter for comparison (gray). b) Wave-front curvature for both cases. c,d) Harmonic beam radius and wave-front curvature in y direction, calculated in the plane of the gas target with a simple analytical single-trajectory model for the harmonic dipole response, for generation parameters allowing for high photon energy (solid line with dot markers) and intermediate photon energy (dashed line). e) Pulse energy needed to reach 3×1014 W/cm2 (high photon energy case) and 1.5×1014 W/cm2 (intermediate photon energy case) in the gas target plane with the TMG mode (black) and the fundamental Gaussian mode (gray). f) Harmonic beam divergence in y direction, resulting from its beam radius and wave-front curvature in the gas target plane. g) Round-trip losses of the simulated TMG mode due to an on-axis output coupling slit with given angular width (black), and of the fundamental Gaussian mode due to an on-axis hole with given angular diameter (gray). h) XUV output coupling efficiencies resulting from the computed divergences, assuming output coupling apertures with a round-trip loss of 1%.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) XUV divergence in y direction for parameters enabling the gating of isolated attosecond pulses (solid line; see legend in (c)) and for the experimentally demonstrated parameters (dashed lines). b) Angular separation between consecutive attosecond bursts according to the numerical model. c) Resulting contrast ratio between strongest attosecond burst and neighboring bursts. The vertical dotted lines labeled with A, B and C mark the z position for the data shown in Figs. 5(b), 4 and 5(d), respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 a) Relevant parameters γ, wy for the spatial chirp contribution to the angular separation, for parameters enabling the production of isolated attosecond pulses (compare Fig. 7(c), solid line). b) The same for the contribution from the pulse-front tilt. c) Semi-analytical approximations Δ β c = π c ω c 2 γ / ( γ 2 + ( w y / Δ ω ) 2 ) (spatial chirp contribution to the angular separation), Δ β t = v T / 2 R y 1 (pulse-front tilt contribution) and their sum, compared to the numerically computed value Δβ.

Equations (16)

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E ( x , y , z , ω ) = TEM ^ 01 ( x , y , z , ω ) E ( ω ) ,
E TMG ( x , y , z ff , ω ) = = E ( x , y , z ff , ω ) exp   ( i ω Δ t H ( y ) )
E TMG ( x , y , z t , t max ) C exp   ( i k ( x r 2 2 q x + y r 2 2 q y ) i k β y y r )
( x max , y max , t max ) = arg max ( x , y , t ) | E TMG ( x , y , z t , t ) | 2 .
w H = w eff / N H
R H 1 = R eff 1 + 4 c α H I t H ω c w eff 2
θ = w H 2 R H 2 + 4 c 2 H 2 ω c 2 w H 2 .
L ( δ ) = 2 ( y < δ z ff / 2 | E TMG ( x , y , z ff , ω ) | 2 d x d y d ω | E TMG ( x , y , z ff , ω ) | 2 d x d y d ω )
ϵ = y < δ z m / 2 | E XUV ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y | E XUV ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y = erf ( δ / θ / 2 )
L ( δ ) = 2 ( x 2 + y 2 < δ z ff / 2 | E | 2 d x d y d ω | E | 2 d x d y d ω ) .
ϵ = x 2 + y 2 < δ z m / 2 | E X U V | 2 d x d y | E X U V | 2 d x d y = = 1 exp   ( 2 ( δ / θ / 2 ) 2 )
E TMG ( x , y , z t , t ) C exp   ( i k ( x r   ' 2 2 q x   ' + y r   ' 2 2 q y   ' ) i k β y   ' y r   ' )
( x max   ' , y max   ' ) = arg max ( x , y ) | E TMG ( x , y , z t , t ) | 2 .
Γ = 1 / | exp  ( Δ β 2 / θ 2 ) | 2
Δ β t = v T / 2 R y , eff 1
w m = L λ π

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