Abstract

The ultrafast dynamics of molecular nitrogen (N2) just below the ionization threshold has been investigated by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using a single harmonic centered at hν = 15.38 eV. The evolution of the Rydberg wavepacket launched by the ultrashort EUV pulse is probed by a time-delayed femtosecond NIR laser pulse. The observed photoelectron spectra show two series of vibrational peaks to the ground X2Σg+ state and the first excited A2Πu state of N2+. Among these, two photoelectron peaks with the vibrational quantum numbers vX+ = 4 and vA+ = 1 exhibit clear anti-phase oscillation with a period of 300 fs, showing that two Rydberg states converging to the X2Σg+ and A2Πu ionic states interact with each other, thus causing periodic switching in the population of the ion core states.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

A. Marciniak, V. Despré, V. Loriot, G. Karras, M. Hervé, L. Quintard, F. Catoire, C. Joblin, E. Constant, A. I. Kuleff, and F. Lépine, “Electron correlation driven non-adiabatic relaxation in molecules excited by an ultrashort extreme ultraviolet pulse,” Nat. Commun. 10, 337 (2019).
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C. Marceau, V. Makhija, P. Peng, M. Hervé, P. B. Corkum, A. Y. Naumov, A. Stolow, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Non-Born-Oppenheimer electronic wave packet in molecular nitrogen at 14 eV probed by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 023426 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

L. Young, K. Ueda, M. Gühr, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Simon, S. Mukamel, N. Rohringer, K. C. Prince, C. Masciovecchio, M. Meyer, A. Rudenko, D. Rolles, C. Bostedt, M. Fuchs, D. A. Reis, R. Santra, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, H. Ibrahim, F. Légaré, M. Vrakking, M. Isinger, D. Kroon, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, H. J. Wörner, and S. R. Leone, “Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51, 032003 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Q. Hao, J. Long, X. Deng, Y. Tang, B. Abulimiti, and B. Zhang, “Superexcited state dynamics of OCS: An experimental identification of three competing decay channels among autoionization, internal conversion, and neutral predissociation,” J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 3858–3863 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Fushitani and A. Hishikawa, “Single-order laser high harmonics in XUV for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular wavepacket dynamics,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 062602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Warrick, W. Cao, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Probing the dynamics of Rydberg and valence states of molecular nitrogen with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 120, 3165–3174 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

T. Okino, Y. Furukawa, Y. Nabekawa, S. Miyabe, A. A. Eilanlou, E. J. Takahashi, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct observation of an attosecond electron wave packet in a nitrogen molecule,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500356 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. Timmers, Z. Li, N. Shivaram, R. Santra, O. Vendrell, and A. Sandhu, “Coherent electron hole dynamics near a conical intersection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fechner, N. Camus, J. Ullrich, T. Pfeifer, and R. Moshammer, “Strong-field tunneling from a coherent superposition of electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 213001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. A. Little and J. Tennyson, “An ab initio study of singlet and triplet Rydberg states of N2,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 145102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. L. Guberman, “Spectroscopy above the ionization threshold: Dissociative recombination of the ground vibrational level of N2+,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074309 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Timmers, N. Shivaram, and A. Sandhu, “Ultrafast dynamics of neutral superexcited oxygen: A direct measurement of the competition between autoionization and predissociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 173001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, and A. Hishikawa, “EUV and soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of isolated atoms and molecules using single-order laser high-harmonics at 42 eV and 91 eV,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184, 561–568 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, and A. Hishikawa, “Time-resolved EUV photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating I2 by laser harmonics at 80 nm,” Opt. Express 19, 9600–9606 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Plenge, A. Wirsing, C. Raschpichler, B. Wassermann, and E. Rühl, “Control of coherent excitation of neon in the extreme ultraviolet regime,” Faraday Discuss. 153, 361–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C. M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133001 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. P. Huber, M.-C. Chan, G. Stark, K. Ito, and T. Matsui, “N2 band oscillator strengths at near-threshold energies,” J. Chem. Phys. 131, 084301 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. B. Dunning, J. J. Mestayer, C. O. Reinhold, S. Yoshida, and J. Burgdörfer, “Engineering atomic Rydberg states with pulsed electric fields,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 022001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. H. Fielding, “Rydberg wavepackets in molecules: From observation to control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 56, 91–117 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. S. Minns, J. R. R. Verlet, L. J. Watkins, and H. H. Fielding, “Observation and control of dissociating and autoionizing Rydberg electron wave packets in NO,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5842–5847 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ch. Jungen, K. P. Huber, M. Jungen, and G. Stark, “The near-threshold absorption spectrum of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4517–4538 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

F. Texier and Ch. Jungen, “Nuclear-electronic wave-packet dynamics in perturbed Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4329–4332 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Rutz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and E. Schreiber, “Femtosecond wave-packet propagation in spin-orbit-coupled electronic states of 39,39K2 and 39,41K2,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 306–313 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

J. A. Yeazell, M. Mallalieu, and C. R. Stroud Jr., C. R., “Observation of the collapse and revival of a Rydberg electronic wave packet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2007–2010 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Huber and Ch. Jungen, “High-resolution jet absorption study of nitrogen near 800 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 850–861 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. Parker and C. R. Stroud Jr., C. R., “Coherence and decay of Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 716–719 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

P. Labastie, M. C. Bordas, B. Tribollet, and M. Broyer, “Stroboscopic effect between electronic and nuclear motion in highly excited molecular Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1681–1684 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. C. Miller and R. N. Compton, “Multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of nitric oxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 22–29 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abulimiti, B.

Q. Hao, J. Long, X. Deng, Y. Tang, B. Abulimiti, and B. Zhang, “Superexcited state dynamics of OCS: An experimental identification of three competing decay channels among autoionization, internal conversion, and neutral predissociation,” J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 3858–3863 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anumula, S.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayuso, D.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baykusheva, D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belshaw, L.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bordas, M. C.

P. Labastie, M. C. Bordas, B. Tribollet, and M. Broyer, “Stroboscopic effect between electronic and nuclear motion in highly excited molecular Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1681–1684 (1984).
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L. Young, K. Ueda, M. Gühr, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Simon, S. Mukamel, N. Rohringer, K. C. Prince, C. Masciovecchio, M. Meyer, A. Rudenko, D. Rolles, C. Bostedt, M. Fuchs, D. A. Reis, R. Santra, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, H. Ibrahim, F. Légaré, M. Vrakking, M. Isinger, D. Kroon, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, H. J. Wörner, and S. R. Leone, “Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51, 032003 (2018).
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Warrick, E. R.

E. R. Warrick, W. Cao, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Probing the dynamics of Rydberg and valence states of molecular nitrogen with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 120, 3165–3174 (2016).
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Wassermann, B.

J. Plenge, A. Wirsing, C. Raschpichler, B. Wassermann, and E. Rühl, “Control of coherent excitation of neon in the extreme ultraviolet regime,” Faraday Discuss. 153, 361–373 (2011).
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R. S. Minns, J. R. R. Verlet, L. J. Watkins, and H. H. Fielding, “Observation and control of dissociating and autoionizing Rydberg electron wave packets in NO,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5842–5847 (2003).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Wirsing, A.

J. Plenge, A. Wirsing, C. Raschpichler, B. Wassermann, and E. Rühl, “Control of coherent excitation of neon in the extreme ultraviolet regime,” Faraday Discuss. 153, 361–373 (2011).
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Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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L. Young, K. Ueda, M. Gühr, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Simon, S. Mukamel, N. Rohringer, K. C. Prince, C. Masciovecchio, M. Meyer, A. Rudenko, D. Rolles, C. Bostedt, M. Fuchs, D. A. Reis, R. Santra, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, H. Ibrahim, F. Légaré, M. Vrakking, M. Isinger, D. Kroon, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, H. J. Wörner, and S. R. Leone, “Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51, 032003 (2018).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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T. Okino, Y. Furukawa, Y. Nabekawa, S. Miyabe, A. A. Eilanlou, E. J. Takahashi, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct observation of an attosecond electron wave packet in a nitrogen molecule,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500356 (2015).
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L. Young, K. Ueda, M. Gühr, P. H. Bucksbaum, M. Simon, S. Mukamel, N. Rohringer, K. C. Prince, C. Masciovecchio, M. Meyer, A. Rudenko, D. Rolles, C. Bostedt, M. Fuchs, D. A. Reis, R. Santra, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, H. Ibrahim, F. Légaré, M. Vrakking, M. Isinger, D. Kroon, M. Gisselbrecht, A. L’Huillier, H. J. Wörner, and S. R. Leone, “Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51, 032003 (2018).
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Q. Hao, J. Long, X. Deng, Y. Tang, B. Abulimiti, and B. Zhang, “Superexcited state dynamics of OCS: An experimental identification of three competing decay channels among autoionization, internal conversion, and neutral predissociation,” J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 3858–3863 (2017).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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H. H. Fielding, “Rydberg wavepackets in molecules: From observation to control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 56, 91–117 (2004).
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Faraday Discuss. (1)

J. Plenge, A. Wirsing, C. Raschpichler, B. Wassermann, and E. Rühl, “Control of coherent excitation of neon in the extreme ultraviolet regime,” Faraday Discuss. 153, 361–373 (2011).
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R. S. Minns, J. R. R. Verlet, L. J. Watkins, and H. H. Fielding, “Observation and control of dissociating and autoionizing Rydberg electron wave packets in NO,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5842–5847 (2003).
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J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

E. R. Warrick, W. Cao, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Probing the dynamics of Rydberg and valence states of molecular nitrogen with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 120, 3165–3174 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Hao, J. Long, X. Deng, Y. Tang, B. Abulimiti, and B. Zhang, “Superexcited state dynamics of OCS: An experimental identification of three competing decay channels among autoionization, internal conversion, and neutral predissociation,” J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 3858–3863 (2017).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Marciniak, V. Despré, V. Loriot, G. Karras, M. Hervé, L. Quintard, F. Catoire, C. Joblin, E. Constant, A. I. Kuleff, and F. Lépine, “Electron correlation driven non-adiabatic relaxation in molecules excited by an ultrashort extreme ultraviolet pulse,” Nat. Commun. 10, 337 (2019).
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Nature (2)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466, 739–743 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Rutz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and E. Schreiber, “Femtosecond wave-packet propagation in spin-orbit-coupled electronic states of 39,39K2 and 39,41K2,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 306–313 (1996).
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L. Fechner, N. Camus, J. Ullrich, T. Pfeifer, and R. Moshammer, “Strong-field tunneling from a coherent superposition of electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 213001 (2014).
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Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C. M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133001 (2010).
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H. Timmers, Z. Li, N. Shivaram, R. Santra, O. Vendrell, and A. Sandhu, “Coherent electron hole dynamics near a conical intersection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113003 (2014).
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Sci. Adv. (1)

T. Okino, Y. Furukawa, Y. Nabekawa, S. Miyabe, A. A. Eilanlou, E. J. Takahashi, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct observation of an attosecond electron wave packet in a nitrogen molecule,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500356 (2015).
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Science (4)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martín, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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M. Fushitani and A. Hishikawa, “Single-order laser high harmonics in XUV for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular wavepacket dynamics,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 062602 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Potential energy curves of the Rydberg states of N2 converging to the X 2 Σ g + and A2Πu states and ionic states in N 2 + [23, 24]. An ultrashort EUV pump pulse (15.38 eV) creates the molecular Rydberg wavepacket. The evolution is probed by an NIR pulse introduced with a time delay of Δt. The photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to study the interaction between the Rydberg states. (b) Oscillator strengths of Rydberg states of N2 in the range between 15.36 and 15.40 eV [27,28]. These Rydberg states form two main bands around 15.386 and 15.373 eV.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) EUV-NIR photoelectron spectrogram of Rydberg N2 plotted with the pump-probe time delay Δt and the photoelectron energy. Shown on the bottom is the photoelectron spectrum recorded at Δt = 1000 fs. The peak assignments are shown on the top. (b) Time-evolution of the photoelectron intensities for the vX+ = 0–4, vA+ = 1 peaks.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fourier-transform of the observed time-resolved photoelectron spectrogram as a function of the photoelectron energy. Solid lines indicate the differences in the state energies between the A+(1)3 Rydberg state and other Rydberg states in the energy range excited by the EUV pulses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Energy level diagram of the X+(4)4 and A+(1)3 Rydberg states. The unperturbed levels have energies of 124076 and 124033 cm−1 from the ground state with the difference of ΔE(0) = 43 cm−1, which are estimated [27] from the corresponding Rydberg series. By the perturbation, the eigenstates, ψ+ and ψ, assigned to the X+(4)4 and A+(1)3 Rydberg states, respectively, are formed to have the energy difference of ΔE = 110 cm−1 [27]. The coherent superposition of these eigenstates results in the periodic oscillation of the intensities of the vX+ = 4 and vA+ = 1 photoelectron peaks. (b) Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and HOMO-1 of the N 2 + core, 3σg and 1πg.

Equations (4)

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Ψ ( t ) = a + ψ + exp ( i E + t ) + a ψ exp ( i E t ) ,
c 1 = [ Δ E + Δ E ( 0 ) 2 Δ E ] 1 / 2 , c 2 = ± [ Δ E Δ E ( 0 ) 2 Δ E ] 1 / 2
Ψ ( t ) = [ a + c 1 exp ( i E + t ) + a c 2 exp ( i E t ) ] | X + ( 4 ) 4 p π + [ a + c 2 exp ( i E + t ) a c 1 exp ( i E t ) ] | A + ( 1 ) 3 d δ ,
I X + ( 4 ) ( t ) ~ | | μ | 4 p π | 2 [ a + 2 c 1 2 + a 2 c 2 2 + 2 a + a c 1 c 2 cos ( Δ E t ) ] I A + ( 1 ) ( t ) ~ | | μ | 3 d δ | 2 [ a 2 c 1 2 + a + 2 c 2 2 2 a + a c 1 c 2 cos ( Δ E t ) ] ,

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