Abstract

The broadband vertical optical inputs/outputs (I/Os) of silicon (Si) photonics pose significant challenges in terms of practical applications. Herein, we worked on a vertical optical I/O using a 45° curved micro-mirror. To verify the optical coupling characteristics, a simulation was conducted. As a result, efficient broadband optical coupling with various types of single-mode optical fibers was obtained owing to its lens function. An integration technology of the curved mirror was also developed based on the semiconductor manufacturing process. A curved micro-mirror with a spherical surface was obtained, and the vertical optical I/O with its lens function was demonstrated experimentally.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Dai, L. Ma, Y. Xu, M. Lu, X. Liu, and Y. Chen, “Highly efficient and perfectly vertical chip-to-fiber dual-layer grating coupler,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1691–1698 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

J. Covey and R. T. Chen, “Efficient perfectly vertical fiber-to-chip grating coupler for silicon horizontal multiple slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10886–10896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Sabry, B. Saadany, D. Khalil, and T. Bourouina, “Silicon micromirrors with three-dimensional curvature enabling lens-less efficient coupling of free-space light,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e94 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yamada, M. Nozawa, M. Kinoshita, and K. Ohashi, “Vertical-coupling optical interface for on-chip optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 19(2), 698–703 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, J. Luff, T. Sze, D. Cohen, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15052–15058 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-Tolerant Waveguide Chirped Grating Coupler for Coupling to a Perfectly Vertical Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1914–1916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Johraku and Y. Kokubun, “Low loss vertical optical path conversion using 45° mirror for coupling between optical waveguide devices and planar devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6744–6749 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, and T. Shioda, “Self-written waveguide connection across diced waveguide gaps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(7), 880–882 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Terui and K. Shutoh, “Novel Micromirror for Vertical Optical Path Conversion Formed in Silica-Based PLC Using Wettability Control of Resin,” J. Lit. Technol. 16(9), 1631–1639 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Juerss, and B. Wagner, “Micro-optic fabrication using one-level gray-tone lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3008, 279–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adachi, K.

T. Suzuki, K. Adachi, T. Okumura, H. Arimoto, and S. Tanaka, “A Light Source Using 1.3-μm Lens-Integrated Surface-Emitting Laser for Silicon Platforms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1089–1091 (2014).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Amano, T.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

T. Suzuki, K. Adachi, T. Okumura, H. Arimoto, and S. Tanaka, “A Light Source Using 1.3-μm Lens-Integrated Surface-Emitting Laser for Silicon Platforms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1089–1091 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Augendre, E.

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[Crossref]

Awatsuji, Y.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bakir, B. B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bernabé, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berroth, M.

Bojko, R.

Bourouina, T.

Y. M. Sabry, B. Saadany, D. Khalil, and T. Bourouina, “Silicon micromirrors with three-dimensional curvature enabling lens-less efficient coupling of free-space light,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e94 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Carroll, L.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. T.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-Tolerant Waveguide Chirped Grating Coupler for Coupling to a Perfectly Vertical Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1914–1916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chrostowski, L.

Cohen, D.

Collins, S.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Covey, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, M.

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

Duperron, M.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eason, C.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Engelke, R.

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

Ghosh, S.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gradkowski, K.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, U.

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, H. L.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, T. Y.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Hwang, H.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Inoue, J.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jayatilleka, H.

Johraku, Y.

Y. Johraku and Y. Kokubun, “Low loss vertical optical path conversion using 45° mirror for coupling between optical waveguide devices and planar devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6744–6749 (2008).
[Crossref]

Juerss, M.

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Juerss, and B. Wagner, “Micro-optic fabrication using one-level gray-tone lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3008, 279–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Khalil, D.

Y. M. Sabry, B. Saadany, D. Khalil, and T. Bourouina, “Silicon micromirrors with three-dimensional curvature enabling lens-less efficient coupling of free-space light,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e94 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, M.

Kintaka, K.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kohlmann-von Platen, K. T.

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Johraku and Y. Kokubun, “Low loss vertical optical path conversion using 45° mirror for coupling between optical waveguide devices and planar devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6744–6749 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kopp, C.

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kunze, A.

Lan, H. C.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lei, H.

Lemonnier, O.

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[Crossref]

Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-Tolerant Waveguide Chirped Grating Coupler for Coupling to a Perfectly Vertical Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1914–1916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Lin, Y. S.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, X.

Lo, G. Q.

Lu, H.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Luff, J.

Ma, L.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Merz, P.

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mikami, O.

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, and T. Shioda, “Self-written waveguide connection across diced waveguide gaps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(7), 880–882 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mimura, Y.

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, and T. Shioda, “Self-written waveguide connection across diced waveguide gaps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(7), 880–882 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morrissey, P.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nishi, H.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nishio, K.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noriki, A.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nozawa, M.

O’Brien, P.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P. A.

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Obata, Y.

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, and T. Shioda, “Self-written waveguide connection across diced waveguide gaps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(7), 880–882 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ogura, T.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, K.

Okumura, T.

T. Suzuki, K. Adachi, T. Okumura, H. Arimoto, and S. Tanaka, “A Light Source Using 1.3-μm Lens-Integrated Surface-Emitting Laser for Silicon Platforms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1089–1091 (2014).
[Crossref]

Onawa, Y.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Orobtchouk, R.

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, and J. M. Fedeli, “Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding,” J. Lit. Technol. 29(12), 1847–1851 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ossieur, P.

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, H.

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, and T. Shioda, “Self-written waveguide connection across diced waveguide gaps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(7), 880–882 (2006).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

Patel, D.

Pavarelli, N.

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Poon, J. K. S.

Porte, H.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Quenzer, H. J.

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Juerss, and B. Wagner, “Micro-optic fabrication using one-level gray-tone lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3008, 279–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Reimer, K.

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Juerss, and B. Wagner, “Micro-optic fabrication using one-level gray-tone lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3008, 279–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rensing, M.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Saadany, B.

Y. M. Sabry, B. Saadany, D. Khalil, and T. Bourouina, “Silicon micromirrors with three-dimensional curvature enabling lens-less efficient coupling of free-space light,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e94 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sabry, Y. M.

Y. M. Sabry, B. Saadany, D. Khalil, and T. Bourouina, “Silicon micromirrors with three-dimensional curvature enabling lens-less efficient coupling of free-space light,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e94 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sacher, W. D.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

Sasaki, H.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, M.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Scarcella, C.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schrank, F.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, P. K.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shimura, D.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shioda, T.

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, and T. Shioda, “Self-written waveguide connection across diced waveguide gaps,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(7), 880–882 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

Shutoh, K.

H. Terui and K. Shutoh, “Novel Micromirror for Vertical Optical Path Conversion Formed in Silica-Based PLC Using Wettability Control of Resin,” J. Lit. Technol. 16(9), 1631–1639 (1998).
[Crossref]

Simons, J.

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, K. Adachi, T. Okumura, H. Arimoto, and S. Tanaka, “A Light Source Using 1.3-μm Lens-Integrated Surface-Emitting Laser for Silicon Platforms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1089–1091 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sze, T.

Tanaka, S.

T. Suzuki, K. Adachi, T. Okumura, H. Arimoto, and S. Tanaka, “A Light Source Using 1.3-μm Lens-Integrated Surface-Emitting Laser for Silicon Platforms,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(11), 1089–1091 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taylor, B. J. F.

Tekin, T.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Terui, H.

H. Terui and K. Shutoh, “Novel Micromirror for Vertical Optical Path Conversion Formed in Silica-Based PLC Using Wettability Control of Resin,” J. Lit. Technol. 16(9), 1631–1639 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-Tolerant Waveguide Chirped Grating Coupler for Coupling to a Perfectly Vertical Optical Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1914–1916 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ukita, S.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ura, S.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 30(11), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Veerasubramanian, V.

Vogel, W.

Wagner, B.

K. Reimer, R. Engelke, U. Hofmann, P. Merz, K. T. Kohlmann-von Platen, and B. Wagner, “Progress in gray-tone lithography and replication techniques for different materials,” Proc. SPIE 3879, 98–105 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Reimer, H. J. Quenzer, M. Juerss, and B. Wagner, “Micro-optic fabrication using one-level gray-tone lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3008, 279–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wu, M. L.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yaegashi, H.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

Yamada, K.

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, H. Yaegashi, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(9), 090302 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Noriki, T. Amano, D. Shimura, Y. Onawa, H. Sasaki, K. Yamada, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Ukita, M. Sasaki, and M. Mori, “Broadband and Polarization-Independent Efficient Vertical Optical Coupling with 45° Mirror for Optical I/O of Si Photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 34(12), 3012–3018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Zhao, Y.

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zhong, Q.

Zhou, S.

N. Pavarelli, J. S. Lee, M. Rensing, C. Scarcella, S. Zhou, P. Ossieur, and P. A. O’Brien, “Optical and electronic packaging process for silicon photonic systems,” J. Lit. Technol. 33(5), 991–997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T. Z.

M. L. Wu, C. T. Chen, P. K. Shen, T. Y. Huang, C. C. Chang, H. L. Hsiao, T. Z. Zhu, H. C. Lan, Y. C. Lee, and Y. S. Lin, “Polymer-waveguide-based optical circuit with two vertical-transition output ports realized on silicon substrate for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 7901108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic Packaging: transforming Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits into Photonic Devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J. M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sectional schematic of the vertical optical I/O with a 45° curved micro-mirror for a Si photonics chip.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Results of coupling efficiency simulation with vertical optical path conversion of curved micro-mirror. Figure on right shows a schematic of the simulation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Integration process of curved micro-mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated dimensional tolerances of the curved micro-mirrors.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) 3D view of integrated curved micro-mirror measured using laser microscopy and (b) its surface profile along the x-axis. The red dashed line represents the optical axis of the Si waveguide and the blue line represents the curve fitting area of the micro-mirror surface.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Curve fitting results of the curved micro-mirror surface.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measurement setup of NFP and FFP.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured NFP and FFP of lateral and vertical output from Si inverse taper waveguide and curved micro-mirror.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Vertical coupling alignment tolerance of high NA fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optimized SSC-to-mirror distances and curvatures of curved micro-mirrors for each MFD. R1 and R2 are the curvature radius in the x’ and y directions (see Fig. 2).

Equations (1)

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z'= x ' 2 / R 1 + y 2 / R 2 1+ 1x ' 2 / R 1 2 y 2 / R 2 2 ,

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