Abstract

We present the design, development, and testing results of a novel laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) sensor for methane detection. The sensor is specifically oriented for mobile (i.e. vehicle deployed) monitoring of natural gas emissions from oil and infrastructure. In contrast to most commercial CRDS sensors, we employ an open-path design which allows higher temporal response and a lower power and mass package more suited to vehicle integration. The system operates in the near-infrared (NIR) at 1651 nm with primarily telecom components and includes cellular communication for wireless data transfer. Along with basic sensor design and lab testing, we present results of field measurements showing performance over a range of ambient conditions and examples of methane plume detection.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

Z. D. Weller, D. K. Yang, and J. C. von Fischer, “An open source algorithm to detect natural gas leaks from mobile methane survey data,” PLoS One 14(2), e0212287 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (8)

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baray, A. Darlington, M. Gordon, K. L. Hayden, A. Leithead, S. M. Li, P. S. K. Liu, R. L. Mittermeier, S. G. Moussa, J. O’Brien, R. Staebler, M. Wolde, D. Worthy, and R. McLaren, “Quantification of methane sources in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta by aircraft mass balance,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 7361–7378 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. X. Sheng, D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Benmergui, A. A. Bloom, C. Arndt, R. Gautam, D. Zavala-Araiza, H. Boesch, and R. J. Parker, “2010-2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 12257–12267 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. H. Cusworth, D. J. Jacob, J. X. Sheng, J. Benmergui, A. J. Turner, J. Brandman, L. White, and C. A. Randles, “Detecting high-emitting methane sources in oil/gas fields using satellite observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(23), 16885–16896 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. L. Vaughn, C. S. Bell, C. K. Pickering, S. Schwietzke, G. A. Heath, G. Pétron, D. J. Zimmerle, R. C. Schnell, and D. Nummedal, “Temporal variability largely explains top-down/bottom-up difference in methane emission estimates from a natural gas production region,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115(46), 11712–11717 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Ravikumar, J. Wang, M. McGuire, C. S. Bell, D. Zimmerle, and A. R. Brandt, ““Good versus Good Enough?” Empirical Tests of Methane Leak Detection Sensitivity of a Commercial Infrared Camera,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 52(4), 2368–2374 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Caulton, Q. Li, E. Bou-Zeid, J. P. Fitts, L. M. Golston, D. Pan, J. Lu, H. M. Lane, B. Buchholz, X. H. Guo, J. McSpiritt, L. Wendt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Quantifying uncertainties from mobile-laboratory-derived emissions of well pads using inverse Gaussian methods,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(20), 15145–15168 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. M. Golston, N. F. Aubut, M. B. Frish, S. T. Yang, R. W. Talbot, C. Gretencord, J. McSpiritt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Localization and Quantification of Emission Rate,” Atmosphere 9(9), 333 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

C. S. Bell, T. L. Vaughn, D. Zimmerle, S. C. Herndon, T. I. Yacovitch, G. A. Heath, G. Petron, R. Edie, R. A. Field, S. M. Murphy, A. M. Robertson, and J. Soltis, “Comparison of methane emission estimates from multiple measurement techniques at natural gas production pads,” Elementa-Sci. Anthropocene 5, 14 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. K. Lee, A. Christen, R. Ketler, and Z. Nesic, “A mobile sensor network to map carbon dioxide emissions in urban environments,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(2), 645–665 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. S. Apte, K. P. Messier, S. Gani, M. Brauer, T. W. Kirchstetter, M. M. Lunden, J. D. Marshall, C. J. Portier, R. C. H. Vermeulen, and S. P. Hamburg, “High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(12), 6999–7008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Johnson, D. R. Tyner, S. Conley, S. Schwietzke, and D. Zavala-Araiza, “Comparisons of Airborne Measurements and Inventory Estimates of Methane Emissions in the Alberta Upstream Oil and Gas Sector,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(21), 13008–13017 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. von Fischer, D. Cooley, S. Chamberlain, A. Gaylord, C. J. Griebenow, S. P. Hamburg, J. Salo, R. Schumacher, D. Theobald, and J. Ham, “Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(7), 4091–4099 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

L. E. McHale, A. Hecobian, and A. P. Yalin, “Open-path cavity ring-down spectroscopy for trace gas measurements in ambient air,” Opt. Express 24(5), 5523–5535 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. X. Sheng, K. Sun, X. Liu, K. Chance, I. Aben, J. McKeever, and C. Frankenberg, “Satellite observations of atmospheric methane and their value for quantifying methane emissions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 14371–14396 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Peischl, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, E. A. Kort, M. L. Smith, A. R. Brandt, T. Yeskoo, K. C. Aikin, S. A. Conley, A. Gvakharia, M. Trainer, S. Wolter, and T. B. Ryerson, “Quantifying atmospheric methane emissions from oil and natural gas production in the Bakken shale region of North Dakota,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(10), 6101–6111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, V. Palacios, R. Harriss, X. Lan, R. Talbot, and S. P. Hamburg, “Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8167–8174 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

C. L. Hagen, B. C. Lee, I. S. Franka, J. L. Rath, T. C. VandenBoer, J. M. Roberts, S. S. Brown, and A. P. Yalin, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for detection of hydrogen chloride,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 345–357 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Brantley, E. D. Thoma, W. C. Squier, B. B. Guven, and D. Lyon, “Assessment of Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Pads using Mobile Measurements,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(24), 14508–14515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Petron, G. Frost, R. M. Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4393–4397 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and K. K. Lehmann, “Sensitivity Limits of Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(50), 13399–13411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4(5), 1355–1368 (2012).
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2009 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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2005 (1)

B. A. Paldus and A. A. Kachanov, “An historical overview of cavity enhanced methods,” Can. J. Phys. 83(10), 975–999 (2005).
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2004 (1)

A. Pettersson, E. R. Lovejoy, C. A. Brock, S. S. Brown, and A. R. Ravishankara, “Measurement of aerosol optical extinction at 532nm with pulsed cavity ring down spectroscopy,” J. Aerosol Sci. 35(8), 995–1011 (2004).
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2003 (2)

S. S. Brown, “Absorption spectroscopy in high-finesse cavities for atmospheric studies,” Chem. Rev. 103(12), 5219–5238 (2003).
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J. B. Dudek, P. B. Tarsa, A. Velasquez, M. Wladyslawski, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, “Trace moisture detection using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 75(17), 4599–4605 (2003).
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2002 (1)

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, and A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in the near infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 261–265 (2002).
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2000 (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
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1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption-spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys., B Photophys. Laser Chem. 57, 131–139 (1993).
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1966 (1)

Aben, I.

D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. X. Sheng, K. Sun, X. Liu, K. Chance, I. Aben, J. McKeever, and C. Frankenberg, “Satellite observations of atmospheric methane and their value for quantifying methane emissions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 14371–14396 (2016).
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Aikin, K. C.

J. Peischl, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, E. A. Kort, M. L. Smith, A. R. Brandt, T. Yeskoo, K. C. Aikin, S. A. Conley, A. Gvakharia, M. Trainer, S. Wolter, and T. B. Ryerson, “Quantifying atmospheric methane emissions from oil and natural gas production in the Bakken shale region of North Dakota,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(10), 6101–6111 (2016).
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Albertson, J. D.

J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
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E. Thoma, H. Brantley, and J. D. Albertson, “Fugitive methane assessment with mobile and fence line sensors,” in CH4 Connections Workshop (GTI, 2014).

Allen, D. T.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
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Alvarez, R. A.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
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D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
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D. Zavala-Araiza, D. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, V. Palacios, R. Harriss, X. Lan, R. Talbot, and S. P. Hamburg, “Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8167–8174 (2015).
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Amin, M. S.

J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
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Apte, J. S.

J. S. Apte, K. P. Messier, S. Gani, M. Brauer, T. W. Kirchstetter, M. M. Lunden, J. D. Marshall, C. J. Portier, R. C. H. Vermeulen, and S. P. Hamburg, “High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(12), 6999–7008 (2017).
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Arfire, A.

A. Arfire, A. Marjovi, and A. Martinoli, “Mitigating Slow Dynamics of Low-Cost Chemical Sensors for Mobile Air Quality Monitoring Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks, (Junction Publishing, 2016), pp. 159–167.

Arndt, C.

J. X. Sheng, D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Benmergui, A. A. Bloom, C. Arndt, R. Gautam, D. Zavala-Araiza, H. Boesch, and R. J. Parker, “2010-2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 12257–12267 (2018).
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Aubut, N. F.

L. M. Golston, N. F. Aubut, M. B. Frish, S. T. Yang, R. W. Talbot, C. Gretencord, J. McSpiritt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Localization and Quantification of Emission Rate,” Atmosphere 9(9), 333 (2018).
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Baer, D. S.

D. S. Baer, J. B. Paul, M. Gupta, and A. O’Keefe, “Sensitive absorption measurements in the near infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 261–265 (2002).
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Banta, R.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Petron, G. Frost, R. M. Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4393–4397 (2013).
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Baray, S.

S. Baray, A. Darlington, M. Gordon, K. L. Hayden, A. Leithead, S. M. Li, P. S. K. Liu, R. L. Mittermeier, S. G. Moussa, J. O’Brien, R. Staebler, M. Wolde, D. Worthy, and R. McLaren, “Quantification of methane sources in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta by aircraft mass balance,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 7361–7378 (2018).
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Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barkley, Z. R.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, C. S.

T. L. Vaughn, C. S. Bell, C. K. Pickering, S. Schwietzke, G. A. Heath, G. Pétron, D. J. Zimmerle, R. C. Schnell, and D. Nummedal, “Temporal variability largely explains top-down/bottom-up difference in methane emission estimates from a natural gas production region,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115(46), 11712–11717 (2018).
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A. P. Ravikumar, J. Wang, M. McGuire, C. S. Bell, D. Zimmerle, and A. R. Brandt, ““Good versus Good Enough?” Empirical Tests of Methane Leak Detection Sensitivity of a Commercial Infrared Camera,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 52(4), 2368–2374 (2018).
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C. S. Bell, T. L. Vaughn, D. Zimmerle, S. C. Herndon, T. I. Yacovitch, G. A. Heath, G. Petron, R. Edie, R. A. Field, S. M. Murphy, A. M. Robertson, and J. Soltis, “Comparison of methane emission estimates from multiple measurement techniques at natural gas production pads,” Elementa-Sci. Anthropocene 5, 14 (2017).
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Benmergui, J.

D. H. Cusworth, D. J. Jacob, J. X. Sheng, J. Benmergui, A. J. Turner, J. Brandman, L. White, and C. A. Randles, “Detecting high-emitting methane sources in oil/gas fields using satellite observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(23), 16885–16896 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. X. Sheng, D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Benmergui, A. A. Bloom, C. Arndt, R. Gautam, D. Zavala-Araiza, H. Boesch, and R. J. Parker, “2010-2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 12257–12267 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(4), 565–607 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Bergmann, D.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Blake, D. R.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bloom, A. A.

J. X. Sheng, D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Benmergui, A. A. Bloom, C. Arndt, R. Gautam, D. Zavala-Araiza, H. Boesch, and R. J. Parker, “2010-2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 12257–12267 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boesch, H.

J. X. Sheng, D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Benmergui, A. A. Bloom, C. Arndt, R. Gautam, D. Zavala-Araiza, H. Boesch, and R. J. Parker, “2010-2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 12257–12267 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bou-Zeid, E.

D. R. Caulton, Q. Li, E. Bou-Zeid, J. P. Fitts, L. M. Golston, D. Pan, J. Lu, H. M. Lane, B. Buchholz, X. H. Guo, J. McSpiritt, L. Wendt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Quantifying uncertainties from mobile-laboratory-derived emissions of well pads using inverse Gaussian methods,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(20), 15145–15168 (2018).
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Brandman, J.

D. H. Cusworth, D. J. Jacob, J. X. Sheng, J. Benmergui, A. J. Turner, J. Brandman, L. White, and C. A. Randles, “Detecting high-emitting methane sources in oil/gas fields using satellite observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(23), 16885–16896 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brandt, A. R.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Ravikumar, J. Wang, M. McGuire, C. S. Bell, D. Zimmerle, and A. R. Brandt, ““Good versus Good Enough?” Empirical Tests of Methane Leak Detection Sensitivity of a Commercial Infrared Camera,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 52(4), 2368–2374 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peischl, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, E. A. Kort, M. L. Smith, A. R. Brandt, T. Yeskoo, K. C. Aikin, S. A. Conley, A. Gvakharia, M. Trainer, S. Wolter, and T. B. Ryerson, “Quantifying atmospheric methane emissions from oil and natural gas production in the Bakken shale region of North Dakota,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121(10), 6101–6111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brantley, H.

J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Thoma, H. Brantley, and J. D. Albertson, “Fugitive methane assessment with mobile and fence line sensors,” in CH4 Connections Workshop (GTI, 2014).

Brantley, H. L.

H. L. Brantley, E. D. Thoma, W. C. Squier, B. B. Guven, and D. Lyon, “Assessment of Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Pads using Mobile Measurements,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(24), 14508–14515 (2014).
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Brauer, M.

J. S. Apte, K. P. Messier, S. Gani, M. Brauer, T. W. Kirchstetter, M. M. Lunden, J. D. Marshall, C. J. Portier, R. C. H. Vermeulen, and S. P. Hamburg, “High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(12), 6999–7008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brewer, A.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Petron, G. Frost, R. M. Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4393–4397 (2013).
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Brock, C. A.

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J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
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C. L. Hagen, B. C. Lee, I. S. Franka, J. L. Rath, T. C. VandenBoer, J. M. Roberts, S. S. Brown, and A. P. Yalin, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for detection of hydrogen chloride,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 345–357 (2014).
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D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. X. Sheng, K. Sun, X. Liu, K. Chance, I. Aben, J. McKeever, and C. Frankenberg, “Satellite observations of atmospheric methane and their value for quantifying methane emissions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(22), 14371–14396 (2016).
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S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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L. M. Golston, N. F. Aubut, M. B. Frish, S. T. Yang, R. W. Talbot, C. Gretencord, J. McSpiritt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Localization and Quantification of Emission Rate,” Atmosphere 9(9), 333 (2018).
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Frost, G.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Petron, G. Frost, R. M. Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4393–4397 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. S. Apte, K. P. Messier, S. Gani, M. Brauer, T. W. Kirchstetter, M. M. Lunden, J. D. Marshall, C. J. Portier, R. C. H. Vermeulen, and S. P. Hamburg, “High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(12), 6999–7008 (2017).
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J. X. Sheng, D. J. Jacob, A. J. Turner, J. D. Maasakkers, J. Benmergui, A. A. Bloom, C. Arndt, R. Gautam, D. Zavala-Araiza, H. Boesch, and R. J. Parker, “2010-2016 methane trends over Canada, the United States, and Mexico observed by the GOSAT satellite: contributions from different source sectors,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(16), 12257–12267 (2018).
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Gaylord, A.

J. C. von Fischer, D. Cooley, S. Chamberlain, A. Gaylord, C. J. Griebenow, S. P. Hamburg, J. Salo, R. Schumacher, D. Theobald, and J. Ham, “Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(7), 4091–4099 (2017).
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Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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D. R. Caulton, Q. Li, E. Bou-Zeid, J. P. Fitts, L. M. Golston, D. Pan, J. Lu, H. M. Lane, B. Buchholz, X. H. Guo, J. McSpiritt, L. Wendt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Quantifying uncertainties from mobile-laboratory-derived emissions of well pads using inverse Gaussian methods,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(20), 15145–15168 (2018).
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L. M. Golston, N. F. Aubut, M. B. Frish, S. T. Yang, R. W. Talbot, C. Gretencord, J. McSpiritt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Localization and Quantification of Emission Rate,” Atmosphere 9(9), 333 (2018).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. C. L. R. Brown, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenco, C. E. Miller, O. V. N. N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, S. A. T. K. Sung, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Baray, A. Darlington, M. Gordon, K. L. Hayden, A. Leithead, S. M. Li, P. S. K. Liu, R. L. Mittermeier, S. G. Moussa, J. O’Brien, R. Staebler, M. Wolde, D. Worthy, and R. McLaren, “Quantification of methane sources in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta by aircraft mass balance,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 7361–7378 (2018).
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L. M. Golston, N. F. Aubut, M. B. Frish, S. T. Yang, R. W. Talbot, C. Gretencord, J. McSpiritt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Localization and Quantification of Emission Rate,” Atmosphere 9(9), 333 (2018).
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J. C. von Fischer, D. Cooley, S. Chamberlain, A. Gaylord, C. J. Griebenow, S. P. Hamburg, J. Salo, R. Schumacher, D. Theobald, and J. Ham, “Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(7), 4091–4099 (2017).
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D. R. Caulton, Q. Li, E. Bou-Zeid, J. P. Fitts, L. M. Golston, D. Pan, J. Lu, H. M. Lane, B. Buchholz, X. H. Guo, J. McSpiritt, L. Wendt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Quantifying uncertainties from mobile-laboratory-derived emissions of well pads using inverse Gaussian methods,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(20), 15145–15168 (2018).
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H. L. Brantley, E. D. Thoma, W. C. Squier, B. B. Guven, and D. Lyon, “Assessment of Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Pads using Mobile Measurements,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(24), 14508–14515 (2014).
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C. L. Hagen, B. C. Lee, I. S. Franka, J. L. Rath, T. C. VandenBoer, J. M. Roberts, S. S. Brown, and A. P. Yalin, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for detection of hydrogen chloride,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 345–357 (2014).
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Ham, J.

J. C. von Fischer, D. Cooley, S. Chamberlain, A. Gaylord, C. J. Griebenow, S. P. Hamburg, J. Salo, R. Schumacher, D. Theobald, and J. Ham, “Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(7), 4091–4099 (2017).
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Hamburg, S. P.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
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J. C. von Fischer, D. Cooley, S. Chamberlain, A. Gaylord, C. J. Griebenow, S. P. Hamburg, J. Salo, R. Schumacher, D. Theobald, and J. Ham, “Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(7), 4091–4099 (2017).
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J. S. Apte, K. P. Messier, S. Gani, M. Brauer, T. W. Kirchstetter, M. M. Lunden, J. D. Marshall, C. J. Portier, R. C. H. Vermeulen, and S. P. Hamburg, “High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(12), 6999–7008 (2017).
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D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
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D. Zavala-Araiza, D. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, V. Palacios, R. Harriss, X. Lan, R. Talbot, and S. P. Hamburg, “Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8167–8174 (2015).
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Hardesty, R. M.

A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Petron, G. Frost, R. M. Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4393–4397 (2013).
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Harrison, W. A.

A. Khan, D. Schaefer, L. Tao, D. J. Miller, K. Sun, M. A. Zondlo, W. A. Harrison, B. Roscoe, and D. J. Lary, “Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” Remote Sens. 4(5), 1355–1368 (2012).
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Harriss, R.

D. Zavala-Araiza, D. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, V. Palacios, R. Harriss, X. Lan, R. Talbot, and S. P. Hamburg, “Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8167–8174 (2015).
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D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
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Harvey, T.

J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
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Hayden, K. L.

S. Baray, A. Darlington, M. Gordon, K. L. Hayden, A. Leithead, S. M. Li, P. S. K. Liu, R. L. Mittermeier, S. G. Moussa, J. O’Brien, R. Staebler, M. Wolde, D. Worthy, and R. McLaren, “Quantification of methane sources in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta by aircraft mass balance,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18, 7361–7378 (2018).
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Heath, G. A.

T. L. Vaughn, C. S. Bell, C. K. Pickering, S. Schwietzke, G. A. Heath, G. Pétron, D. J. Zimmerle, R. C. Schnell, and D. Nummedal, “Temporal variability largely explains top-down/bottom-up difference in methane emission estimates from a natural gas production region,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115(46), 11712–11717 (2018).
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C. S. Bell, T. L. Vaughn, D. Zimmerle, S. C. Herndon, T. I. Yacovitch, G. A. Heath, G. Petron, R. Edie, R. A. Field, S. M. Murphy, A. M. Robertson, and J. Soltis, “Comparison of methane emission estimates from multiple measurement techniques at natural gas production pads,” Elementa-Sci. Anthropocene 5, 14 (2017).
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Hecobian, A.

Heimann, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Herndon, S. C.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
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C. S. Bell, T. L. Vaughn, D. Zimmerle, S. C. Herndon, T. I. Yacovitch, G. A. Heath, G. Petron, R. Edie, R. A. Field, S. M. Murphy, A. M. Robertson, and J. Soltis, “Comparison of methane emission estimates from multiple measurement techniques at natural gas production pads,” Elementa-Sci. Anthropocene 5, 14 (2017).
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D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
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Hodson, E. L.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Houweling, S.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Huang, H.

H. Huang and K. K. Lehmann, “Sensitivity Limits of Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(50), 13399–13411 (2013).
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Jacob, D. J.

R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, D. R. Lyon, D. T. Allen, Z. R. Barkley, A. R. Brandt, K. J. Davis, S. C. Herndon, D. J. Jacob, A. Karion, E. A. Kort, B. K. Lamb, T. Lauvaux, J. D. Maasakkers, A. J. Marchese, M. Omara, S. W. Pacala, J. Peischl, A. L. Robinson, P. B. Shepson, C. Sweeney, A. Townsend-Small, S. C. Wofsy, and S. P. Hamburg, “Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain,” Science 361(6398), 186–188 (2018).
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D. H. Cusworth, D. J. Jacob, J. X. Sheng, J. Benmergui, A. J. Turner, J. Brandman, L. White, and C. A. Randles, “Detecting high-emitting methane sources in oil/gas fields using satellite observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(23), 16885–16896 (2018).
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S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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D. Zavala-Araiza, D. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, V. Palacios, R. Harriss, X. Lan, R. Talbot, and S. P. Hamburg, “Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8167–8174 (2015).
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A. Karion, C. Sweeney, G. Petron, G. Frost, R. M. Hardesty, J. Kofler, B. R. Miller, T. Newberger, S. Wolter, R. Banta, A. Brewer, E. Dlugokencky, P. Lang, S. A. Montzka, R. Schnell, P. Tans, M. Trainer, R. Zamora, and S. Conley, “Methane emissions estimate from airborne measurements over a western United States natural gas field,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4393–4397 (2013).
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S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J. F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quere, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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J. S. Apte, K. P. Messier, S. Gani, M. Brauer, T. W. Kirchstetter, M. M. Lunden, J. D. Marshall, C. J. Portier, R. C. H. Vermeulen, and S. P. Hamburg, “High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(12), 6999–7008 (2017).
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D. Zavala-Araiza, D. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, V. Palacios, R. Harriss, X. Lan, R. Talbot, and S. P. Hamburg, “Toward a Functional Definition of Methane Super-Emitters: Application to Natural Gas Production Sites,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8167–8174 (2015).
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Z. D. Weller, D. K. Yang, and J. C. von Fischer, “An open source algorithm to detect natural gas leaks from mobile methane survey data,” PLoS One 14(2), e0212287 (2019).
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L. M. Golston, N. F. Aubut, M. B. Frish, S. T. Yang, R. W. Talbot, C. Gretencord, J. McSpiritt, and M. A. Zondlo, “Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Localization and Quantification of Emission Rate,” Atmosphere 9(9), 333 (2018).
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M. R. Johnson, D. R. Tyner, S. Conley, S. Schwietzke, and D. Zavala-Araiza, “Comparisons of Airborne Measurements and Inventory Estimates of Methane Emissions in the Alberta Upstream Oil and Gas Sector,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 51(21), 13008–13017 (2017).
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D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
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J. D. Albertson, T. Harvey, G. Foderaro, P. Zhu, X. Zhou, S. Ferrari, M. S. Amin, M. Modrak, H. Brantley, and E. D. Thoma, “A Mobile Sensing Approach for Regional Surveillance of Fugitive Methane Emissions in Oil and Gas Production,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(5), 2487–2497 (2016).
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Zimmerle, D.

A. P. Ravikumar, J. Wang, M. McGuire, C. S. Bell, D. Zimmerle, and A. R. Brandt, ““Good versus Good Enough?” Empirical Tests of Methane Leak Detection Sensitivity of a Commercial Infrared Camera,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 52(4), 2368–2374 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Bell, T. L. Vaughn, D. Zimmerle, S. C. Herndon, T. I. Yacovitch, G. A. Heath, G. Petron, R. Edie, R. A. Field, S. M. Murphy, A. M. Robertson, and J. Soltis, “Comparison of methane emission estimates from multiple measurement techniques at natural gas production pads,” Elementa-Sci. Anthropocene 5, 14 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. R. Lyon, D. Zavala-Araiza, R. A. Alvarez, R. Harriss, V. Palacios, X. Lan, R. Talbot, T. Lavoie, P. Shepson, T. I. Yacovitch, S. C. Herndon, A. J. Marchese, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, and S. P. Hamburg, “Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 49(13), 8147–8157 (2015).
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Zimmerle, D. J.

T. L. Vaughn, C. S. Bell, C. K. Pickering, S. Schwietzke, G. A. Heath, G. Pétron, D. J. Zimmerle, R. C. Schnell, and D. Nummedal, “Temporal variability largely explains top-down/bottom-up difference in methane emission estimates from a natural gas production region,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115(46), 11712–11717 (2018).
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Zondlo, M. A.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulated open-path absorption spectrum for typical Colorado ambient conditions: T = 296 K, P = 0.84 atm, [CH4] = 1.8 ppm, [H2O] = 50% Relative Humidity, [CO2] = 380 ppm. Dashed lines show the contributing CH4 peaks.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of CRDS methane sensor.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Solid model of sensor as deployed on truck roof. Main components are labeled.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plot of measured versus actual methane concentration to examine sensor accuracy.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Top: Time series of CH4 concentrations. Bottom: Resulting Allan deviation as function of sampling time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photograph of truck with roof-mounted methane sensor.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependence of sensitivity (Allan Deviation) versus ambient temperature.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Examples of plumes detected by the truck-mounted sensor at the METEC facility.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Plume detection from real oil and gas equipment. Top: Single-pass along road in Wyoming/Colorado region. Bottom: Multiple passes along road in Pennsylvania. Broken yellow lines show perimeters containing oil and gas equipment; red arrows show wind direction. See text.

Equations (1)

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k( ν )=b+ ϕ L ( ν, ν 0i ,Δ ν i )P S i n i

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