Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP), an emerging two-dimensional (2D) material with intriguing optical properties, forms a promising building block in optical and photonic devices. In this work, we propose a simple structure composed of a monolayer BP sandwiched by polymer and dielectric materials with low index contrast, and numerically demonstrate the perfect absorption mechanism via the critical coupling of guided resonances in the mid-infrared. Due to the inherent in-plane anisotropic feature of BP, the proposed structure exhibits highly polarization-dependent absorption characteristics, i.e., the optical absorption of the structure reaches 99.9% for TM polarization and only 3.2% for TE polarization at the same wavelength. Furthermore, the absorption peak and resonance wavelength can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the electron doping of BP, the geometrical parameters of the structure and the incident angles of light. Finally, the perfect absorption is also realized with the multilayer BP by simply adjusting the geometrical parameters. With high efficiency absorption, the remarkable anisotropy, flexible tunability, and easy-to-fabricate advantages, the proposed structure shows promising prospects in the design of polarization-selective and tunable high-performance devices in the mid-infrared, such as polarizers, modulators and photodetectors.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

Y. Cai, K.-D. Xu, N. Feng, R. Guo, H. Lin, and J. Zhu, “Anisotropic infrared plasmonic broadband absorber based on graphene-black phosphorus multilayers,” Opt. Express 27, 3101–3112 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

2018 (6)

X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26, 5488–5496 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Li, Y.-Z. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Wavelength-selective wide-angle light absorption enhancement in monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 3236–3241 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Akhavan, S. Abdolhosseini, H. Ghafoorifard, and H. Habibiyan, “Narrow band total absorber at near-infrared wavelengths using monolayer graphene and sub-wavelength grating based on critical coupling,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5593–5599 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Qing, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Tailoring anisotropic perfect absorption in monolayer black phosphorus by critical coupling at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 26, 32442–32450 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jeon, M. Kim, J. Jia, J.-H. Park, S. Lee, and Y. J. Song, “Controlled p-doping of black phosphorus by integration of mos2 nanoparticles,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 440, 282–287 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Active tuning of midinfrared surface plasmon resonance and its hybridization in black phosphorus sheet array,” ACS Photonics 5, 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and Z. Hu, “Dual-band and polarization-independent infrared absorber based on two-dimensional black phosphorus metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25, 22149–22157 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xiong, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Strong anisotropic perfect absorption in monolayer black phosphorous and its application as tunable polarizer,” J. Opt. 19, 075002 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, L. Wang, J. Zhu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Surface plasmons in a nanostructured black phosphorus flake,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2659–2662 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Y. Gong, D. Mao, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “Strong plasmonic confinement and optical force in phosphorene pairs,” Opt. Express 25, 5255–5263 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roldán and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Black phosphorus: A new bandgap tuning knob,” Nat. Photonics 11, 407 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Deng, V. Tran, Y. Xie, H. Jiang, C. Li, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Tian, S. J. Koester, H. Wang, J. J. Cha, Q. Xia, L. Yang, and F. Xia, “Efficient electrical control of thin-film black phosphorus bandgap,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14474 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, T. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Yan, and L. Cheng, “Tunable ultra-high-efficiency light absorption of monolayer graphene using critical coupling with guided resonance,” Opt. Express 25, 27028–27036 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fan, C. Guo, Z. Zhu, W. Xu, F. Wu, X. Yuan, and S. Qin, “Monolayer-graphene-based perfect absorption structures in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 25, 13079–13086 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, L. Seixas, A. Carvalho, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. Yakovlev, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Electron doping of ultrathin black phosphorus with cu adatoms,” Nano Lett. 16, 2145–2151 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16, 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, R. Yang, B. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Wang, “Broadband black phosphorus optical modulator in the spectral range from visible to mid-infrared,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1787–1792 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, A. M. Jones, K. L. Seyler, V. Tran, Y. Jia, H. Zhao, H. Wang, L. Yang, X. Xu, and F. Xia, “Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 517 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1, 347–353 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Szabó, G.-H. Park, R. Hedge, and E.-P. Li, “A unique extraction of metamaterial parameters based on kramers–kronig relationship,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58, 2646–2653 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Smith, D. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

Abdolhosseini, S.

A. Akhavan, S. Abdolhosseini, H. Ghafoorifard, and H. Habibiyan, “Narrow band total absorber at near-infrared wavelengths using monolayer graphene and sub-wavelength grating based on critical coupling,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5593–5599 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akhavan, A.

A. Akhavan, S. Abdolhosseini, H. Ghafoorifard, and H. Habibiyan, “Narrow band total absorber at near-infrared wavelengths using monolayer graphene and sub-wavelength grating based on critical coupling,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5593–5599 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alexander, R. W.

Argyropoulos, C.

T. Guo and C. Argyropoulos, “Broadband and polarization-insensitive coherent perfect absorption by black phosphorus metasurfaces,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.04165 (2019).

Avouris, P.

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16, 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Carvalho, A.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, L. Seixas, A. Carvalho, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. Yakovlev, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Electron doping of ultrathin black phosphorus with cu adatoms,” Nano Lett. 16, 2145–2151 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

R. Roldán and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Black phosphorus: A new bandgap tuning knob,” Nat. Photonics 11, 407 (2017).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, L. Seixas, A. Carvalho, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. Yakovlev, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Electron doping of ultrathin black phosphorus with cu adatoms,” Nano Lett. 16, 2145–2151 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, J. J.

B. Deng, V. Tran, Y. Xie, H. Jiang, C. Li, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Tian, S. J. Koester, H. Wang, J. J. Cha, Q. Xia, L. Yang, and F. Xia, “Efficient electrical control of thin-film black phosphorus bandgap,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14474 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Active tuning of midinfrared surface plasmon resonance and its hybridization in black phosphorus sheet array,” ACS Photonics 5, 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, L. Wang, J. Zhu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Surface plasmons in a nanostructured black phosphorus flake,” Opt. Lett. 42, 2659–2662 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.

S. Xiao, T. Liu, L. Cheng, C. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Li, and C. Xu, “Tunable anisotropic absorption in hyperbolic metamaterials based on black phosphorous/dielectric multilayer structures,” J. Light. Technol. 37, 3290–3297 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, T. Wang, S. Xiao, X. Yan, and L. Cheng, “Tunable ultra-high-efficiency light absorption of monolayer graphene using critical coupling with guided resonance,” Opt. Express 25, 27028–27036 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

Dai, X.

Deng, B.

B. Deng, V. Tran, Y. Xie, H. Jiang, C. Li, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Tian, S. J. Koester, H. Wang, J. J. Cha, Q. Xia, L. Yang, and F. Xia, “Efficient electrical control of thin-film black phosphorus bandgap,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14474 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dodge, M. J.

Doganov, R. A.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, L. Seixas, A. Carvalho, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. Yakovlev, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Ozyilmaz, “Electron doping of ultrathin black phosphorus with cu adatoms,” Nano Lett. 16, 2145–2151 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1, 347–353 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, N.

Ferrari, A.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghafoorifard, H.

A. Akhavan, S. Abdolhosseini, H. Ghafoorifard, and H. Habibiyan, “Narrow band total absorber at near-infrared wavelengths using monolayer graphene and sub-wavelength grating based on critical coupling,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5593–5599 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guinea, F.

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

Guo, J.

Guo, Q.

B. Deng, V. Tran, Y. Xie, H. Jiang, C. Li, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Tian, S. J. Koester, H. Wang, J. J. Cha, Q. Xia, L. Yang, and F. Xia, “Efficient electrical control of thin-film black phosphorus bandgap,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14474 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

Guo, T.

T. Guo and C. Argyropoulos, “Broadband and polarization-insensitive coherent perfect absorption by black phosphorus metasurfaces,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.04165 (2019).

Habibiyan, H.

A. Akhavan, S. Abdolhosseini, H. Ghafoorifard, and H. Habibiyan, “Narrow band total absorber at near-infrared wavelengths using monolayer graphene and sub-wavelength grating based on critical coupling,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 5593–5599 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, L.

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Active tuning of midinfrared surface plasmon resonance and its hybridization in black phosphorus sheet array,” ACS Photonics 5, 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hedge, R.

Z. Szabó, G.-H. Park, R. Hedge, and E.-P. Li, “A unique extraction of metamaterial parameters based on kramers–kronig relationship,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58, 2646–2653 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

H.-J. Li, Y.-Z. Ren, J. Hu, M. Qin, and L. Wang, “Wavelength-selective wide-angle light absorption enhancement in monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Light. Technol. 36, 3236–3241 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

Hu, Z.-X.

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

S. Jeon, M. Kim, J. Jia, J.-H. Park, S. Lee, and Y. J. Song, “Controlled p-doping of black phosphorus by integration of mos2 nanoparticles,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 440, 282–287 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram and (b) the side-view of the proposed absorption structure. The inset illustrates the structure of a monolayer BP. The lattice period in both x and y direction is denoted as P. The thickness of Au layer, MgF2 layer, BP layer and PDMS layer are represented by D, dm, dBP and dp, respectively. The radius of the air holes is R. The effective permittivity of BP along (c) x direction and (d) y direction. The black and red lines denote the real and imaginary parts, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated and theoretically absorption spectra for (a) TM and (b) TE polarization. The insets are the effective impedances of the corresponding absorption spectra in the vicinity of the resonance wavelengths. (c) Distributions of electric field intensity |E| at the resonance wavelength for TM polarization, including xy cross-section plane above the BP layer and along xz and yz cross-section planes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated absorption spectra at different electron doping ns of BP for (a) TM and (b) TE polarization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of peak absorption and resonance wavelength on geometrical parameters, (a) the air hole radius, (b)the thickness of PDMS layer and (c) the thickness of MgF2 layer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of absorption of the structure on angular dispersions, incident angle for (a)TM and (b)TE polarization under the oblique incidence, and (c) polarization angle under the normal incidence.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (Multilayer BP) Dependence of peak absorption and resonance wavelength on geometrical parameters, (a) the air hole radius, (b)the thickness of PDMS layer and (c) the thickness of MgF2 layer.

Equations (7)

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Γ = y u = i ( ω ω 0 ) + δ γ e i ( ω ω 0 ) + δ + γ e ,
A = 1 | Γ | 2 = 4 δ γ e ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + ( δ + γ e ) 2 ,
Z = ( T 22 T 11 ) ± ( T 22 T 11 ) 2 + 4 T 12 T 21 2 T 21 ,
T 11 = ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 S 22 ) + S 21 S 12 2 S 21 ,
T 12 = ( 1 + S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) S 21 S 12 2 S 21 ,
T 21 = ( 1 S 11 ) ( 1 S 22 ) S 21 S 12 2 S 21 ,
T 22 = ( 1 S 11 ) ( 1 + S 22 ) + S 21 S 12 2 S 21 .

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