Abstract

We herein propose a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doping method into liquid crystal (LC) alignment polyimides (PIs) with low resistivity for resolving both issues of voltage holding and image sticking in low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching (FFS) LC modes using negative dielectric LCs (n-LCs). By utilizing strong ion trapping ability of MWCNTs, the FFS n-LC cell aligned by low resistivity PIs with 0.05 wt% MWCNT doping exhibited an excellent voltage holding ratio of 99% under an extremely low operation frequency of 0.5 Hz and approximately 23.6 times better surface discharging property than that aligned by high resistivity PIs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Kim and J.-H. Lee, “Fast falling time of fringe-field-switching negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal achieved by inserting vertical walls,” Appl. Opt. 54(5), 1046–1050 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Jiang, G. Qin, X. Xu, L. Zhou, S. Lee, and D.-K. Yang, “Image flickering-free polymer stabilized fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 26(25), 32640–32651 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
  15. R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “Voltage holding ratio and residual DC property of the IPS-LCD on rubbed polymer layers by voltage-transmittance hysteresis method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410(1), 369–380 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  29. C.-W. Lee and W.-P. Shih, “Quantification of ion trapping effect of carbon nanomaterials in liquid crystals,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 466–468 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. B.-R. Jian, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical properties of dilute suspensions of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals,” Carbon 49(3), 910–914 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  32. I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Takezoe, “Polar liquid crystals – ferro, antiferro, banana, and columnar –,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 646(1), 46–65 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  37. H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  39. S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, G. Qin, X. Xu, L. Zhou, S. Lee, and D.-K. Yang, “Image flickering-free polymer stabilized fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 26(25), 32640–32651 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Takezoe, “Polar liquid crystals – ferro, antiferro, banana, and columnar –,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 646(1), 46–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dependence of image flicker on dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal in a fringe field switching liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 094101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

H. Kim and J.-H. Lee, “Fast falling time of fringe-field-switching negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal achieved by inserting vertical walls,” Appl. Opt. 54(5), 1046–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B.-R. Jian, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical properties of dilute suspensions of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals,” Carbon 49(3), 910–914 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C.-W. Lee and W.-P. Shih, “Quantification of ion trapping effect of carbon nanomaterials in liquid crystals,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 466–468 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “Voltage holding ratio and residual DC property of the IPS-LCD on rubbed polymer layers by voltage-transmittance hysteresis method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410(1), 369–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abe, S.

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. H.

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S.-H.

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

An, K. H.

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Asagi, H.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baba, H.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-H.

Baek, J.-M.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dependence of image flicker on dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal in a fringe field switching liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 094101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baik, H. K.

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baik, I.-S.

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
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Bidna, T.

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
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Bimber, O.

R. R. Hainich and O. Bimber, Displays: Fundamentals and Applications (CRC, 2016).

Bos, P. J.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
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Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
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Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, E.-J.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. C.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.-C.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-W.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, T.-H.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
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Choi, W.-Y.

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chubachi, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, C.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukai, S.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
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Fukuda, A.

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
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Ha, Y. M.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hainich, R. R.

R. R. Hainich and O. Bimber, Displays: Fundamentals and Applications (CRC, 2016).

Ham, H. G.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, J. S.

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, Y.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hatsumi, R.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hirakata, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-M.

Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hur, H. J.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.-Y.

Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “Voltage holding ratio and residual DC property of the IPS-LCD on rubbed polymer layers by voltage-transmittance hysteresis method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410(1), 369–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishii, Y.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
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Ito, Y.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jang, I. W.

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. Y.

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeon, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “Voltage holding ratio and residual DC property of the IPS-LCD on rubbed polymer layers by voltage-transmittance hysteresis method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410(1), 369–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jeong, I. H.

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-U.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. H.

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jian, B.-R.

F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

B.-R. Jian, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical properties of dilute suspensions of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals,” Carbon 49(3), 910–914 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Jikumaru, M.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. S.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jo, M. H.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jun, M. C.

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jun, M.-C.

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, I.-B.

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

Keum, C.-M.

Kim, B. K.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. E.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-W.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kim and J.-H. Lee, “Fast falling time of fringe-field-switching negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal achieved by inserting vertical walls,” Appl. Opt. 54(5), 1046–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-S.

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dependence of image flicker on dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal in a fringe field switching liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 094101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koyama, J.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubota, D.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubota, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kundu, S.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kusunoki, K.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuze, E.

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.-S.

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y. R.

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-W.

C.-W. Lee and W.-P. Shih, “Quantification of ion trapping effect of carbon nanomaterials in liquid crystals,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 466–468 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-J.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-D.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. M.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kim and J.-H. Lee, “Fast falling time of fringe-field-switching negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal achieved by inserting vertical walls,” Appl. Opt. 54(5), 1046–1050 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.-H.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Lee, S. H.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. R.

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

B.-R. Jian, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical properties of dilute suspensions of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals,” Carbon 49(3), 910–914 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-C.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-D.

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, F.-C.

F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, R.

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, K.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, T.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miyake, I.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miyasato, K.

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mizusaki, M.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mizushima, S.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moriya, K.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nie, X.

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nishihara, Y.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-W.

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dependence of image flicker on dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal in a fringe field switching liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 094101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-S.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, K. A.

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, M.-K.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qin, G.

Ranjkesh, A.

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, G.-Y. Shim, J.-C. Choi, J.-S. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, A. Ranjkesh, and H.-R. Kim, “Transient flickering behavior in fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode analyzed by positional asymmetric flexoelectric dynamics,” Opt. Express 23(26), 34055–34070 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seo, D.-S.

Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “Voltage holding ratio and residual DC property of the IPS-LCD on rubbed polymer layers by voltage-transmittance hysteresis method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410(1), 369–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shih, W.-P.

C.-W. Lee and W.-P. Shih, “Quantification of ion trapping effect of carbon nanomaterials in liquid crystals,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 466–468 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shim, G.-Y.

Shimada, S.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, M.

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y.-H.

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

Song, X.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A. K.

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

H. Takezoe, “Polar liquid crystals – ferro, antiferro, banana, and columnar –,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 646(1), 46–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tang, C.-Y.

B.-R. Jian, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical properties of dilute suspensions of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals,” Carbon 49(3), 910–914 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tie, W.

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, W.-C.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tseng, M.-C.

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.-C.

F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. X.

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Yamada, Y.

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, T.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, A.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, S.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-K.

Y. Jiang, G. Qin, X. Xu, L. Zhou, S. Lee, and D.-K. Yang, “Image flickering-free polymer stabilized fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Opt. Express 26(25), 32640–32651 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, C.-M. Keum, D.-K. Yang, H. G. Ham, K.-U. Jeong, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Field-symmetrization to solve luminance deviation between frames in a low-frequency-driven fringe-field switching liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29568–29576 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yaroshchuk, O.

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yeh, E.-R.

Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.-S.

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dependence of image flicker on dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal in a fringe field switching liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 094101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, H. J.

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. (1)

F.-C. Lin, P.-C. Wu, B.-R. Jian, and W. Lee, “Dopant effect and cell-configuration-dependent dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Condens. Matter Phys. 2013, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Kim, H. S. Jin, S. J. Lee, Y.-H. Shin, H. G. Ham, D.-K. Yang, P. J. Bos, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Liquid crystals for superior electro-optic performance display device with power-saving mode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(11), 1800022 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

I.-S. Baik, S. Y. Jeon, S. H. Lee, K. A. Park, S. H. Jeong, K. H. An, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrical-field effect on carbon nanotubes in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

B.-R. Jian, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical properties of dilute suspensions of carbon nanotubes in nematic liquid crystals,” Carbon 49(3), 910–914 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crystals (1)

Y. Chen, F. Peng, T. Yamaguchi, X. Song, and S.-T. Wu, “High performance negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals for display applications,” Crystals 3(3), 483–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

H.-Y. Kim, Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, J.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Residual DC characteristics in the IPS-LCD by capacitance–voltage hysteresis method on a polymer layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 2(3), 237–240 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. (2)

I. Miyake, H. Asagi, M. Shimizu, K. Matsumoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Hashimoto, T. Matsushita, S. Shimada, and Y. Ito, “Photo-alignment and n-FFS LCD technologies with IGZO-TFT applied to generation eight factory,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 592–595 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Yoon, S.-H. Ahn, W.-Y. Choi, J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M.-C. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on DC resistibility of positive and negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal in AH-IPS mode,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 1697–1699 (2016).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

Y.-C. Hsiao, S.-M. Huang, E.-R. Yeh, and W. Lee, “Temperature-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric particles,” Displays 44, 61–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

X. Nie, R. Lu, H. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mizusaki, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, and S. Mizushima, “Generation mechanism of residual direct current voltage in a liquid crystal display and its evaluation parameters related to liquid crystal and alignment layer materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 014904 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Lee, H. Kim, J. Kim, and J.-H. Lee, “Dependence of image flickering of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal on the flexoelectric coefficient ratio and the interdigitated electrode structure,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075501 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S.-W. Oh, J.-M. Baek, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dependence of image flicker on dielectric anisotropy of liquid crystal in a fringe field switching liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 094101 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, and E. Kuze, “Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22(Part 2), L661–L663 (1983).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (8)

T. R. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. C. Jun, and H. K. Baik, “Investigation on newly designed low resistivity polyimide-type alignment layer for reducing DC image sticking of in-plane switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 44(4), 738–747 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, S. H. Ahn, A. K. Srivastava, and S. H. Lee, “Investigation on ion movement in the fringe-field switching mode depending on resistivity of alignment layer and dielectric anisotropic sign of liquid crystal,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 486–491 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Tie, I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, J. S. Han, Y. Liu, X.-D. Li, M.-H. Lee, K.-U. Jeong, and S. H. Lee, “Reducing driving voltage and securing electro-optic reliability of in-plane switching liquid crystal display by applying polysulfone photoalignment layer with photo-reactive mesogens,” Liq. Cryst. 41(8), 1057–1064 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. J. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Kundu, M. S. Kim, M.-H. Lee, J. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Achieving a robust homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer with reactive mesogen for in-plane switching liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. 44(7), 1194–1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. J. Yun, M. H. Jo, I. W. Jang, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, and H. J. Hur, “Achieving high light efficiency and fast response time in fringe field switching mode using a liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Liq. Cryst. 39(9), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

D.-J. Lee, J.-C. Choi, M.-K. Park, J.-S. Park, A. Ranjkesh, H. C. Choi, Y. M. Ha, S.-W. Choi, E.-J. Choi, and H.-R. Kim, “Optical measurement of flexoelectric polarisation change in liquid crystals doped with bent-core molecules using hybrid-aligned structure,” Liq. Cryst. 44(8), 1321–1331 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

C.-W. Lee and W.-P. Shih, “Quantification of ion trapping effect of carbon nanomaterials in liquid crystals,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 466–468 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

H. Takezoe, “Polar liquid crystals – ferro, antiferro, banana, and columnar –,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 646(1), 46–65 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Jeon, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “Voltage holding ratio and residual DC property of the IPS-LCD on rubbed polymer layers by voltage-transmittance hysteresis method,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 410(1), 369–380 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

RSC Adv. (1)

M.-C. Tseng, O. Yaroshchuk, T. Bidna, A. K. Srivastava, V. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “Strengthening of liquid crystal photoalignment on azo dye films: passivation by reactive mesogens,” RSC Adv. 6(53), 48181–48188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35254 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. R. Hainich and O. Bimber, Displays: Fundamentals and Applications (CRC, 2016).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of low-frequency-driven FFS LC cell, where n-LCs are aligned on MWCNT-doped planar LC alignment PI layer. Mobile ionic charges within n-LCs are trapped by MWCNT dispersed within PI, thus enhancing voltage-holding properties and improving dynamic flickering effects in low-frequency-driven FFS LC cell.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dynamic transmittance variations in low-frequency-driven (0.5 Hz) FFS n-LC modes exhibiting different voltage holding properties and flickering effects according to resistivity of LC alignment surfaces: (a) low resistivity PI and (b) high resistivity PI layers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of electro–optic measurement system used for characterizing voltage holding properties in FFS n-LC cells according to alignment layer conditions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematics of homogeneously planar-aligned n-LC cell used for characterization of time-dependent variation of mobile ionic charge density (NLC(t)) within n-LC bulk caused by polarity-changing field-induced desorption and adsorption of mobile ions at LC alignment surfaces. (b) Triangular AC waveform (0.1 Hz) applied to n-LC cell for measuring surface-dependent mobile ionic charge density within n-LC bulk.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Capacitive current measurements of homogeneously planar-aligned n-LC cells in response to triangular AC waveform (0.1 Hz), obtained for pristine low resistivity LC alignment PI. (b) Capacitive current variation according to doping conditions of MWCNTs within low resistivity LC alignment PI. (c) Mobile ion densities within n-LC cells according to MWCNT doping ratio within PI, which are extracted values from the measurements of Fig. 5(b).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Measurements of dynamic transmittance variations in low-frequency-driven (0.5 Hz and 0.2 Hz square waveforms) FFS n-LC modes, which are aligned on low resistivity LC alignment PI layers prepared with different MWCNT doping conditions. (b) Voltage holding ratios of FFS n-LC modes according to MWCNT doping conditions of low resistivity PIs and operating signal frequencies.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Flicker parameter values (ΔT/Tave) of low-frequency-driven FFS n-LC cells, which are aligned by low resistivity LC alignment PI layers prepared with different MWCNT doping conditions. (a) ΔT/Tave value according to MWCNT doping density at the fixed signal frequency (0.5 Hz), (b) ΔT/Tave value according to the signal frequency at the fixed MWCNT doping density condition (0.05 wt%).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Voltage-dependent polarizing optical microscopic images of low-frequency-driven (0.5 Hz square waveform) FFS n-LC cells that are aligned on low resistivity PI prepared with 0.05 wt% MWCNT doping conditions at (a) Va = 0 V and (b) Va = V20 (voltage level required for 20% of the maximum transmittance). (c) Voltage-transmittance (V-T) curves for FFS n-LC cells according to MWCNT doping conditions within PIs, where the V-T curves are measured by increasing (the solid lines) and then decreasing (the dotted lines) applied voltages to characterize hysteresis properties (sweep speed of bias voltage: (+) or (−) 150 mV/s).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Residual voltage curves for analyzing the discharging coefficients of (a) pristine high resistivity (ρ ∼ 1015 Ω·cm) PI and (b) MWCNT-doped low resistivity PIs (ρ ∼ 1013 Ω·cm for the PI without MWCNT doping). (c) Discharging coefficients depending on PI type and the MWCNT doping ratio in low resistivity PI.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V l o s s ( t ) = q n a ( t ) C L C ( t ) ( 0 t 1 2 f ) ,
d N L C ( t ) d t = d n d ( t ) d t d n a ( t ) d t
d n d ( t ) d t = R d ( n i n d ( t ) )
d n a ( t ) d t = μ N L C ( t ) V a ( t ) d 2 ,
V r ( t ) = V r s a t + ( V s a t V r s a t ) e α t ,

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