Abstract

We report a puzzling dynamic observed in a passively mode-locked fiber laser operating in the noise-like pulse regime, in which low-amplitude sub-structures emerge and drift away from the main waveform of the NLP pulse packet. The peak amplitudes of the drifting sub-pulses are orders of magnitude lower than the main packet when the NLP is monitored with a low-speed detecting system, a fact that makes the sub-pulses entirely hide in the background of the pulse train as the oscilloscope trace is displayed in a coarse amplitude resolution. Moreover, the presence of the low-amplitude sub-pulses cannot be detected in ordinary characteristics like optical spectrum, radio-frequency spectrum, and autocorrelation trace. We speculate that such a dynamic may extensively exist in fiber lasers operating in the noise-like pulse regime, and is just overlooked in the previous research efforts due to the difficulty to observe it. The discovery of this intriguing dynamic is informative for investigating the mechanisms of noise-like pulse.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

R. I. Woodward, “Dispersion engineering of mode-locked fibre lasers,” J. Opt. 20(3), 033002 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, Z. Cheng, Y. Shi, H. Guo, and P. Wang, “High-energy noiselike pulses in an all-PM double-clad Er/Yb-codoped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(11), 985–988 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Z. Deng, G. Zhao, J. Yuan, J. Lin, H. Chen, H. Liu, A. Luo, H. Cui, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Switchable generation of rectangular noise-like pulse and dissipative soliton resonance in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4517–4520 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Pottiez, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, E. Garcia-Sanchez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Soliton formation from a noise-like pulse during extreme events in a fibre ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 105101 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (2)

2013 (3)

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, C. C. Chung, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16056–16062 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, O. Pottiez, and J. M. Estudillo-Ayala, “Supercontinuum generation in a standard fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 221–226 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: an experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

L. M. Zhao and D. Y. Tang, “Generation of 15-nJ bunched noise-like pulses with 93-nm bandwidth in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 83(4), 553–557 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1997 (2)

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noiselike pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 799–801 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, and D. Harter, “Fiber-lasers for ultrafast optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65(2), 259–275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K.

Alvarez-Tamayo, R. I.

Barad, Y.

Bello-Jimenez, M.

O. Pottiez, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, E. Garcia-Sanchez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Soliton formation from a noise-like pulse during extreme events in a fibre ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 105101 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Garcia-Sanchez, O. Pottiez, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Complex dynamics of a fiber laser in non-stationary pulsed operation,” Opt. Express 24(17), 18917–18930 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bracamontes-Rodriguez, Y.

O. Pottiez, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, E. Garcia-Sanchez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Soliton formation from a noise-like pulse during extreme events in a fibre ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 105101 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Garcia-Sanchez, O. Pottiez, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Complex dynamics of a fiber laser in non-stationary pulsed operation,” Opt. Express 24(17), 18917–18930 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Cheng, Z.

X. Zhou, Z. Cheng, Y. Shi, H. Guo, and P. Wang, “High-energy noiselike pulses in an all-PM double-clad Er/Yb-codoped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(11), 985–988 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chouli, S.

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: an experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. C.

Cui, H.

Deng, Z.

Donovan, G. M.

G. M. Donovan, “Dynamics and statistics of noise-like pulses in modelocked lasers,” Phys. D 309, 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duran-Sanchez, M.

Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.

J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, O. Pottiez, J. M. Estudillo-Ayala, E. A. Kuzin, R. Rojas-Laguna, H. Santiago-Hernandez, and D. Jauregui-Vazquez, “High energy noise-like pulsing in a double-clad Er/Yb figure-of-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(13), 13778–13787 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, O. Pottiez, and J. M. Estudillo-Ayala, “Supercontinuum generation in a standard fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 221–226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, and D. Harter, “Fiber-lasers for ultrafast optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65(2), 259–275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fu, X. Q.

Fujita, E.

Galvanauskas, A.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, and D. Harter, “Fiber-lasers for ultrafast optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65(2), 259–275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Sanchez, E.

O. Pottiez, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, E. Garcia-Sanchez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Soliton formation from a noise-like pulse during extreme events in a fibre ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 105101 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Garcia-Sanchez, O. Pottiez, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Complex dynamics of a fiber laser in non-stationary pulsed operation,” Opt. Express 24(17), 18917–18930 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: an experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

X. Zhou, Z. Cheng, Y. Shi, H. Guo, and P. Wang, “High-energy noiselike pulses in an all-PM double-clad Er/Yb-codoped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(11), 985–988 (2018).
[Crossref]

Harter, D.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, and D. Harter, “Fiber-lasers for ultrafast optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65(2), 259–275 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, X.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

Horowitz, M.

Hou, J.

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.

O. Pottiez, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, E. Garcia-Sanchez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Soliton formation from a noise-like pulse during extreme events in a fibre ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 105101 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Garcia-Sanchez, O. Pottiez, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Complex dynamics of a fiber laser in non-stationary pulsed operation,” Opt. Express 24(17), 18917–18930 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jauregui-Vazquez, D.

Kobtsev, S.

Krzempek, K.

Kukarin, S.

Kuzin, E. A.

Latkin, A.

Lauterio-Cruz, J. P.

Li, L.

Lin, C. H.

A. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, C. C. Chung, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16056–16062 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

Liu, G.

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Luo, A.

Z. Deng, G. Zhao, J. Yuan, J. Lin, H. Chen, H. Liu, A. Luo, H. Cui, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Switchable generation of rectangular noise-like pulse and dissipative soliton resonance in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4517–4520 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Z. Deng, G. Zhao, J. Yuan, J. Lin, H. Chen, H. Liu, A. Luo, H. Cui, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Switchable generation of rectangular noise-like pulse and dissipative soliton resonance in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4517–4520 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Minguela-Gallardo, J. A.

O. Pottiez, H. E. Ibarra-Villalon, Y. Bracamontes-Rodriguez, J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, E. Garcia-Sanchez, J. P. Lauterio-Cruz, J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Bello-Jimenez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Soliton formation from a noise-like pulse during extreme events in a fibre ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 14(10), 105101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mshiko, Y.

Pan, C. L.

A. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, C. C. Chung, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16056–16062 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pottiez, O.

Qian, Q.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rojas-Laguna, R.

Santiago-Hernandez, H.

Shen, D.

Shi, Y.

X. Zhou, Z. Cheng, Y. Shi, H. Guo, and P. Wang, “High-energy noiselike pulses in an all-PM double-clad Er/Yb-codoped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(11), 985–988 (2018).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

Smirnov, S.

Sotor, J.

Sucha, G.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, G. Sucha, and D. Harter, “Fiber-lasers for ultrafast optics,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65(2), 259–275 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2145–2150 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao and D. Y. Tang, “Generation of 15-nJ bunched noise-like pulses with 93-nm bandwidth in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 83(4), 553–557 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tokurakawa, M.

Tsai, F. H.

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S.

Wang, C. L.

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, C. C. Chung, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16056–16062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

X. Zhou, Z. Cheng, Y. Shi, H. Guo, and P. Wang, “High-energy noiselike pulses in an all-PM double-clad Er/Yb-codoped fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(11), 985–988 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Woodward, R. I.

R. I. Woodward, “Dispersion engineering of mode-locked fibre lasers,” J. Opt. 20(3), 033002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Xu, S.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

Z. Deng, G. Zhao, J. Yuan, J. Lin, H. Chen, H. Liu, A. Luo, H. Cui, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Switchable generation of rectangular noise-like pulse and dissipative soliton resonance in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4517–4520 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Yang, L.

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

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X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, K.

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, C. C. Chung, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16056–16062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

Yuan, X.

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Zaytsev, A. K.

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “A controllable noise-like operation regime in a Yb-doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

X. He, A. Luo, Q. Yang, T. Yang, X. Yuan, S. Xu, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Z. Luo, W. Xu, and Z. Yang, “60 nm bandwidth, 17 nJ noiselike pulse generation from a thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 112702 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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G. Liu, K. Yin, L. Yang, Z. Cai, B. Zhang, and J. Hou, “Noise-like pulse generation from a Ho-doped fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Proc. SPIE 10619, 1061908 (2018).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The video showing the oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the low-amplitude, drifting sub-pulses
» Visualization 2       The video showing the NLP free of the low-amplitude, drifting sub-pulses
» Visualization 3       The video showing the oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the low-amplitude, drifting sub-pulses, acquired using a 12.5-GHz detecting system

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the figure-9 mode-locked Ho-doped fiber laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Output characteristics of the mode-locked Ho-doped fiber laser: (a) optical spectrum, (b) AC trace, (c) RF spectrum, (d) pulse train recorded using the 500-MHz oscilloscope. Inset: pulse train in a 20 µs span. All characteristics are measured under 3.69 W pump.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the drifting sub-pulses in various amplitude resolutions: (a), (b) 5 mV/div, (c) 50 mV/div. Oscilloscope trace of the conventional NLP in various amplitude resolutions: (d), (e) 5 mV/div, (f) 50 mV/div. See also Visualization 1 and Visualization 2. All traces (including the visualizations) are acquired using the 500-MHz oscilloscope.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Output characteristics of the NLP with the drifting sub-pulses: (a) optical spectrum, (b) AC trace. Output characteristics of the conventional NLP: (c) optical spectrum, (d) AC trace.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. RF spectrum of the NLP with the drifting sub-pulses: (a) around the fundamental frequency, (b) in a 1 GHz span. RF spectrum of the conventional NLP: (c) around the fundamental frequency, (d) in a 1 GHz span.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the drifting sub-pulses in various amplitude resolutions: (a) 50 mV/div, (b) 200 mV/div. See also Visualization 3. Oscilloscope trace of the conventional NLP in various amplitude resolutions: (c) 50 mV/div, (d) 200 mV/div. All traces (including the visualization) are acquired using a 12.5-GHz detecting system.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the drifting sub-pulses in an amplitude resolution of 200 mV/div which is acquired as the bandwidth of the oscilloscope is set to various modes: (a) 500 MHz, (b) 3 GHz, (c) 4 GHz, (d) 6 GHz, (e) 8 GHz, (f) 12.5 GHz.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the ultra-weak sub-pulses acquired using the 500-MHz detecting system. Inset: oscilloscope trace in a 1000 ns span. (b) Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the ultra-weak sub-pulses acquired using the 12.5-GHz detecting system. (c) Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the sub-pulses possessing amplitudes that are roughly twice of the common sub-pulses acquired using the 500-MHz detecting system. (d) Oscilloscope trace of the NLP with the sub-pulses possessing amplitudes that are roughly twice of the common sub-pulses acquired using the 12.5-GHz detecting system.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Histogram on a log-scale showing the distribution of the peak amplitudes of the drifting sub-pulses. (b) Trajectory of the drifting sub-pulses. Red arrow indicates the direction of motion. All data are acquired using the 500-MHz oscilloscope.

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