Abstract

A highly sensitive gas refractive index (RI) sensor based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) and Fourier transform white-light interferometry was experimentally demonstrated. HC-PBFs with lower loss than hollow silica tubes render a longer air cavity for the Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) without a great deal of compromise to the fringe visibility of interference. Fourier transform phase demodulation method was employed in the experiment and a directly proportional relationship between the phase sensitivity and cavity length was demonstrated. For a cavity length of ∼24.9 mm, the sensor’s gas RI sensitivity reaches up to 50775.54 µm/RIU in an air RI range from 1.000 to 1.030. Considering the cavity length demodulation resolution of 0.06 µm achieved by this method, the sensor can detect gas RI change with a resolution of 10−6 RIU, which can meet the sensing demand for almost all the gases. Moreover, the gas RI sensitivity and measurement range can be improved further by lengthening the HC-PBF. The high sensitivity, large dynamic range and good linearity of the proposed sensor make it a good candidate for biosensing, monitoring of modern chemical industry or gas laser systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

2017 (2)

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Wang and O. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

Z. Li, C. Liao, Y. Wang, X. Dong, S. Liu, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer created in twin-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 4982–4985 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, and S. Gao, “Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenated down-and up-tapers for refractive index sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 288, 47–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ferreira, L. Coelho, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, J. Santos, and O. Frazão, “Fabry–Perot cavity based on a diaphragm-free hollow-core silica tube,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4029–4031 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Deng, C. Tang, T. Zhu, Y. Rao, L. Xu, and M. Han, “Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1593–1598 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Fang, C. Liao, and D. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, H. Xuan, and H. Ho, “Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094014 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Jiang, “Fourier transform white-light interferometry for the measurement of fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 75–77 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Leung, P. Mohana Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

1986 (1)

P. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A.

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andringa, A.

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avino, S.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z.

Z. Zhang, J. He, Q. Dong, Z. Bai, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Diaphragm-free gas-pressure sensor probe based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3017–3020 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, A.

Biegert, J.

Birks, T.

Blom, P.

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cameron, S.

Cao, S.

S. Cao, Y. Shao, Y. Wang, T. Wu, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, F. Zhang, C. Liao, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on a low-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 26(4), 3988–3994 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chau, L.

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S.

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chiang, T.

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coelho, L.

Corkum, P.

P. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

Couny, F.

Deng, M.

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C. Tang, T. Zhu, Y. Rao, L. Xu, and M. Han, “Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1593–1598 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, W.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q.

Dong, X.

Du, B.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Farr, L.

Ferraro, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, M.

Franco, M.

Frazão, O.

Fu, C.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gagliardi, G.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, and S. Gao, “Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenated down-and up-tapers for refractive index sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 288, 47–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geng, P.

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, and S. Gao, “Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenated down-and up-tapers for refractive index sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 288, 47–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gruetzner, J.

Guo, K.

Han, M.

He, J.

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ho, H.

W. Jin, H. Xuan, and H. Ho, “Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W.

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Jiang, Y.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, “Fourier transform white-light interferometry for the measurement of fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 75–77 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, H. Xuan, and H. Ho, “Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Katsouras, I.

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Knight, J.

Kobelke, J.

Leeuw, D.

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leung, A.

A. Leung, P. Mohana Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Lian, J.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, C.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Cao, Y. Shao, Y. Wang, T. Wu, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, F. Zhang, C. Liao, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on a low-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 26(4), 3988–3994 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. He, Q. Dong, Z. Bai, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Diaphragm-free gas-pressure sensor probe based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3017–3020 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Liao, Y. Wang, X. Dong, S. Liu, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer created in twin-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 4982–4985 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Fang, C. Liao, and D. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Luk, T.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for pressure and acoustic detection [D],” The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (2014).

Mangan, B.

Mason, M.

McPherson, A.

Meng, H.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mohana Shankar, P.

A. Leung, P. Mohana Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mutharasan, R.

A. Leung, P. Mohana Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Natale, P.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nelson, T.

Piliego, C.

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pitts, T.

Qi, L.

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Quan, M.

Rao, T.

P. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y.

Roberts, P.

Rolland, C.

P. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Russell, P.

Sabert, H.

Salza, M.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

Santos, J.

Schuster, K.

Shao, Y.

Shen, W.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S.

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suter, J.

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, C.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, C.

Tang, J.

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Tomlinson, A.

Wang, D.

Wang, G.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang and O. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Cao, Y. Shao, Y. Wang, T. Wu, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, F. Zhang, C. Liao, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on a low-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 26(4), 3988–3994 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Cao, Y. Shao, Y. Wang, T. Wu, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, F. Zhang, C. Liao, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on a low-index polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Express 26(4), 3988–3994 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. He, Q. Dong, Z. Bai, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Diaphragm-free gas-pressure sensor probe based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3017–3020 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. He, Q. Dong, Z. Bai, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Diaphragm-free gas-pressure sensor probe based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3017–3020 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. He, B. Du, F. Zhang, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Measurement of high pressure and high temperature using a dual-cavity Fabry–Perot interferometer created in cascade hollow-core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6009–6012 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Liao, Y. Wang, X. Dong, S. Liu, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer created in twin-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 4982–4985 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

White, I.

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, D.

Wolfbeis, O.

X. Wang and O. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

Wu, X.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C. Tang, T. Zhu, Y. Rao, L. Xu, and M. Han, “Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1593–1598 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xuan, H.

W. Jin, H. Xuan, and H. Ho, “Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Yang, T.

Yao, Y.

Ye, M.

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, G.

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, and S. Gao, “Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenated down-and up-tapers for refractive index sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 288, 47–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, and S. Gao, “Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenated down-and up-tapers for refractive index sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 288, 47–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C.

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Zhu, F.

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

Anal. Chem. (1)

X. Wang and O. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors (2013–2015),” Anal. Chem. 88(1), 203–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. White, S. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. Andringa, C. Piliego, I. Katsouras, P. Blom, and D. Leeuw, “NO2 detection and real-time sensing with field-effect transistors,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 773–785 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Z. Zhang, C. Liao, J. Tang, Y. Wang, Z. Bai, Z. Li, K. Guo, M. Deng, S. Cao, and Y. Wang, “Hollow-core-fiber-based interferometer for high-temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Jiang, “Fourier transform white-light interferometry for the measurement of fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 75–77 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lab Chip (1)

C. Lin, C. Liao, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Fu, K. Yang, J. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Optofluidic gutter oil discrimination based on a hybrid-waveguide coupler in fiber,” Lab Chip 18(4), 595–600 (2018).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Jin, H. Xuan, and H. Ho, “Sensing with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(9), 094014 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Liu, M. Tang, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and A. Alivisatos, “Nanoantenna-enhanced gas sensing in a single tailored nanofocus,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 631–636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Zhang, W. Zhang, P. Geng, and S. Gao, “Fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenated down-and up-tapers for refractive index sensing applications,” Opt. Commun. 288, 47–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Z. Zhang, J. He, Q. Dong, Z. Bai, C. Liao, Y. Wang, S. Liu, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Diaphragm-free gas-pressure sensor probe based on hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 43(13), 3017–3020 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. He, B. Du, F. Zhang, K. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Measurement of high pressure and high temperature using a dual-cavity Fabry–Perot interferometer created in cascade hollow-core fibers,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6009–6012 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Fang, C. Liao, and D. Wang, “Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1007–1009 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ferreira, L. Coelho, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, J. Santos, and O. Frazão, “Fabry–Perot cavity based on a diaphragm-free hollow-core silica tube,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4029–4031 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Liao, Y. Wang, X. Dong, S. Liu, K. Yang, and J. Zhou, “Ultrasensitive refractive index sensor based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer created in twin-core fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 4982–4985 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Quan, J. Tian, and Y. Yao, “Ultra-high sensitivity Fabry–Perot interferometer gas refractive index fiber sensor based on photonic crystal fiber and Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4891–4894 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(18), 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, S. Avino, P. Ferraro, and P. Natale, “Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing,” Science 330(6007), 1081–1084 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators, B (6)

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. Ding, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “Filmed extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors for the measurement of arbitrary refractive index of liquid,” Sens. Actuators, B 177, 924–928 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Meng, W. Shen, G. Zhang, X. Wu, W. Wang, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Michelson interferometer-based fiber-optic sensing of liquid refractive index,” Sens. Actuators, B 160(1), 720–723 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, S. Cao, C. Liao, Y. Wang, G. Wang, X. Xu, C. Fu, G. Xu, J. Lian, and Y. Wang, “Surface plasmon resonance refractive sensor based on silver-coated side-polished fiber,” Sens. Actuators, B 230, 206–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Leung, P. Mohana Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Tang, S. Cheng, W. Hsu, T. Chiang, and L. Chau, “Fiber-optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold-modified long period fiber grating,” Sens. Actuators, B 119(1), 105–109 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, C. Zhao, J. Yuan, M. Ye, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and S. Jin, “Highly reflective long period fiber grating sensor and its application in refractive index sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 193, 185–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Ma, “Miniature fiber-tip Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for pressure and acoustic detection [D],” The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (2014).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the proposed sensor with (a) structure and (b) working principle.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Cross-sectional SEM images of the employed HC-PBF and HCF and (b) locally enlarged view of the air holes in the centers of HC-PBF and HCF.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reflection spectra of four fabricated sensors (S1, S2, S3, and S4) with different HC-PBF length, i.e. 107 µm, 1.1 mm, 2.1 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Calculated OPDs of FPIs with different cavity length L as functions of the gas RI; (b) Calculated gas RI sensitivities as a function of FPI cavity length L.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Measured transmission spectrum and (b) reflection spectra of the FPI with a 12.3 mm length HC-PBF; (c) Enlarged view of the FPI reflection spectrum at ∼1550 nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Flow chart of the employed Fourier phase demodulation method. (b) Air RI test setup and optical spectra acquisition device (BBS: broadband light source, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Demodulated OPDs of four HC-PBF FPI sensor samples S1, S2, S3, and S4 as functions of the air RI in a range of 1.00026 to 1.01056. (a) S1 (L = 107 µm), (b) S2 (L = 1.1 mm), (c) S3 (L = 2.1 mm), and (d) S4 (L = 12.3 mm).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Demodulated OPDs of four HC-PBF FPI sensor samples S5, S6, S7, and S8 as functions of the air RI in a range of 1.00026 to 1.02640. (a) S5 (L = 2.7 mm), (b) S6 (L = 6.7 mm), (c) S7 (L = 12.4 mm), and (d) S8 (L = 24.9 mm).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The air RI sensitivity of eight HC-PBF FPI sensors (S1-S8) as a function of the cavity length L.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F S R = λ 1 λ 2 2 n L ,
R 1 = ( n 1 n 2 ) 2 ( n 1 + n 2 ) 2 , R 2 = ( n 2 n 3 ) 2 ( n 2 + n 3 ) 2 ,
I ( λ ) = I 0 [ R 1 + R 2 η 2 R 1 R 2 η cos ( 2 π λ n L + φ 0 ) ] ,
O P D = 2 n ( P , T ) L ,
n = 1 + 2.8793 × 10 9 1 + 0.00367 × T P .
S = δ ( O P D ) δ ( n ) = 2 L ,

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