Abstract

We demonstrate all-metallic grating couplers that enable vertical, compact and broadband fiber-coupling. The grating couplers are based on a metal layer and directly convert a vertical fiber mode into surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). In combination with a focusing arrangement, the grating couplers require only a small footprint of 13.5 × 12 µm2. We characterize the grating couplers with both periodic and apodized gratings and experimentally show a 1-dB bandwidth of 115 nm with a coupling efficiency of 2.9 dB.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, L. Carroll, K. Gradkowski, and P. Minzioni, “Coupling strategies for silicon photonics integrated chips [Invited],” Photon. Res. 7(2), 201–239 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. V. Sapra, D. Vercruysse, L. Su, K. Y. Yang, J. Skarda, A. Y. Piggott, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse Design and Demonstration of Broadband Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. B. Hoessbacher, A. Messner, C. Haffner, T. Watanabe, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1694 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(5), 1484–1491 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

E. W. Ong, N. M. Fahrenkopf, and D. D. Coolbaugh, “SiNx bilayer grating coupler for photonic systems,” OSA Continuum 1(1), 13–25 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Su, R. Trivedi, N. V. Sapra, A. Y. Piggott, D. Vercruysse, and J. Vučković, “Fully-automated optimization of grating couplers,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4023–4034 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hoffmann, K. M. Schulz, G. Pitruzzello, L. S. Fohrmann, A. Y. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Backscattering design for a focusing grating coupler with fully etched slots for transverse magnetic modes,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 17746 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dorodnyy, Y. Salamin, P. Ma, J. V. Plestina, N. Lassaline, D. Mikulik, P. Romero-Gomez, A. F. I. Morral, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature 556(7702), 483–486 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2015 (6)

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Q. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Apodized Focusing Fully Etched Subwavelength Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient Directional Excitation of Surface Plasmons by a Single-Element Nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 136, 120–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. A. Zenin, A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, D. K. Gramotnev, A. V. Lavrinenko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Boosting Local Field Enhancement by on-Chip Nanofocusing and Impedance-Matched Plasmonic Antennas,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8148–8154 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sanchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Colorless grating couplers realized by interleaving dispersion engineered subwavelength structures,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3588–3591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xiao, T. Y. Liow, J. Zhang, P. Shum, and F. Luan, “Bandwidth analysis of waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5688–5700 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. P. Fitrakis, and I. Tomkos, “Plasmonic Communications: Light on a Wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24(5), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, G. Biagi, T. Holmgaard, and A. Lavrinenko, “Compact dipole nanoantenna coupler to plasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1124–1126 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Raghunathan, C. H. Gan, T. van Dijk, B. Ea Kim, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, P. Lalanne, and T. D. Visser, “Plasmon switching: observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation in a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15326–15335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Garcia, V. Coello, Z. Han, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7771–7776 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Saviot, A. Dereux, C. Boissière, O. Durupthy, C. Chaneac, E. Burov, and A. Pastouret, “Efficient photo-thermal activation of gold nanoparticle-doped polymer plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27636–27649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lindenmann, G. Balthasar, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Jordan, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Photonic wire bonding: a novel concept for chip-scale interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17667–17677 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Y. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Broadband focusing grating couplers for suspended-membrane waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5181–5183 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andryieuski, A.

V. A. Zenin, A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, D. K. Gramotnev, A. V. Lavrinenko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Boosting Local Field Enhancement by on-Chip Nanofocusing and Impedance-Matched Plasmonic Antennas,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8148–8154 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, G. Biagi, T. Holmgaard, and A. Lavrinenko, “Compact dipole nanoantenna coupler to plasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1124–1126 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arocas, J.

Ayata, M.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. B. Hoessbacher, A. Messner, C. Haffner, T. Watanabe, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1694 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(5), 1484–1491 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature 556(7702), 483–486 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balthasar, G.

Biagi, G.

Billah, M.

P. I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sanchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blaicher, M.

P. I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boissière, C.

Bojko, R.

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Q. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Apodized Focusing Fully Etched Subwavelength Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmogrow, R.

Schouten, H. F.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schulz, K. M.

J. Hoffmann, K. M. Schulz, G. Pitruzzello, L. S. Fohrmann, A. Y. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Backscattering design for a focusing grating coupler with fully etched slots for transverse magnetic modes,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 17746 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature 556(7702), 483–486 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Q. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Apodized Focusing Fully Etched Subwavelength Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shklover, V.

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 136, 120–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

Skarda, J.

N. V. Sapra, D. Vercruysse, L. Su, K. Y. Yang, J. Skarda, A. Y. Piggott, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse Design and Demonstration of Broadband Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

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J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. P. Fitrakis, and I. Tomkos, “Plasmonic Communications: Light on a Wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24(5), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

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A. E. J. Lim, J. F. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. G. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of Silicon Photonics Foundry Efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

N. V. Sapra, D. Vercruysse, L. Su, K. Y. Yang, J. Skarda, A. Y. Piggott, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse Design and Demonstration of Broadband Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Su, R. Trivedi, N. V. Sapra, A. Y. Piggott, D. Vercruysse, and J. Vučković, “Fully-automated optimization of grating couplers,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4023–4034 (2018).
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Suarez, I.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. P. Fitrakis, and I. Tomkos, “Plasmonic Communications: Light on a Wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24(5), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

Sun, C.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient Directional Excitation of Surface Plasmons by a Single-Element Nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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Tern, R. P. C.

A. E. J. Lim, J. F. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. G. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of Silicon Photonics Foundry Efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sanchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
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J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. P. Fitrakis, and I. Tomkos, “Plasmonic Communications: Light on a Wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24(5), 28–35 (2013).
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Troppenz, U.

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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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Vercruysse, D.

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[Crossref]

L. Su, R. Trivedi, N. V. Sapra, A. Y. Piggott, D. Vercruysse, and J. Vučković, “Fully-automated optimization of grating couplers,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4023–4034 (2018).
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Visser, T. D.

Volkov, V. S.

V. A. Zenin, A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, D. K. Gramotnev, A. V. Lavrinenko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Boosting Local Field Enhancement by on-Chip Nanofocusing and Impedance-Matched Plasmonic Antennas,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8148–8154 (2015).
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L. Su, R. Trivedi, N. V. Sapra, A. Y. Piggott, D. Vercruysse, and J. Vučković, “Fully-automated optimization of grating couplers,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4023–4034 (2018).
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Wang, Y.

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Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
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C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature 556(7702), 483–486 (2018).
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T. Watanabe, M. Ayata, U. Koch, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Leuthold, “Perpendicular Grating Coupler Based on a Blazed Antiback-Reflection Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4663–4669 (2017).
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Xu, X.

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N. V. Sapra, D. Vercruysse, L. Su, K. Y. Yang, J. Skarda, A. Y. Piggott, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse Design and Demonstration of Broadband Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–7 (2019).
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Yao, W.

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient Directional Excitation of Surface Plasmons by a Single-Element Nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3115–3121 (2015).
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T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sanchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
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Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Q. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Apodized Focusing Fully Etched Subwavelength Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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V. A. Zenin, A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, D. K. Gramotnev, A. V. Lavrinenko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Boosting Local Field Enhancement by on-Chip Nanofocusing and Impedance-Matched Plasmonic Antennas,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8148–8154 (2015).
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Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Q. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Apodized Focusing Fully Etched Subwavelength Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
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Zhang, J.

Zhong, Q.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sanchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, “The photonic lantern,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 107–167 (2015).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. E. J. Lim, J. F. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. G. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P. C. Tern, and T. Y. Liow, “Review of Silicon Photonics Foundry Efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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N. V. Sapra, D. Vercruysse, L. Su, K. Y. Yang, J. Skarda, A. Y. Piggott, and J. Vuckovic, “Inverse Design and Demonstration of Broadband Grating Couplers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25(3), 1–7 (2019).
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A. Dorodnyy, Y. Salamin, P. Ma, J. V. Plestina, N. Lassaline, D. Mikulik, P. Romero-Gomez, A. F. I. Morral, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Photodetectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–13 (2018).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Q. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Apodized Focusing Fully Etched Subwavelength Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, L. Carroll, J. S. Lee, M. Duperron, D. Fowler, and P. O’Brien, “Pluggable Single-Mode Fiber-Array-to-PIC Coupling Using Micro-Lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(22), 1943–1946 (2017).
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F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nano Lett. (2)

V. A. Zenin, A. Andryieuski, R. Malureanu, I. P. Radko, V. S. Volkov, D. K. Gramotnev, A. V. Lavrinenko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Boosting Local Field Enhancement by on-Chip Nanofocusing and Impedance-Matched Plasmonic Antennas,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8148–8154 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yao, S. Liu, H. Liao, Z. Li, C. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Gong, “Efficient Directional Excitation of Surface Plasmons by a Single-Element Nanoantenna,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3115–3121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. B. Hoessbacher, A. Messner, C. Haffner, T. Watanabe, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic IQ modulators with attojoule per bit electrical energy consumption,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1694 (2019).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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P. I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
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Nature (1)

C. Haffner, D. Chelladurai, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, T. Watanabe, T. Cui, B. Cheng, S. Saha, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, N. Kinsey, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss plasmon-assisted electro-optic modulator,” Nature 556(7702), 483–486 (2018).
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Opt. Express (10)

L. Su, R. Trivedi, N. V. Sapra, A. Y. Piggott, D. Vercruysse, and J. Vučković, “Fully-automated optimization of grating couplers,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4023–4034 (2018).
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W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. F. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014).
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Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
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P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
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J. C. Weeber, J. Arocas, O. Heintz, L. Markey, S. Viarbitskaya, G. Colas-des-Francs, K. Hammani, A. Dereux, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, J. Leuthold, K. Rohracher, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, T. Wahlbrink, B. Chmielak, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Characterization of CMOS metal based dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(1), 394–408 (2017).
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J. C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Saviot, A. Dereux, C. Boissière, O. Durupthy, C. Chaneac, E. Burov, and A. Pastouret, “Efficient photo-thermal activation of gold nanoparticle-doped polymer plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27636–27649 (2012).
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C. Garcia, V. Coello, Z. Han, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7771–7776 (2012).
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S. B. Raghunathan, C. H. Gan, T. van Dijk, B. Ea Kim, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, P. Lalanne, and T. D. Visser, “Plasmon switching: observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation in a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15326–15335 (2012).
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N. Lindenmann, G. Balthasar, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Jordan, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Photonic wire bonding: a novel concept for chip-scale interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17667–17677 (2012).
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Z. Xiao, T. Y. Liow, J. Zhang, P. Shum, and F. Luan, “Bandwidth analysis of waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5688–5700 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. P. Fitrakis, and I. Tomkos, “Plasmonic Communications: Light on a Wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24(5), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

OSA Continuum (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Hoffmann, K. M. Schulz, G. Pitruzzello, L. S. Fohrmann, A. Y. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Backscattering design for a focusing grating coupler with fully etched slots for transverse magnetic modes,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 17746 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 136, 120–126 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Lumerical FDTD Solutions. Available: https://www.lumerical.com/products/fdtd/ .

T. Yoshida, E. Omoda, Y. Atsumi, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Elephant Coupler: Vertically Curved Si Waveguide with Wide and Flat Wavelength Window Insensitive to Coupling Angle,” ECOC 2015 41st European Conference on Optical Communication (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the grating couplers integrated with a DLSPPW. (b) Electric field distribution in the xy plane at 50 nm above the metal surface. (c) Simulated electric field distribution at the wavelength of 1550 nm in the xz plane. The color scale between the figures is adapted to increase visibility. (d) Experimental and computational results of the coupling efficiency of the periodic and apodized grating.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Cross-sectional schematic of the vertical all-metallic grating coupler. The input fiber mode is a Gaussian beam with a 6-µm mode diameter vertically aligned to the gratings. (b) Coupling efficiencies of the grating couplers with periodic and apodized gratings obtained from 2D-FDTD simulations. (c) Intensity decay profile (blue) in the dielectric layer 200 nm above metal, fitted by an exponential decay function (red). The SPP mode is launched at x = 1 µm and propagates backwards in this case. (d) Effective mode index of the SPP waveguide over the wavelength. The result is obtained by examining the eigenmode of the waveguide at x = 1 µm. The slope gives the waveguide dispersion, dneff/ = −0.186 µm−1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication tolerance of the coupling efficiency on grating parameters. Coupling efficiencies are plotted in dB together with the wavelength dependence.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Top view of the focusing all-metallic grating coupler. A Gaussian mode is launched at (x,y) = (−8,0) with the height of 2 µm in the 3D-FDTD simulations. The mode overlap to the waveguide is obtained as the coupling efficiency at x = 0. (b) Coupling efficiencies of the focusing grating coupler. The maximum coupling efficiency of −2.7 dB is found at the wavelength of 1569 nm (e.g., −2.8 dB at the wavelength of 1550 nm) with the periodic structure. Also, the maximum coupling efficiency of −1.9 dB at the wavelength of 1565 nm (e.g., −2.0 dB at the wavelength of 1550 nm) is found with the apodized structure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the experimental setup. The insertion loss of the device was measured using a MCF. An optical signal in the wavelength range of 1460-1640 nm was fed from a tunable laser diode after a polarization controller (PC). The optical signal was fed into the device through a core of the MCF. The input optical signal is converted into the SPP and propagated along the dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide for 36 µm. The transmitted signal was coupled out by the output grating coupler to another core of the MCF, and detected by a photodiode (PD). The subset shows a microscopic image of the device.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Effective mode index (blue) and propagation length (red) of the DLSPPW. (b) Measured coupling efficiencies of the grating couplers. The periodic grating coupler has a coupling efficiency of up to −3.5 dB around a wavelength of 1510 nm (−3.6 dB at 1550 nm) with a bandwidth of 116 nm. With the apodized grating coupler a coupling efficiency of −2.9 dB was measured at a wavelength of 1550 nm and a 1 dB bandwidth of 115 nm was found.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured fiber-positioning tolerance on misalignment from the optimal fiber position. The device has two grating couplers, indicating that a 2-dB excess loss corresponds to a 1-dB excess loss for one grating coupler. (b) Measured and simulated positioning tolerances in the x direction and, (c) in the y direction. The two plots have been taken by detuning the position along the dash-dotted line shown in plot (a).

Equations (8)

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k 0 n eff +m 2π Λ = k 0 n c sinθ,
λ=Λ( n eff n c sinθ ).
dλ dθ =Λ d n eff dλ dλ dθ Λ n c cosθ
dλ dθ =Λ n c cosθ ( 1Λ d n eff dλ ) 1 ,
Δ λ 1dB = C 1dB Λ | 1Λ d n eff dλ | 1 ,
Δ λ 1dB = C 1dB λ 0 | n eff λ 0 d n eff dλ | 1 .
Δ λ 1dB = C 1dB λ 0 n g 1 .
x 2 + y 2 k 0 n eff y k 0 n c sinθ=2πN,

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