Abstract

We report on experimental generation and evolution of circumstance-susceptible, narrow-bandwidth, h-shaped pulse in a thulium-doped fiber (TDF) laser. With typical mode-locking technique based on nonlinear amplifying loop mirror, a type of h-shaped pulse is generated in a net normal dispersion regime for the first time to our best knowledge. Different from pulses with similar profiles achieved in typical anomalous dispersion regime, the h-shaped pulse here exhibits extremely narrow spectral bandwidth and meanwhile becomes highly circumstance-susceptible. Not alike the well-preserved h-shaped profile with anomalous dispersion, here the h-shaped pulse can easily evolve into various other pulse patterns with circumstance variations, including peak-depressed profiles, burst-like emission, multiple h-shaped pulses, and even some highly complex temporal cases. Despite that, the h-shaped pulse broadens as the pump power increasing, being a typical pump-related characteristic dominated by the peak-power-clamping effect. Moreover, it is observed that the h-shaped pulse profile can be re-shaped by incorporating a piece of unpumped TDF into the cavity, i.e., introducing some reabsorption. Our results substantiate the experimental revelation of such a type of particular-profile pulse in the normal dispersion regime, demonstrating some new evolution features facilitated by the dispersion-relevant circumstance-susceptibility.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Tunable and switchable harmonic h-shaped pulse generation in a 3.03  km ultralong mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(3), 332–340 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Dissipative soliton resonance and its depression into burst-like emission in a holmium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2414–2417 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Dong, G. Li, R. Chen, C. Gu, L. Xu, and P. Yao, “Chirp-adjustable square-wave pulse in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23926–23934 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, G. Semaan, M. Kemel, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Color domains in fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5054–5057 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Luo, F. Liu, J. Li, and Y. Liu, “High repetition rate gain-switched Ho-doped fiber laser at 2.103 µm pumped by h-shaped mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser at 1.985 µm,” Opt. Express 26(20), 26485–26494 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Ciąćka, A. Rampur, A. Heidt, T. Feurer, and M. Klimczak, “Dispersion measurement of ultra-high numerical aperture fibers covering thulium, holmium, and erbium emission wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(6), 1301–1307 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in laser models with parameter management,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 1972–1977 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Akhmediev, N.

Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

Bahloul, F.

Bello-Jiménez, M.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Braham, F. B.

Buckley, J.

Chang, W.

Chen, R.

Chong, A.

Chouli, S.

Ciacka, P.

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, Z.

Du, G.

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Durán-Sánchez, M.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feurer, T.

Fourmont, J.

Geng, Y.

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

Gu, C.

Guo, C.

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Heidt, A.

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ilday, FÖ

Z. Zhang, B. Öktem, and FÖ Ilday, “All-fiber-integrated soliton–similariton laser with in-line fiber filter,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3489–3491 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and FÖ Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Kemel, M.

Klimczak, M.

Komarov, A.

Kuzin, E. A.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, D.

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, J.

Li, L.

J. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Dissipative soliton resonance and its depression into burst-like emission in a holmium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2414–2417 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Tunable and switchable harmonic h-shaped pulse generation in a 3.03  km ultralong mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(3), 332–340 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Liu, F.

Liu, M.

Liu, Y.

Llave, D. S.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

Meng, Y.

Nelson, L. E.

Niang, A.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and FÖ Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Öktem, B.

Ouyang, D.

Posada-Ramírez, B.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rampur, A.

Ren, X.

Renninger, W.

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ruan, S.

J. Zhao, D. Ouyang, Z. Zheng, M. Liu, X. Ren, C. Li, S. Ruan, and W. Xie, “100 W dissipative soliton resonances from a thulium-doped double-clad all-fiber-format MOPA system,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12072–12081 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Salhi, M.

Sanchez, F.

Santiago-Hernández, H.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, B. Posada-Ramírez, H. Santiago-Hernández, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, D. S. Llave, M. Bello-Jiménez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a thulium-doped all-fiber laser operating at large anomalous dispersion regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Semaan, G.

Shen, D.

J. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Dissipative soliton resonance and its depression into burst-like emission in a holmium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2414–2417 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Tunable and switchable harmonic h-shaped pulse generation in a 3.03  km ultralong mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(3), 332–340 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Su, L.

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Tunable and switchable harmonic h-shaped pulse generation in a 3.03  km ultralong mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(3), 332–340 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Dissipative soliton resonance and its depression into burst-like emission in a holmium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2414–2417 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tamura, K.

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Ülgüdür, C.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and FÖ Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

Xu, L.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, P.

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, P.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, L.

J. Zhao, J. Zhou, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Dissipative soliton resonance and its depression into burst-like emission in a holmium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 44(10), 2414–2417 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Tunable and switchable harmonic h-shaped pulse generation in a 3.03  km ultralong mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(3), 332–340 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Zhao, D. Li, L. Li, X. Wang, Y. Geng, D. Shen, and L. Su, “Route to larger pulse energy in ultrafast fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Li, L. Zhao, D. Tang, and D. Shen, “Cavity-birefringence-dependent h-shaped pulse generation in a thulium-holmium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(2), 247–250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Zheng, G.

Y. Xu, Y. Song, G. Du, P. Yan, C. Guo, G. Zheng, and S. Ruan, “Dissipative soliton resonance in a wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup of the TDF laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Temporal profiles of the h-shaped pulse with different pump powers; (b) typical measured output spectrum, (c) RF harmonics over a scan range of 50 MHz, and (d) RF beat note registered at the fundamental PRF, with ∼4.8 W pump power.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured output average power versus pump power, with linear fit.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) through (g): Depressing temporal characteristics from a neat h-shaped pulse profile to a fully burst-like one; (h) typical output spectrum, (i) RF harmonics with a span of 100 MHz, and (j) RF beat note registered at the fundamental PRF, corresponding to the burst-like case shown in Fig. 3(g).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Evolution into other completely split multiple sub-pulses. (a) through (c): temporal characteristics; (d) the corresponding spectral characteristics.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Intra-cavity profile-reshaping on the h-shaped pulse. Black: the original h-shaped pulse profile with ∼4.15 W pump power; Red: the reshaped pulse profile when a piece of unpumped TDF was incorporated at location (1) as noted in Fig. 1; Blue: the reshaped pulse profile when the unpumped TDF was incorporated at location (2) as noted in Fig. 1.

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