Abstract

Atomically thin layer transition metal dichalcogenides have been intensively investigated for their rich optical properties and potential applications on nano-electronics. In this work, we study the incoherent phonon and exciton population dynamics in monolayer WS2 by time-resolved Resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy. Upon excitation of the exciton transition, both Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering strength of the optical and the longitudinal acoustic two phonon modes exhibit large reduction. Based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium distribution, the hidden phonon population dynamics is retrieved, which shows an instant build-up and a relaxation lifetime of ∼4 ps at the exciton density ∼1012cm−2. A phonon temperature rises of ∼20 K was identified due to the exciton excitation and relaxation. The exciton relaxation dynamics extracted from the transient vibrational Raman response shows strong excitation density dependence, signaling an important bi-molecular contribution to the decay. These results provide significant knowledge on the thermal dynamics after optical excitation, enhance the understanding of the fundamental exciton dynamics in two-dimensional transition metal materials, and demonstrate that time-resolved Resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy is a powerful method for exploring quasi-particle dynamics in optical materials.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Photo-induced excitonic structure renormalization and broadband absorption in monolayer tungsten disulphide

Tian Jiang, Runze Chen, Xin Zheng, Zhongjie Xu, and Yuhua Tang
Opt. Express 26(2) 859-869 (2018)

Nanophotonics with 2D transition metal dichalcogenides [Invited]

Alex Krasnok, Sergey Lepeshov, and Andrea Alú
Opt. Express 26(12) 15972-15994 (2018)

Dynamics of doubly resonant Raman scattering and resonant luminescence in ultrathin InAs/GaAs quantum wells

J. Brübach, J. E. M. Haverkort, J. H. Wolter, P. D. Wang, N. N. Ledentsov, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, A. E. Zhukov, P. S. Kop’ev, and V. M. Ustinov
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(6) 1224-1231 (1996)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films Science,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. H.-P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Effects of confinement and environment on the electronic structure and exciton binding energy of MoS2from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 86(24), 241201 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. X. Zhu B and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9218 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. J. Sim S and G. Song J, “Exciton dynamics in atomically thin MoS2 Interexcitonic interaction and broadening kinetics,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075434 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Yuan and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics and annihilation in WS2 2D semiconductors,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7402–7408 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger Recombination in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Jiang, R. Chen, X. Zheng, Z. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Photo-induced excitonic structure renormalization and broadband absorption in monolayer tungsten disulphide,” Opt. Express 26(2), 859–869 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. O. Kwangu Kang, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Optical Phonon Lifetimes in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Time-Resolved Raman Scattering,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4642–4647 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. M. Nesbitt and D. C. Smith, “Measurements of the population lifetime of D band and G’ band phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 416–422 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  40. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  42. A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  43. T. M. and D and J. Late, “Temperature dependent phonon shifts in single-layer WS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(2), 1158–1163 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  45. C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  46. X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  47. J. A. Kash, J. C. Tsang, and J. M. Hvam, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2151–2154 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  48. K. T. Tsen and H. Morkoç, “Subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 38(8), 5615–5616 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  49. M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  50. M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  51. K. P. Loh, “Brightening the dark excitons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 837–838 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  52. M. Danovich, V. Zolyomi, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45998 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  53. M. Van der Donck, M. Zarenia, and F. M. Peeters, “Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 97(8), 081109 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  54. Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  55. V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  56. X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  57. L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  58. E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  59. K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  60. R. Loudon, “The Raman effect in crystals,” Adv. Phys. 13(52), 423–482 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  61. J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Van der Donck, M. Zarenia, and F. M. Peeters, “Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 97(8), 081109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Jiang, R. Chen, X. Zheng, Z. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Photo-induced excitonic structure renormalization and broadband absorption in monolayer tungsten disulphide,” Opt. Express 26(2), 859–869 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (13)

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. P. Loh, “Brightening the dark excitons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 837–838 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Danovich, V. Zolyomi, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45998 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger Recombination in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. X. Zhu B and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9218 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics and annihilation in WS2 2D semiconductors,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7402–7408 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

T. M. and D and J. Late, “Temperature dependent phonon shifts in single-layer WS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(2), 1158–1163 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Sim S and G. Song J, “Exciton dynamics in atomically thin MoS2 Interexcitonic interaction and broadening kinetics,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075434 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Nesbitt and D. C. Smith, “Measurements of the population lifetime of D band and G’ band phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H.-P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Effects of confinement and environment on the electronic structure and exciton binding energy of MoS2from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 86(24), 241201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. O. Kwangu Kang, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Optical Phonon Lifetimes in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Time-Resolved Raman Scattering,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4642–4647 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films Science,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. T. Tsen and H. Morkoç, “Subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 38(8), 5615–5616 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. A. Kash, J. C. Tsang, and J. M. Hvam, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2151–2154 (1985).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Loudon, “The Raman effect in crystals,” Adv. Phys. 13(52), 423–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ago, H.

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aji, A. S.

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aljarb, A.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Altmann, P.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amsalem, P.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

and D, T. M.

T. M. and D and J. Late, “Temperature dependent phonon shifts in single-layer WS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(2), 1158–1163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anghel, S.

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aono, T.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arora, S. K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ashton, M.

M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aslan, O. B.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ballottin, M.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baranowski, M.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barrette, A.

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bartos, M.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Becker, P.

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berghauser, G.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bergin, S. D.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berkdemir, A.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berkelbach, T. C.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Binder, S.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blumstengel, S.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boguschewski, C.

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boland, J. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Botello-Méndez, A. R.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bottegoni, F.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bratschitsch, R.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brezin, L.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brus, L. E.

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cahill, D. G.

T. O. Kwangu Kang, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Optical Phonon Lifetimes in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Time-Resolved Raman Scattering,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4642–4647 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carozo, V.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, B. R.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-Y. S.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Charlier, J.-C.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chatzakis, I.

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Cheng, Y. B.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chernikov, A.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chia, C.-I.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiu, M.-H.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Christianen, P. C. M.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chu, L.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ciccacci, F.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Click, S. M.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crespi, V. H.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

C. X. Zhu B and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger Recombination in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y. W.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dal Conte, S.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Danovich, M.

M. Danovich, V. Zolyomi, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Darma, Y.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

De, S.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Fazio, D.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

de Vasconcellos, S. Michaelis

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deligeorgis, G.

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

Della Fera, N.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Donegan, J. F.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dubey, M.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duesberg, G. S.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dukovic, G.

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dumcenco, D.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eda, G.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elias, A. L.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elías, A. L.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fal’ko, V. I.

M. Danovich, V. Zolyomi, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faugeras, C.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Finazzi, M.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fischer, F. R.

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Freymeyer, N. J.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuhrer, M. S.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fujisawa, K.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, K.

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaucher, A.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gedik, N.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

German, R.

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ghorannevis, Z.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gies, C.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gillen, R.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Goedecke, M.

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Goos, A.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grieveson, E. M.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grigorieva, I. V.

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gruneis, A.

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grunlan, J. C.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gundogdu, K.

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guptasarma, P.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez, H. R.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gutiérrez, H. R.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haberer, D.

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hallam, T.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, A.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Harutyunyan, A. R.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hennig, R. G.

M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heydrich, S.

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hill, H. M.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hirmer, M.

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, X.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics and annihilation in WS2 2D semiconductors,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7402–7408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hvam, J. M.

J. A. Kash, J. C. Tsang, and J. M. Hvam, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2151–2154 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hybertsen, M. S.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jahnke, F.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jarillo-Herrero, P.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jeong, B. G.

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jeong, M. S.

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ji, H. G.

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.-S.

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Jin, C.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jonker, B. T.

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger Recombination in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kabius, B.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kalantar-Zadeh, K.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kampmann, F.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, T. O. Kwangu

T. O. Kwangu Kang, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Optical Phonon Lifetimes in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Time-Resolved Raman Scattering,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4642–4647 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kash, J. A.

J. A. Kash, J. C. Tsang, and J. M. Hvam, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2151–2154 (1985).
[Crossref]

Khan, U.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, G. T.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

King, P. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kis, A.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kloc, C.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knorr, A.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koch, N.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Komsa, H.-P.

H.-P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Effects of confinement and environment on the electronic structure and exciton binding energy of MoS2from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 86(24), 241201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Korn, T.

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krasheninnikov, A. V.

H.-P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Effects of confinement and environment on the electronic structure and exciton binding energy of MoS2from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 86(24), 241201 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kulyuk, L.

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kung, Y. C.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kurniawan, R.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

La Croix, A. D.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Late, J.

T. M. and D and J. Late, “Temperature dependent phonon shifts in single-layer WS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(2), 1158–1163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. M.

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.-J.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ling, Y.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

List-Kratochvil, E. J. W.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

K. P. Loh, “Brightening the dark excitons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 837–838 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lombardo, A.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Urias, F.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

López-Urías, F.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lotya, M.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, “The Raman effect in crystals,” Adv. Phys. 13(52), 423–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Lui, C. H.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lv, R.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Q.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Macdonald, J. E.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mahns, I.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Malic, E.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Manske, D.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manzoni, C.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mao, Z.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marini, A.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marsili, M.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maude, D. K.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maultzsch, J.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

May, P.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

McBride, J. R.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

McComb, D. W.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

McCreary, A.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

McCreary, K. M.

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger Recombination in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

McIver, J. W.

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitioglu, A. A.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

Molas, M. R.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Molina-Sánchez, A.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Moriarty, G.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

K. T. Tsen and H. Morkoç, “Subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 38(8), 5615–5616 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mutz, N.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nan, F.

F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nellist, P. D.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nesbitt, J. M.

J. M. Nesbitt and D. C. Smith, “Measurements of the population lifetime of D band and G’ band phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nicholls, R. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nicolosi, V.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nogajewski, K.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films Science,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nurfani, E.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, A.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ochedowski, O.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Padmanabhan, P.

J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Paul, J.

M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peeters, F. M.

M. Van der Donck, M. Zarenia, and F. M. Peeters, “Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 97(8), 081109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Perea-Lopez, N.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perea-López, N.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perkins, J. M.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plochocka, P.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pogna, E. A.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Potemski, M.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Prezzi, D.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.-F.

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Y.-H.

F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ramasubramaniam, A.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reichman, D. R.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reid, K. R.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Reider, G. A.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rigosi, A.

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rigosi, A. F.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, S. J.

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rosner, M.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rubhausen, M.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ruppert, C.

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rusydi, A.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saichu, R. P.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sangalli, D.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sassi, U.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scheuschner, N.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schleberger, M.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, R.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmutzler, J.

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schneider, R.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schonhoff, G.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schüller, C.

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schultz, T.

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schulz, B.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Selig, M.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Semke, E. D.

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Senkovskiy, B. V.

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shan, J.

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.-F.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shim, M.

T. O. Kwangu Kang, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Optical Phonon Lifetimes in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Time-Resolved Raman Scattering,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4642–4647 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shirai, Y.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shmeliov, A.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shvets, I. V.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sie, E. J.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sim S, P. J.

P. J. Sim S and G. Song J, “Exciton dynamics in atomically thin MoS2 Interexcitonic interaction and broadening kinetics,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singer, S. G.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sinnott, S. B.

M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Slobodeniuk, A. O.

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. C.

J. M. Nesbitt and D. C. Smith, “Measurements of the population lifetime of D band and G’ band phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soavi, G.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Solís-Fernández, P.

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, D.

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song J, G.

P. J. Sim S and G. Song J, “Exciton dynamics in atomically thin MoS2 Interexcitonic interaction and broadening kinetics,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075434 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sophia, P. J.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Staiger, M.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stanton, G.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steinhoff, A.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Strano, M. S.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, D.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q. Q.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Surrente, A.

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sutjahja, I. M.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takase, K.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, P. H.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, P.-H.

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Terrones, H.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Terrones, M.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

Theuwissen, K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, C.

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

Toh, M.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tonndorf, P.

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsang, J. C.

J. A. Kash, J. C. Tsang, and J. M. Hvam, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2151–2154 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tsen, K. T.

K. T. Tsen and H. Morkoç, “Subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 38(8), 5615–5616 (1988).
[Crossref]

Unterhinninghofen, J.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van der Donck, M.

M. Van der Donck, M. Zarenia, and F. M. Peeters, “Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 97(8), 081109 (2018).
[Crossref]

van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Versteeg, R. B.

J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.-Q.

F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wehling, T. O.

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, J.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Williamsen, M. S.

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winata, T.

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.-B.

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, X.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, B.

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, D.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Xu, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D.

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

You, Y.

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Young, K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yuan and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics and annihilation in WS2 2D semiconductors,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7402–7408 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue, C.

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. J.

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zarenia, M.

M. Van der Donck, M. Zarenia, and F. M. Peeters, “Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 97(8), 081109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. W.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, M.

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Zhong, Y. L.

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T.

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu B, C. X.

C. X. Zhu B and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zolyomi, V.

M. Danovich, V. Zolyomi, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45998 (2017).
[Crossref]

2D Mater. (3)

S. Park, N. Mutz, T. Schultz, S. Blumstengel, A. Han, A. Aljarb, L.-J. Li, E. J. W. List-Kratochvil, P. Amsalem, and N. Koch, “Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates,” 2D Mater. 5(2), 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Baranowski, A. Surrente, D. K. Maude, M. Ballottin, A. A. Mitioglu, P. C. M. Christianen, Y. C. Kung, D. Dumcenco, A. Kis, and P. Plochocka, “Dark excitons and the elusive valley polarization in transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 025016 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Molas, C. Faugeras, A. O. Slobodeniuk, K. Nogajewski, M. Bartos, D. M. Basko, and M. Potemski, “Brightening of dark excitons in monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 4(2), 021003 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

T. M. and D and J. Late, “Temperature dependent phonon shifts in single-layer WS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(2), 1158–1163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Cao, Y. W. Dai, J. Xu, L. Chen, H. Zhu, Q. Q. Sun, and D. W. Zhang, “Realizing Stable p-Type Transporting in Two-Dimensional WS2 Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(21), 18215–18221 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (6)

E. A. Pogna, M. Marsili, D. De Fazio, S. Dal Conte, C. Manzoni, D. Sangalli, D. Yoon, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, A. Marini, G. Cerullo, and D. Prezzi, “Photo-Induced Bandgap Renormalization Governs the Ultrafast Response of Single-Layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1182–1188 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Xu, Y. Zhang, S. Lin, C. Zheng, Y. L. Zhong, X. Xia, Z. Li, P. J. Sophia, M. S. Fuhrer, Y. B. Cheng, and Q. Bao, “Synthesis and Transfer of Large-Area Monolayer WS2 Crystals- Moving Toward the Recyclable Use of Sapphire Substrates,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6178–6187 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, B. G. Jeong, S. J. Yun, Y. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, and M. S. Jeong, “Unveiling Defect-Related Raman Mode of Monolayer WS2 via Tip-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering,” ACS Nano 12(10), 9982–9990 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Hu, C. Yue, N. Della Fera, Y. Ling, Z. Mao, and J. Wei, “High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10396–10402 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. R. Reid, J. R. McBride, A. D. La Croix, N. J. Freymeyer, S. M. Click, J. E. Macdonald, and S. J. Rosenthal, “Role of Surface Morphology on Exciton Recombination in Single Quantum Dot-in-Rods Revealed by Optical and Atomic Structure Correlation,” ACS Nano 12(11), 11434–11445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. S. Aji, P. Solís-Fernández, H. G. Ji, K. Fukuda, and H. Ago, “High Mobility WS2 Transistors Realized by Multilayer Graphene Electrodes and Application to High Responsivity Flexible Photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(47), 1703448 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Phys. (1)

R. Loudon, “The Raman effect in crystals,” Adv. Phys. 13(52), 423–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Korn, S. Heydrich, M. Hirmer, J. Schmutzler, and C. Schüller, “Low-temperature photocarrier dynamics in monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 102109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

X. Zhang, X.-F. Qiao, W. Shi, J.-B. Wu, D.-S. Jiang, and P.-H. Tan, “ChemInform Abstract: Phonon and Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Monolayer, Multilayer to Bulk Material,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 44(9), 2757–2785 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2)

L. Yuan, T. Wang, T. Zhu, M. Zhou, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3371–3379 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger Recombination in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Nan, Y.-H. Qiu, L. Zhou, and Q.-Q. Wang, “Ultrafast exciton dynamics in chemical heterogenous WSe2 monolayer,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(48), 485109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Nurfani, R. Kurniawan, T. Aono, K. Takeda, Y. Shirai, I. M. Sutjahja, A. Rusydi, T. Winata, K. Takase, and Y. Darma, “Defect-induced excitonic recombination in Ti x Zn1− x O thin films grown by DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(11), 112101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (9)

Z. Wang, A. Molina-Sánchez, P. Altmann, D. Sangalli, D. De Fazio, G. Soavi, U. Sassi, F. Bottegoni, F. Ciccacci, and M. Finazzi, “Intravalley Spin–Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6882–6891 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gutierrez, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. Lopez-Urias, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, A. Steinhoff, C. Gies, C. H. Lui, Q. Ma, M. Rosner, G. Schonhoff, F. Jahnke, T. O. Wehling, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, P. Jarillo-Herrero, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Exciton Redshift-Blueshift Crossover in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4210–4216 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Sie, C. H. Lui, Y. H. Lee, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Observation of Intervalley Biexcitonic Optical Stark Effect in Monolayer WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(12), 7421–7426 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Ruppert, A. Chernikov, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “The Role of Electronic and Phononic Excitation in the Optical Response of Monolayer WS2 after Ultrafast Excitation,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 644–651 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. O. Kwangu Kang, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Optical Phonon Lifetimes in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Time-Resolved Raman Scattering,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4642–4647 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Nesbitt and D. C. Smith, “Measurements of the population lifetime of D band and G’ band phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 416–422 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Schmidt, G. Berghauser, R. Schneider, M. Selig, P. Tonndorf, E. Malic, A. Knorr, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2945–2950 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sun, Y. Rao, G. A. Reider, G. Chen, Y. You, L. Brezin, A. R. Harutyunyan, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5625–5629 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (2)

L. Yuan and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics and annihilation in WS2 2D semiconductors,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7402–7408 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, R. German, B. V. Senkovskiy, D. Haberer, F. R. Fischer, A. Gruneis, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Exciton and phonon dynamics in highly aligned 7-atom wide armchair graphene nanoribbons as seen by time-resolved spontaneous Raman scattering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17975–17982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

E. J. Sie, J. W. McIver, Y. H. Lee, L. Fu, J. Kong, and N. Gedik, “Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 290–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. P. Loh, “Brightening the dark excitons,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(9), 837–838 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

A. Chernikov, C. Ruppert, H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, and T. F. Heinz, “Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 466–470 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (9)

H. Yan, D. Song, K. F. Mak, I. Chatzakis, J. Maultzsch, and T. F. Heinz, “Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of optical phonons in graphite: Phonon anharmonic coupling and anomalous stiffening,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 121403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, Y. Yu, C. Xu, A. Barrette, K. Gundogdu, and L. Cao, “Fundamental limits of exciton-exciton annihilation for light emission in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 93(20), 201111 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Effects of confinement and environment on the electronic structure and exciton binding energy of MoS2from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 86(24), 241201 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Sim S and G. Song J, “Exciton dynamics in atomically thin MoS2 Interexcitonic interaction and broadening kinetics,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075434 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. T. Tsen and H. Morkoç, “Subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 38(8), 5615–5616 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mitioglu, P. Plochocka, G. Deligeorgis, S. Anghel, L. Kulyuk, and D. K. Maude, “Second-order resonant Raman scattering in single-layer tungsten disulfideWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 89(24), 245442 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Staiger, R. Gillen, N. Scheuschner, O. Ochedowski, F. Kampmann, M. Schleberger, C. Thomsen, and J. Maultzsch, “Splitting of monolayer out-of-planeA1′Raman mode in few-layerWS2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(19), 195419 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, R. B. Versteeg, P. Padmanabhan, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Dynamical resonance quench and Fano interference in spontaneous Raman scattering from quasiparticle and collective excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 99(9), 094305 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Van der Donck, M. Zarenia, and F. M. Peeters, “Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. B 97(8), 081109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. A. Kash, J. C. Tsang, and J. M. Hvam, “Sub-picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2151–2154 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(7), 076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ashton, J. Paul, S. B. Sinnott, and R. G. Hennig, “Topology-Scaling Identification of Layered Solids and Stable Exfoliated 2D Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(10), 106101 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Song, F. Wang, G. Dukovic, M. Zheng, E. D. Semke, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Direct measurement of the lifetime of optical phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(22), 225503 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. P. Saichu, I. Mahns, A. Goos, S. Binder, P. May, S. G. Singer, B. Schulz, A. Rusydi, J. Unterhinninghofen, D. Manske, P. Guptasarma, M. S. Williamsen, and M. Rubhausen, “Two-component dynamics of the order parameter of high temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + delta superconductors revealed by time-resolved Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 177004 (2009).
[Crossref]

RSC Adv. (1)

Q. Fu, W. Wang, L. Yang, J. Huang, J. Zhang, and B. Xiang, “Controllable synthesis of high quality monolayer WS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition,” RSC Adv. 5(21), 15795–15799 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-Lopez, A. L. Elias, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

M. Danovich, V. Zolyomi, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 45998 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. X. Zhu B and X. Cui, “Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9218 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films Science,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, X. Hong, C. Jin, S.-F. Shi, C.-Y. S. Chang, M.-H. Chiu, L.-J. Li, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers,” Science 346(6214), 1205–1208 (2014).
[Crossref]

Struct. Dyn. (1)

R. B. Versteeg, J. Zhu, P. Padmanabhan, C. Boguschewski, R. German, M. Goedecke, P. Becker, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “A tunable time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup for probing ultrafast collective excitation and quasiparticle dynamics in quantum materials,” Struct. Dyn. 5(4), 044301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Steady state spectra characterization of the CVD grown monolayer WS2 sample on silica/silicon substrate. (a) Atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement the thickness of monolayer WS2, inset show the optical image and AFM scanning range (dashed red line). (b) Photoluminescence. (c) Steady Raman scattering.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Time-resolved Resonance Raman scattering spectra of the monolayer WS2 on silica/silicon recorded on both Stokes and anti-Stokes sides simultaneously. (a) Raman scattering intensity spectra at different delay times after optical pump at 2.0 eV (620 nm). (b) Pump induced difference spectra obtained by subtraction the spectrum at −5 ps from each spectrum in (a) at different corresponding delay times.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Decay dynamics of the optical phonon peak at around 350 cm−1 at the exciton density around 2.26 × 1012 cm−2. (a) Stokes side dynamics integrated in the spectral region from 338 to 362 cm−1. (b) Anti-Stokes side dynamics integrated in the spectral region from −362 to −338 cm−1. (c) Calculated temperature of the optical phonon according to Bose-Einstein statistics.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Intensity dependence of the dynamics observed on Stokes side. (a) Decay dynamics of the 2LA phonon peak at around 350 cm−1 at different exciton density. (b) Inversion of the decay dynamics (dots) from (a) and the global fitted ones (dashed lines) with rate equation including both the first and second order exciton annihilation reaction (details see text in the paper). The global fitting extracted rate constants of k1 ∼ (67 ps)−1 and k2 ∼ 0.104 cm2s−1.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Decay dynamics of the optical phonon peak at around 415 cm−1 at the exciton density around 2.26 × 1012 cm−2. (a) Stokes side dynamics integrated in the spectral region from 400 to 430 cm−1. (b) Anti-Stokes side dynamics integrated in the spectral region from −430 to −400 cm−1. (c) Calculated temperature of the optical phonon according to Bose-Einstein statistics.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I S 2 ( 1 + n ) 2 ,
n = 1 / [ e x p ( h Ω / k B T ) 1 ] ,
I A S 2 n 2
d N ( t ) / d t = k 1 N ( t ) ? o x y d e l e t e a u t h o r =" k i v a n o v a " t i m e s t a m p =" 20190822 T 115126 0400 " c o n t e n t =" " ? k 2 N 2 ( t ) ,
1 / N ( t ) = [ 1 / N ( 0 ) + k 2 / k 1 ] e x p ( k 1 t ) k 2 / k 1 ,
1 / N ( t ) 1 / N ( 0 ) + [ k 1 / N ( 0 ) + k 2 ] t
P ( ω ) = χ E ( ω )
I R | < f | χ | i > | 2
χ = χ 0 + ( d χ / d Q k ) 0 Q k + ( d 2 χ / d Q 2 k ) 0 Q 2 k +
I 2 R S | < v + 2 | Q 2 k | v > | 2 2 + 3 v + v 2 ,
I 2 R A S | < v 2 | Q 2 k | v > | 2 v 2 v .
η v = e x p ( ε v / k B T ) / v e x p ( ε v / k B T ) = e x p [ h Ω ( v + 1 / 2 ) / k B T ] / v e x p [ h Ω ( v + 1 / 2 ) / k B T ] .
I 2 R S v ( 2 + 3 v + v 2 ) η v 2 ( 1 + n ) 2 ,
I 2 R A S v ( v 2 v ) η v 2 n 2
n = 1 / [ ( e x p ( h Ω / k B T ) 1 ] .
C I 2 R S / I 2 R A S = ( 1 + n ) 2 / n 2 = e x p ( 2 h Ω / k B T )
I 1 R S 1 + n
I 1 R A S n

Metrics