Abstract

Double optical gating (DOG) technique was implemented with a two-cycle, 1.7 µm driving field to generate isolated attosecond pulses in the 100–250 eV spectrum range. The strong ellipticity dependency of the high harmonics from the 1.7 µm driving field makes polarization based gating method very efficient. When a second harmonic (SH) field is introduced, complete gating can be achieved with less ionization from the leading edge of the driving field, which yields supercontinua with a pulse energy of 0.3 nJ. We perform an attosecond streaking measurement to confirm the generation of isolated attosecond pulses.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (2)

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, and C. S. Strüber, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4(5), eaar3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Chew, N. Douguet, C. Cariker, J. Li, E. Lindroth, X. Ren, Y. Yin, L. Argenti, W. T. Hill, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the ${L_{2,3}}$L2,3 edge,” Phys. Rev. A 97(3), 031407 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. L. Cousin, N. Di Palo, B. Buades, S. M. Teichmann, M. Reduzzi, M. Devetta, A. Kheifets, G. Sansone, and J. Biegert, “Attosecond Streaking in the Water Window: A New Regime of Attosecond Pulse Characterization,” Phys. Rev. X 7(4), 041030 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(23), 231102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, J. Li, X. Ren, K. Zhao, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, and Z. Chang, “High-efficiency optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier in BiB 3 O 6 for generation of 3 mJ, two-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-stable pulses at 1.7 µm,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1142–1145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang, P. B. Corkum, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond optics and technology: progress to date and future prospects [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(6), 1081–1097 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Francesca, S. Giuseppe, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, and N. Mauro, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6611 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Vincenti and F. Quéré, “Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(11), 113904 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Möller, Y. Cheng, S. D. Khan, B. Zhao, K. Zhao, M. Chini, G. G. Paulus, and Z. Chang, “Dependence of high-order-harmonic-generation yield on driving-laser ellipticity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 011401 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength Scaling of High Harmonic Generation Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Jullien, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. Nagel, M. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ionization phase-match gating for wavelength-tunable isolated attosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 93(2-3), 433–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 013001 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70(4), 043802 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Mairesse, A. De Bohan, L. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, and B. Carré, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

P. M. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 011804 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salìeres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48(5), R3437–R3440 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abel, M. J.

A. Jullien, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. Nagel, M. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ionization phase-match gating for wavelength-tunable isolated attosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 93(2-3), 433–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aline, V.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anne, L. H.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ardana-Lamas, F.

Argenti, L.

A. Chew, N. Douguet, C. Cariker, J. Li, E. Lindroth, X. Ren, Y. Yin, L. Argenti, W. T. Hill, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the ${L_{2,3}}$L2,3 edge,” Phys. Rev. A 97(3), 031407 (2018).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, and R. Kienberger, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, T. Ruchon, J.-F. Hergott, T. Auguste, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and F. Quéré, “Photonic streaking of attosecond pulse trains,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 651–656 (2013).
[Crossref]

Austin, D. R.

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, and C. S. Strüber, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4(5), eaar3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balázs, F.

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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, A. De Bohan, L. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, and B. Carré, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 013001 (2006).
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P. Balcou, P. Salìeres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
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K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48(5), R3437–R3440 (1993).
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A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, and C. S. Strüber, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4(5), eaar3761 (2018).
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A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength Scaling of High Harmonic Generation Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(7), 073902 (2009).
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A. Jullien, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. Nagel, M. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ionization phase-match gating for wavelength-tunable isolated attosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 93(2-3), 433–442 (2008).
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P. Balcou, P. Salìeres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
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Li, J.

A. Chew, N. Douguet, C. Cariker, J. Li, E. Lindroth, X. Ren, Y. Yin, L. Argenti, W. T. Hill, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the ${L_{2,3}}$L2,3 edge,” Phys. Rev. A 97(3), 031407 (2018).
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J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 186 (2017).
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Y. Yin, J. Li, X. Ren, K. Zhao, Y. Wu, E. Cunningham, and Z. Chang, “High-efficiency optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier in BiB 3 O 6 for generation of 3 mJ, two-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase-stable pulses at 1.7 µm,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1142–1145 (2016).
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J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(23), 231102 (2016).
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Lindroth, E.

A. Chew, N. Douguet, C. Cariker, J. Li, E. Lindroth, X. Ren, Y. Yin, L. Argenti, W. T. Hill, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond transient absorption spectrum of argon at the ${L_{2,3}}$L2,3 edge,” Phys. Rev. A 97(3), 031407 (2018).
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Luca, P.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
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Maïmona, B.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
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Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse, A. De Bohan, L. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, and B. Carré, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2007).
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S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, D.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
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Matthews, M.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mauritsson, J.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 013001 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mauro, N.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
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C. Francesca, S. Giuseppe, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, and N. Mauro, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(6), 062001 (2016).
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Mercouris, T.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. De Bohan, L. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, and B. Carré, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref]

Michele, D.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mikhail, K.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miklós, F.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Möller, M.

M. Möller, Y. Cheng, S. D. Khan, B. Zhao, K. Zhao, M. Chini, G. G. Paulus, and Z. Chang, “Dependence of high-order-harmonic-generation yield on driving-laser ellipticity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 011401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. De Bohan, L. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, and B. Carré, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moon, E.

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[Crossref]

Muller, H.

P. M. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nagel, P.

A. Jullien, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. Nagel, M. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ionization phase-match gating for wavelength-tunable isolated attosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 93(2-3), 433–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nagele, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neppl, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neumark, D. M.

A. Jullien, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. Nagel, M. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ionization phase-match gating for wavelength-tunable isolated attosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 93(2-3), 433–442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nikos, P.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Paraskevas, T.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Parker, S.

A. S. Johnson, D. R. Austin, D. A. Wood, C. Brahms, A. Gregory, K. B. Holzner, S. Jarosch, E. W. Larsen, S. Parker, and C. S. Strüber, “High-flux soft x-ray harmonic generation from ionization-shaped few-cycle laser pulses,” Sci. Adv. 4(5), eaar3761 (2018).
[Crossref]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

M. Möller, Y. Cheng, S. D. Khan, B. Zhao, K. Zhao, M. Chini, G. G. Paulus, and Z. Chang, “Dependence of high-order-harmonic-generation yield on driving-laser ellipticity,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 011401 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pazourek, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Per, J.

K. Sergei, D. Mathieu, K. Subhendu, M. Sudipta, F. Miklós, C. Tamás, F. Balázs, M. Balázs, V. Zoltán, C. Eric, K. Mikhail, C. Francesca, D. Michele, F. Fabio, M. Erik, P. Luca, S. Salvatore, V. Caterina, N. Mauro, R. Piotr, M. Sylvain, C. Filippo, W. Hampus, L. A. Cord, M. H. Christoph, J. Per, L. H. Anne, L.-M. Rodrigo, H. Stefan, B. Maïmona, B. Frederik, V. Aline, I. Gregory, S. Emmanuel, P. Nikos, K. Constantinos, T. Paraskevas, L. Franck, C. Dimitris, V. Katalin, O. Károly, and S. Giuseppe, “The ELI-ALPS facility: the next generation of attosecond sources,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(13), 132002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perry, M. D.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48(5), R3437–R3440 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pertot, Y.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pfeifer, T.

A. Jullien, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, P. Nagel, M. Bell, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ionization phase-match gating for wavelength-tunable isolated attosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 93(2-3), 433–442 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experiment setup for double optical gating. (a) The o- and e-field after the 1st quartz plate. (b) The driving and gating fields after the 2nd quartz plate. (c) The driving, gating and SH fields after the BBO crystal.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) CEP influence on the supercontinua generation using one-cycle delay DOG. (b) Photoelectron spectrogram as a function of temporal delay between the soft X-ray and the streaking mid-IR pulses. A 100-nm-tin filter is used in the soft X-ray beam. A negative delay corresponds to an earlier mid-IR pulse arrival.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Attosecond pulse retrieval with neural network using the measured streaking trace in Fig. 2(b). (a) Neural network retrieved photon spectrum and spectrum phase; photoionization potential and cross section of helium are considered to correct the photon spectra. (b) Temporal intensity profile and temporal phase of the 305 as pulse.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The photon spectrum of an attosecond pulse train generated using a linearly polarized field (solid black); The photon spectrum of IAPs generated using a DOG field with one-cycle delay (solid red) and a PG field with two-cycle delay (dashed blue). In each case, the CEP value, gas cell position and iris size were optimized individually to achieve the best maximum flux near 150 eV.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The driving (red solid) and gating field (yellow doted) in (a) one-cycle delay case and (b) two-cycle delay case.

Equations (1)

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δ t G = ε t h τ p 2 ln ( 2 ) T d

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