Abstract

Varifocal mirrors, which have various applications in optical coherent tomography and three-dimensional displays, are traditionally based on the fluid pressure or mechanical pusher to deform the mirror. The limitations of conventional varifocal mirrors are obvious, such as the heavy size of the device and constraints of tunability, due to their mechanical pressure control elements. The reprogrammable metasurface, a new flat photonic device with multifunction in an ultrathin dimension, paves the way towards an ultrathin and lightweight mirror with precise phase profile. Here, an active reconfigurable metasurface is proposed to achieve the manipulation of the wavefront. The meta-atom in the metasurface is integrated with one varactor diode to manipulate the electromagnetic response. As the bias voltage increases from 0 to 20 V, the resonant frequency shifts from 5.5 to 6.0 GHz, which generates a broad tunable phase region, leading to 5 diopters (about 50%) change without any mechanical element and a broad tunable frequency band. In addition, the focus point can not only be steered in the axial line above the metasurface but also in the whole working plane. The proposed focus-tunable metasurface mirror may be a key in enabling future ultrathin reconfigurable optical devices with applications such as multiphoton microscopy, high speed imaging and confocal microscopy.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

L. Li, H. Ruan, C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Shuang, A. Alù, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning reprogrammable metasurface imager,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1082 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Active metasurface for reconfigurable reflectors,” Appl. Phys. A 124(2), 104 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Y. Yang, Q. Liu, D. Liang, B. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. Xu, and H. Wang, “Multi-frequency metasurface carpet cloaks,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14123–14131 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, B. Zheng, K. Zheng, M. Y. Musa, S. Gao, Z. Wang, S. Deshdashti, H. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Launching phase-controlled surface plasmons on Babinet metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3253–3256 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, B. Zheng, F. Gao, H. Wang, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Diodelike spin-orbit interactions of light in chiral metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(12), 7148–7155 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically tunable soft photonic gel formed by blue phase liquid crystal for switchable color-reflecting mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Jing, K. Yao, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, C. M. Soukoulis, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Origami-based reconfigurable metamaterials for tunable chirality,” Adv. Mater. 29(27), 1700412 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Y. Zarate, H. T. Hattori, D. N. Neshev, I. V. Shadrivov, and D. A. Powell, “Terahertz focusing of multiple wavelengths by graphene metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031106 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, H. Wang, F. Yu, Z. Xu, and H. Chen, “A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20219 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wan, M. Q. Qi, T. Y. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20663 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, and C. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Morrison, M. Imboden, T. D. Little, and D. Bishop, “Electrothermally actuated tip-tilt-piston micromirror with integrated varifocal capability,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9555–9566 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yan, L. Liang, J. Yang, W. Liu, X. Ding, D. Xu, Y. Zhang, T. Cui, and J. Yao, “Broadband, wide-angle, low-scattering terahertz wave by a flexible 2-bit coding metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29128–29137 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Li, R. Li, W. Lubeigt, and D. Uttamchandani, “Design, simulation, and characterization of a bimorph varifocal micromirror and its application in an optical imaging system,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(2), 285–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. F. Chimento, N. V. Kuzmin, J. Bosman, P. F. Alkemade, W. Gert, and E. R. Eliel, “A subwavelength slit as a quarter-wave retarder,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24219–24227 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Hokari and K. Hane, “A varifocal convex micromirror driven by a bending moment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1310–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alkemade, P. F.

Alù, A.

L. Li, H. Ruan, C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Shuang, A. Alù, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning reprogrammable metasurface imager,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1082 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

Bishop, D.

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bosman, J.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

Burnes, D.

Burokur, S. N.

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Active metasurface for reconfigurable reflectors,” Appl. Phys. A 124(2), 104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Byren, R.

Cai, B.

Campione, S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, B. Zheng, F. Gao, H. Wang, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Diodelike spin-orbit interactions of light in chiral metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(12), 7148–7155 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, Y. Yang, Q. Liu, D. Liang, B. Zheng, H. Chen, Z. Xu, and H. Wang, “Multi-frequency metasurface carpet cloaks,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14123–14131 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, B. Zheng, K. Zheng, M. Y. Musa, S. Gao, Z. Wang, S. Deshdashti, H. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Launching phase-controlled surface plasmons on Babinet metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3253–3256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Jing, K. Yao, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, C. M. Soukoulis, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Origami-based reconfigurable metamaterials for tunable chirality,” Adv. Mater. 29(27), 1700412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, H. Wang, F. Yu, Z. Xu, and H. Chen, “A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20219 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, Z. Wang, L. Shen, M. Renuka, B. Zheng, H. Chen, and H. Wang, “Metasurface holograms with arbitrary phase control of electromagnetic wavefront,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM) (IEEE2018), pp. 1–2.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. Y.

X. Wan, M. Q. Qi, T. Y. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20663 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chimento, P. F.

Chiu, S.

Chong, K. E.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, T.

Cui, T. J.

L. Li, H. Ruan, C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Shuang, A. Alù, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning reprogrammable metasurface imager,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1082 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wan, M. Q. Qi, T. Y. Chen, and T. J. Cui, “Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20663 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Lustrac, A.

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Active metasurface for reconfigurable reflectors,” Appl. Phys. A 124(2), 104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Decker, M.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deshdashti, S.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dickensheets, L. D.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Dodds, R. K.

Dominguez, J.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eide, H. A.

Eliel, E. R.

Eriksen, R. L.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Faraji-Dana, M.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, and C. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friholm, R. A.

Gaburro, Z.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, B. Zheng, F. Gao, H. Wang, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Diodelike spin-orbit interactions of light in chiral metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(12), 7148–7155 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gert, W.

Gordon, L. M.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

L. Guo, B. Zheng, K. Zheng, M. Y. Musa, S. Gao, Z. Wang, S. Deshdashti, H. Chen, and Y. Yang, “Launching phase-controlled surface plasmons on Babinet metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3253–3256 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, Z. Wang, L. Shen, M. Renuka, B. Zheng, H. Chen, and H. Wang, “Metasurface holograms with arbitrary phase control of electromagnetic wavefront,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM) (IEEE2018), pp. 1–2.

Han, J.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hane, K.

R. Hokari and K. Hane, “A varifocal convex micromirror driven by a bending moment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1310–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hao, R.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hattori, H. T.

L. Liu, Y. Zarate, H. T. Hattori, D. N. Neshev, I. V. Shadrivov, and D. A. Powell, “Terahertz focusing of multiple wavelengths by graphene metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031106 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Himmer, A. P.

B. Qi, A. P. Himmer, L. M. Gordon, X. V. Yang, L. D. Dickensheets, and I. A. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Himmer, P. A.

Hokari, R.

R. Hokari and K. Hane, “A varifocal convex micromirror driven by a bending moment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1310–1316 (2009).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, R. M. Briggs, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Efficient dielectric metasurface collimating lenses for mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33310–33317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Imboden, M.

James, A.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

James, A. R.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, and C. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jing, L.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, B. Zheng, F. Gao, H. Wang, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Diodelike spin-orbit interactions of light in chiral metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(12), 7148–7155 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Jing, K. Yao, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, C. M. Soukoulis, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Origami-based reconfigurable metamaterials for tunable chirality,” Adv. Mater. 29(27), 1700412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kamali, S. M.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, M. Faraji-Dana, and A. Faraon, “MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 812 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kenney, M.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kuzmin, N. V.

Li, E.

L. Jing, Z. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, B. Zheng, F. Gao, H. Wang, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Diodelike spin-orbit interactions of light in chiral metasurfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 66(12), 7148–7155 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, H. Ruan, C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Shuang, A. Alù, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning reprogrammable metasurface imager,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1082 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, R. Li, W. Lubeigt, and D. Uttamchandani, “Design, simulation, and characterization of a bimorph varifocal micromirror and its application in an optical imaging system,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(2), 285–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

L. Li, R. Li, W. Lubeigt, and D. Uttamchandani, “Design, simulation, and characterization of a bimorph varifocal micromirror and its application in an optical imaging system,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(2), 285–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

L. Li, H. Ruan, C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Shuang, A. Alù, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning reprogrammable metasurface imager,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1082 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. B.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, D.

Liang, L.

X. Yan, L. Liang, J. Yang, W. Liu, X. Ding, D. Xu, Y. Zhang, T. Cui, and J. Yao, “Broadband, wide-angle, low-scattering terahertz wave by a flexible 2-bit coding metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29128–29137 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, and C. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Little, T. D.

Liu, C.

L. Li, H. Ruan, C. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Shuang, A. Alù, C.-W. Qiu, and T. J. Cui, “Machine-learning reprogrammable metasurface imager,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1082 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, Y. Zarate, H. T. Hattori, D. N. Neshev, I. V. Shadrivov, and D. A. Powell, “Terahertz focusing of multiple wavelengths by graphene metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Liu, S.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, and C. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yan, L. Liang, J. Yang, W. Liu, X. Ding, D. Xu, Y. Zhang, T. Cui, and J. Yao, “Broadband, wide-angle, low-scattering terahertz wave by a flexible 2-bit coding metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29128–29137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Z. Wang, L. Jing, K. Yao, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, C. M. Soukoulis, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Origami-based reconfigurable metamaterials for tunable chirality,” Adv. Mater. 29(27), 1700412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lubeigt, W.

L. Li, R. Li, W. Lubeigt, and D. Uttamchandani, “Design, simulation, and characterization of a bimorph varifocal micromirror and its application in an optical imaging system,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 22(2), 285–294 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mao, Y.

Mathews, M.

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically tunable soft photonic gel formed by blue phase liquid crystal for switchable color-reflecting mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morrison, J.

Munce, N. R.

Musa, M. Y.

Nair, G. G.

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically tunable soft photonic gel formed by blue phase liquid crystal for switchable color-reflecting mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

Neshev, D. N.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Y. Zarate, H. T. Hattori, D. N. Neshev, I. V. Shadrivov, and D. A. Powell, “Terahertz focusing of multiple wavelengths by graphene metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031106 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, and D. N. Neshev, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. G.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, C.

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Piau, G.-P.

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Active metasurface for reconfigurable reflectors,” Appl. Phys. A 124(2), 104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pors, A.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
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Zheng, K.

Zheng, Y.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
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X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

V. Sridurai, M. Mathews, C. V. Yelamaggad, and G. G. Nair, “Electrically tunable soft photonic gel formed by blue phase liquid crystal for switchable color-reflecting mirror,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(45), 39569–39575 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, and I. Brener, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Jing, K. Yao, Y. Yang, B. Zheng, C. M. Soukoulis, H. Chen, and Y. Liu, “Origami-based reconfigurable metamaterials for tunable chirality,” Adv. Mater. 29(27), 1700412 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-polarization 3D metasurface cloak with preserved amplitude and phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, and C. Zhang, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Active metasurface for reconfigurable reflectors,” Appl. Phys. A 124(2), 104 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Liu, Y. Zarate, H. T. Hattori, D. N. Neshev, I. V. Shadrivov, and D. A. Powell, “Terahertz focusing of multiple wavelengths by graphene metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(3), 031106 (2016).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Hokari and K. Hane, “A varifocal convex micromirror driven by a bending moment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1310–1316 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the proposed varifocal metasurface mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the considered unit cell with fixed parameters p = 15.5 mm, t = 2 mm and m = 1.5 mm. The normal incident wave is x-polarized. The distance between two copper sheets is a = 1.7 mm. The land, to which the varactor welds, is with dout = 1 mm and am = 1.2 mm; (b) Simulated relationship between phases and the bias voltage of the designed unit cell using CST; (c) Measured relationship between phases and the bias voltage of the fabricated cell in experiment.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. 3D full wave simulation results of amplitude distribution on y-polarization with the field of incident wave subtracted, where metasurface is on the y-axis. The color bar on the y-axis illustrates the degree of each unit cell.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup of the varifocal metasurface mirror measurement.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Performance of the fabricated varifocal focusing metasurface mirror evaluated at different frequencies. The metasurface is on the y-axis where the field of incident wave is subtracted. Other conditions in each case are similar to Fig. 3.

Equations (1)

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ϕ ( y ) = 2 π λ ( ( y y 0 ) 2 + f 2 f )

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