Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method for fabricating single crystal diamond diffraction gratings based on crystallographic etching that yields high-quality diffraction gratings from commercially available <100> diamond plates. Both V-groove and rectangular gratings were fabricated and characterised using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, revealing angles of 57° and 87° depending on the crystal orientation, with mean roughness below Ra = 5 nm on the sidewalls. The gratings were also optically characterised, showing good agreement with simulated results. The fabrication method demonstrated in this contribution shows the way for manufacturing high-quality diamond diffractive components that surpass existing devices both in quality and manufacturability.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

S. Mi, A. Toros, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, “Non-contact polishing of single crystal diamond by ion beam etching,” Diamond Related Materials 92, 248–252 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

M. Challier, S. Sonusen, A. Barfuss, D. Rohner, D. Riedel, J. Koelbl, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky, and E. Neu, “Advanced fabrication of single-crystal diamond membranes for quantum technologies,” Micromachines (Basel) 9(4), 148 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Yamada, Y. Ikeda, and T. Higuchi, “Fabrication of tunable diffraction grating by imprint lithography with photoresist mold,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89(5), 053110 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, H. Huang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Kong, Y. Wang, Y. Jin, P. Chen, J. Xu, and J. Shao, “Reducing electric-field-enhancement in metal-dielectric grating by designing grating with asymmetric ridge,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5228 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nagai, K. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, H. Kato, T. Makino, S. Yamasaki, T. Matsumoto, T. Inokuma, and N. Tokuda, “Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 6687 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Martínez-Calderon, J. J. Azkona, N. Casquero, A. Rodríguez, M. Domke, M. Gómez-Aranzadi, S. M. Olaizola, and E. Granados, “Tailoring diamond’s optical properties via direct femtosecond laser nanostructuring,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 14262 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Graziosi, S. Mi, M. Kiss, and N. Quack, “Single crystal diamond micro-disk resonators by focused ion beam milling,” APL Photonics 3(12), 126101 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Xie, T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Crystallographic orientation dependent reactive ion etching in single crystal diamond,” Adv. Mater. 30(11), 1705501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, “Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond,” Proc. SPIE 10513, 105131K (2018).
[Crossref]

W. G. Lu, R. Xiao, J. Liu, L. Wang, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Large-area rainbow holographic diffraction gratings on a curved surface using transferred photopolymer films,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 675–678 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, and H. A. Padmore, “Ultra-low blaze angle gratings for synchrotron and free electron laser applications,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22011–22018 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

A. L. Stepanov, V. I. Nuzhdin, M. F. Galyautdinov, N. V. Kurbatova, V. F. Valeev, V. V. Vorobev, and Yu. N. Osin, “A diffraction grating created in diamond substrate by boron ion implantation,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 43(1), 104–106 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Makita, P. Karvinen, V. A. Guzenko, N. Kujala, P. Vagovic, and C. David, “Fabrication of diamond diffraction gratings for experiments with intense hard x-rays,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 75–78 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Tallaire, V. Mille, O. Brinza, T. N. Tran Thi, J. M. Brom, Y. Loguinov, A. Katrusha, A. Koliadin, and J. Achard, “Thick CVD diamond films grown on high-quality type IIa HPHT diamond substrates from New Diamond Technology,” Diamond Related Materials 77, 146–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Reimers, A. Bauer, K. P. Thompson, and J. P. Rolland, “Freeform spectrometer enabling increased compactness,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17026 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Singh, P. Pal, A. K. Pandey, Y. Xing, and K. Sato, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions for mask alignment in wet bulk micromachining for MEMS,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 4(1), 5 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. I. Shahin, T. J. Anderson, T. I. Feygelson, B. B. Pate, V. D. Wheeler, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, M. J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K. D. Hobart, “Thermal etching of nanocrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials 59, 116–121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Nie, Z. Wen, and J. Huang, “A high-performance scanning grating based on tilted (111) silicon wafer for near infrared micro spectrometer application,” Microsyst. Technol. 21(8), 1749–1755 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, “High-Q/V Monolithic Diamond Microdisks Fabricated with Quasi-isotropic Etching,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5131–5136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. Lehmann, C. Bradac, and R. P. Mildren, “Two-photon polarization-selective etching of emergent nano-structures on diamond surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Nemanich, J. A. Carlisle, A. Hirata, and K. Haenen, “CVD diamond—Research, applications, and challenges,” MRS Bull. 39(6), 490–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Poletto, P. Miotti, F. Frassetto, C. Spezzani, C. Grazioli, M. Coreno, B. Ressel, D. Gauthier, R. Ivanov, A. Ciavardini, M. de Simone, S. Stagira, and G. De Ninno, “Double-configuration grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 53(26), 5879–5888 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

P. Forsberg and M. Karlsson, “High aspect ratio optical gratings in diamond,” Diamond Related Materials 34, 19–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Ge, B. Zhao, S. Powell, A. Fletcher, X. Wan, L. Chang, H. Jakeman, D. Koukis, D. B. Tanner, D. Ebbets, J. Weinberg, S. Lipscy, R. Nyquist, and J. Bally, “Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502U (2012).

V. I. Konov, “Laser in micro and nanoprocessing of diamond materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(6), 739–766 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Field, “The mechanical and strength properties of diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

G. Almuneau, M. Condé, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, “High reflectivity monolithic sub-wavelength diffraction grating with GaAs/AlO x stack,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015505 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

C. L. Lee, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, I. Friel, and G. A. Scarsbrook, “Etching and micro-optics fabrication in diamond using chlorine-based inductively-coupled plasma,” Diamond Related Materials 17(7–10), 1292–1296 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

V. V. Kononenko, M. S. Komlenok, S. M. Pimenov, and V. I. Konov, “Photoinduced laser etching of a diamond surface,” Quantum Electron. 37(11), 1043–1046 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Mroziewicz, E. Kowalczyk, L. Dobrzanski, J. Ratajczak, and S. J. Lewandowski, “External cavity diode lasers with E-beam written silicon diffraction gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(7), 585–595 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. Rockstuhl, I. Marki, T. Scharf, M. Salt, H. Peter Herzig, and R. Dandliker, “High resolution interference microscopy: a tool for probing optical waves in the far-field on a nanometric length scale,” Curr. Nanosci. 2(4), 337–350 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

R. E. Bell, “Exploiting a transmission grating spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 4158–4161 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. A. Davis and G. H. Evans, “Polarizing binary diffraction grating beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1443–1445 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Tan, R. Boudreau, and M. L. Reed, “Effects of mask misalignment and wafer misorientation on silicon v-groove etching,” Sens. Mater. 15(2), 101–112 (2003).

2000 (1)

Z. Zhu and C. Liu, “Micromachining process simulation using a continuous cellular automata method,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(2), 252–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

O. Than and S. Büttgenbach, “Simulation of anisotropic chemical etching of crystalline silicon using a cellular automata model,” Sens. Actuators Phys. 45(1), 85–89 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. J. Bull and A. Matthews, “Diamond for wear and corrosion applications,” Diamond Related Materials 1(10–11), 1049–1064 (1992).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

D. B. Lee, “Anisotropic etching of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(11), 4569–4574 (1969).
[Crossref]

A. Labeyrie and J. Flamand, “Spectrographic performance of holographically made diffraction gratings,” Opt. Commun. 1(1), 5–8 (1969).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

1923 (1)

F. Peter, “Uber brechungsindizes und absorptionskonstanten des diamanten zwischen 644 und 226 mu,” Z. Phys. 15(1), 358–368 (1923).
[Crossref]

Achard, J.

A. Tallaire, V. Mille, O. Brinza, T. N. Tran Thi, J. M. Brom, Y. Loguinov, A. Katrusha, A. Koliadin, and J. Achard, “Thick CVD diamond films grown on high-quality type IIa HPHT diamond substrates from New Diamond Technology,” Diamond Related Materials 77, 146–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S.

Alessi, D.

Almuneau, G.

G. Almuneau, M. Condé, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, “High reflectivity monolithic sub-wavelength diffraction grating with GaAs/AlO x stack,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T. J.

D. I. Shahin, T. J. Anderson, T. I. Feygelson, B. B. Pate, V. D. Wheeler, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, M. J. Tadjer, A. Christou, and K. D. Hobart, “Thermal etching of nanocrystalline diamond films,” Diamond Related Materials 59, 116–121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appel, P.

M. Challier, S. Sonusen, A. Barfuss, D. Rohner, D. Riedel, J. Koelbl, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky, and E. Neu, “Advanced fabrication of single-crystal diamond membranes for quantum technologies,” Micromachines (Basel) 9(4), 148 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azkona, J. J.

M. Martínez-Calderon, J. J. Azkona, N. Casquero, A. Rodríguez, M. Domke, M. Gómez-Aranzadi, S. M. Olaizola, and E. Granados, “Tailoring diamond’s optical properties via direct femtosecond laser nanostructuring,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 14262 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bally, J.

J. Ge, B. Zhao, S. Powell, A. Fletcher, X. Wan, L. Chang, H. Jakeman, D. Koukis, D. B. Tanner, D. Ebbets, J. Weinberg, S. Lipscy, R. Nyquist, and J. Bally, “Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502U (2012).

Barclay, P. E.

B. Khanaliloo, M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, and P. E. Barclay, “High-Q/V Monolithic Diamond Microdisks Fabricated with Quasi-isotropic Etching,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5131–5136 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardinal, V.

G. Almuneau, M. Condé, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, V. Bardinal, and C. Fontaine, “High reflectivity monolithic sub-wavelength diffraction grating with GaAs/AlO x stack,” J. Opt. 13(1), 015505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barfuss, A.

M. Challier, S. Sonusen, A. Barfuss, D. Rohner, D. Riedel, J. Koelbl, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky, and E. Neu, “Advanced fabrication of single-crystal diamond membranes for quantum technologies,” Micromachines (Basel) 9(4), 148 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batzer, M.

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M. Kiss, T. Graziosi, and N. Quack, “Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond,” Proc. SPIE 10513, 105131K (2018).
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T. Graziosi, S. Mi, M. Kiss, and N. Quack, “Single crystal diamond micro-disk resonators by focused ion beam milling,” APL Photonics 3(12), 126101 (2018).
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Luther, B. M.

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M. Makita, P. Karvinen, V. A. Guzenko, N. Kujala, P. Vagovic, and C. David, “Fabrication of diamond diffraction gratings for experiments with intense hard x-rays,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 75–78 (2017).
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M. Challier, S. Sonusen, A. Barfuss, D. Rohner, D. Riedel, J. Koelbl, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky, and E. Neu, “Advanced fabrication of single-crystal diamond membranes for quantum technologies,” Micromachines (Basel) 9(4), 148 (2018).
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Marki, I.

C. Rockstuhl, I. Marki, T. Scharf, M. Salt, H. Peter Herzig, and R. Dandliker, “High resolution interference microscopy: a tool for probing optical waves in the far-field on a nanometric length scale,” Curr. Nanosci. 2(4), 337–350 (2006).
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M. Nagai, K. Nakanishi, H. Takahashi, H. Kato, T. Makino, S. Yamasaki, T. Matsumoto, T. Inokuma, and N. Tokuda, “Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 6687 (2018).
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S. J. Bull and A. Matthews, “Diamond for wear and corrosion applications,” Diamond Related Materials 1(10–11), 1049–1064 (1992).
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APL Photonics (1)

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Appl. Opt. (2)

Curr. Nanosci. (1)

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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

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Micro Nano Syst. Lett. (1)

S. S. Singh, P. Pal, A. K. Pandey, Y. Xing, and K. Sato, “Determination of precise crystallographic directions for mask alignment in wet bulk micromachining for MEMS,” Micro Nano Syst. Lett. 4(1), 5 (2016).
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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. Makita, P. Karvinen, V. A. Guzenko, N. Kujala, P. Vagovic, and C. David, “Fabrication of diamond diffraction gratings for experiments with intense hard x-rays,” Microelectron. Eng. 176, 75–78 (2017).
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M. Challier, S. Sonusen, A. Barfuss, D. Rohner, D. Riedel, J. Koelbl, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, P. Maletinsky, and E. Neu, “Advanced fabrication of single-crystal diamond membranes for quantum technologies,” Micromachines (Basel) 9(4), 148 (2018).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Code 1       Etch simulation code

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) recording of <110> gratings revealing V-shaped grooves (b) extracted profile across a single V-groove in the <10> direction, showing hardmask undercut (true groove shape indicated with dashed line) and a 57° sidewall angle (c) SEM recording of <100> gratings showing a single grating groove with well-defined vertical sidewalls and (d) extracted profile across a single groove in <010> direction. The blue line corresponds to an AFM profile measured with a tilted sample and correction applied (see Methods).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Atomic force microscope (AFM) surface profile of a (a) <110> grating V groove and a (b) <100> grating vertical groove. Insets on panel (a) show the otherwise smooth sidewall featuring steps due to misalignment of the patterns to the true <110> direction, raising the overall roughness of the profile. In contrast, the sidewall of the vertical grooves show no steps and are uniformly smooth. Scale bars in insets are all 100 nm, mean roughness (Ra) is indicated in parentheses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured relative transmitted diffraction order efficiency for (a) <110> gratings, with a normal incidence beam, and (b) <100> gratings, with an oblique incident beam (φi = 41°), compared to simulated efficiencies. Both ŝ and p̂ polarisations are measured and calculated.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic representation of the microfabrication process for diffraction gratings in single crystal diamond: 1) substrate cleaning 2) Al2O3 deposition 3) photoresist spincoating 4) photoresist patterned with lines along either <110> or <100> direction 5) alumina hardmask dry etch 6) diamond dry etch resulting in grooves with profile dependent on direction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic representation of the optical measurement setup to determine the grating diffraction efficiency. A 635 nm laser (1) is collimated (2) and sent through an iris (3) to match the grating (4) dimensions. A photodetector (5) is mounted on a goniometer and rotated around the sample. (b) Schematic representation of the Mach-Zehnder interferometric microscope for determination of the optical flatness of the diamond gratings. Light from a helium-neon laser (1) is split into equal beams (2). One beam is incident on the sample mounted on a stage (3) and is collected by a 10x objective before encountering a variable phase shift produced by a piezo-mounted mirror (4). The beams are recombined (5), creating the interference image on the detector (6).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Measurements Results Using Ultra-High Aspect Ratio Tip Atomic Force Microscopy.

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