Abstract

A mode splitter is a key device to eliminate undesired modes but allow desired modes go through for an on-chip mode-division multiplexing (MDM) system. Here, we propose a silicon high-order mode (HOM) pass filter based on the cascaded plasmonic bridged subwavelength gratings (BSWGs). A metal bridge is introduced to generate a plasmonic hybrid mode, which has a significant influence on the fundamental mode but a neglected impact on the first-order mode. A silicon HOM-pass filter for handling the TM0 and TM1 modes is optimized by using the 3D full-vectorial finite difference time domain (3D-FV-FDTD) method. The numerically simulated results indicate that the optimized mode filter is with a low loss of 0.63 dB and a mode extinction ratio (ER) of 26.4 dB based on 4-cascaded plasmonic BSWGs. The 3 dB bandwidth is over 493 nm from 1222 nm to 1715 nm. With the mode ER > 15.0 dB, a broad bandwidth of 150 nm can be achieved. The performance of the proposed mode filter is tolerant to the width error of ± 50 nm. The proposed silicon HOM-pass filter can be utilized in on-chip MDM systems for mode controlling.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

Q. Huang, W. Wang, W. Jin, and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filter based on phase-shifted long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(13), 1052–1055 (2019).
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[Crossref]

2018 (10)

H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Ultra-broadband 2× 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using subwavelength-grating-assisted silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1935–1938 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Dabos, A. Manolis, S. Papaioannou, D. Tsiokos, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. L. Giesecke, C. Porschatis, B. Chmielak, and N. Pleros, “CMOS plasmonics in WDM data transmission: 200 Gb/s (8 × 25Gb/s) transmission over aluminum plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12469–12478 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, X. Zhang, and G. T. Reed, “Integrated tunable mode filter for a mode-division multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3658–3661 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, “Reconfigurable three-dimensional mode (de) multiplexer/switch via triple-silicon-ITO-waveguide directional coupler,” Opt. Express 26(20), 26257–26271 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

P. Xing, K. J. Ooi, and D. T. Tan, “Ultra-broadband and compact graphene-on-silicon integrated waveguide mode filters,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9874 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (3)

Y. Tang, Z. Xi, M. Xu, S. Bäumer, A. Adam, and H. Urbach, “Spatial mode-selective waveguide with hyperbolic cladding,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4285–4288 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Huang, Z. Pan, M. Zhang, and S. Fu, “Design of reconfigurable on-chip mode filters based on phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(11), 112201 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Guan, Y. Ding, and L. H. Frandsen, “Ultra-compact broadband higher order-mode pass filter fabricated in a silicon waveguide for multimode photonics,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3893–3896 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adam, A.

Ahmmed, K. T.

Al Noman, A.

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Aleali, A.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bäumer, S.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ibrahim, J. H. Schmid, A. Aleali, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. J. Bock, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, D.-X. Xu, and W. N. Ye, “Athermal silicon waveguides with bridged subwavelength gratings for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18356–18361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bolle, C.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burrows, E. C.

Chan, H. P.

Chang, W.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ibrahim, J. H. Schmid, A. Aleali, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. J. Bock, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, D.-X. Xu, and W. N. Ye, “Athermal silicon waveguides with bridged subwavelength gratings for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18356–18361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, M.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Chiang, K. S.

Q. Huang, W. Wang, W. Jin, and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filter based on phase-shifted long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(13), 1052–1055 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Chang and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filters based on graphene-embedded waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(19), 3868–3871 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chmielak, B.

Chrostowski, L.

Dabos, G.

Dai, D.

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Densmore, A.

Dereux, A.

Ding, Y.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R. J.

Frandsen, L. H.

Fu, S.

T. Huang, Z. Pan, M. Zhang, and S. Fu, “Design of reconfigurable on-chip mode filters based on phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(11), 112201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, D.

G. You and D. Gao, “Inverse designed ultra-compact broadband high-order mode filter,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1213(4), 042059 (2019).
[Crossref]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giesecke, A. L.

Gnauck, A. H.

González-Andrade, D.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guan, X.

Halir, R.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

He, Y.

Herrero-Bermello, A.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

Huang, C.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, W. Wang, W. Jin, and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filter based on phase-shifted long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(13), 1052–1055 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, T.

T. Huang, Z. Pan, M. Zhang, and S. Fu, “Design of reconfigurable on-chip mode filters based on phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(11), 112201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, M.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Janz, S.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ibrahim, J. H. Schmid, A. Aleali, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. J. Bock, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, D.-X. Xu, and W. N. Ye, “Athermal silicon waveguides with bridged subwavelength gratings for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18356–18361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

Jin, W.

Q. Huang, W. Wang, W. Jin, and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filter based on phase-shifted long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(13), 1052–1055 (2019).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kong, Z.

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ibrahim, J. H. Schmid, A. Aleali, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. J. Bock, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, D.-X. Xu, and W. N. Ye, “Athermal silicon waveguides with bridged subwavelength gratings for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18356–18361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Li, B.

Li, C.

Li, D.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liao, J.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lingle, R.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

Lu, L.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

Manolis, A.

Markey, L.

McCurdy, A. H.

Molina-Fernández, I.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, Í.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mumtaz, S.

Ooi, K. J.

P. Xing, K. J. Ooi, and D. T. Tan, “Ultra-broadband and compact graphene-on-silicon integrated waveguide mode filters,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9874 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, “Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids,” Academic (1998).

Pan, Z.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Huang, Z. Pan, M. Zhang, and S. Fu, “Design of reconfigurable on-chip mode filters based on phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(11), 112201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Papaioannou, S.

Peckham, D. W.

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pleros, N.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Porschatis, C.

Qi, M.

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

Raz, O.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Ren, X.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruan, C.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Z.

Ryf, R.

Schmid, J. H.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ibrahim, J. H. Schmid, A. Aleali, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. J. Bock, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, D.-X. Xu, and W. N. Ye, “Athermal silicon waveguides with bridged subwavelength gratings for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18356–18361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

Shu, C.

Sierra, A.

Smith, D. R.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

Sun, C.

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, X. Zhang, and G. T. Reed, “Integrated tunable mode filter for a mode-division multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3658–3661 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tan, D. T.

P. Xing, K. J. Ooi, and D. T. Tan, “Ultra-broadband and compact graphene-on-silicon integrated waveguide mode filters,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9874 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, Z. Xi, M. Xu, S. Bäumer, A. Adam, and H. Urbach, “Spatial mode-selective waveguide with hyperbolic cladding,” Opt. Lett. 41(18), 4285–4288 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Teng, M.

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Tsang, H. K.

Tsiokos, D.

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urbach, H.

van den Boom, H. P. A.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Velasco, A. V.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Q. Huang, W. Wang, W. Jin, and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filter based on phase-shifted long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(13), 1052–1055 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weeber, J.-C.

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, W.

Wu, X.

Xi, Z.

Xing, P.

P. Xing, K. J. Ooi, and D. T. Tan, “Ultra-broadband and compact graphene-on-silicon integrated waveguide mode filters,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9874 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xing, Z.

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ibrahim, J. H. Schmid, A. Aleali, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, P. J. Bock, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, D.-X. Xu, and W. N. Ye, “Athermal silicon waveguides with bridged subwavelength gratings for TE and TM polarizations,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18356–18361 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

Xu, M.

Xuan, Y.

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

Ye, W. N.

You, G.

G. You and D. Gao, “Inverse designed ultra-compact broadband high-order mode filter,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1213(4), 042059 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, X. Zhang, and G. T. Reed, “Integrated tunable mode filter for a mode-division multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3658–3661 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

Zhang, L.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Huang, Z. Pan, M. Zhang, and S. Fu, “Design of reconfigurable on-chip mode filters based on phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(11), 112201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, X. Zhang, and G. T. Reed, “Integrated tunable mode filter for a mode-division multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3658–3661 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, W.

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Huang, Z. Pan, M. Zhang, and S. Fu, “Design of reconfigurable on-chip mode filters based on phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(11), 112201 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1–10 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. van den Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liao, L. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Wang, C. Ruan, W. Zhao, and W. Zhang, “Mode splitter without changing the mode order in SOI waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(22), 2597–2600 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Huang, W. Wang, W. Jin, and K. S. Chiang, “Ultra-broadband mode filter based on phase-shifted long-period grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(13), 1052–1055 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

G. You and D. Gao, “Inverse designed ultra-compact broadband high-order mode filter,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1213(4), 042059 (2019).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1217 (2012).
[Crossref]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photonics Res. (1)

W. Chang, L. Lu, X. Ren, D. Li, Z. Pan, M. Cheng, D. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Ultracompact dual-mode waveguide crossing based on subwavelength multimode-interference couplers,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 660–665 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. China Inf. Sci. (1)

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Xing, K. J. Ooi, and D. T. Tan, “Ultra-broadband and compact graphene-on-silicon integrated waveguide mode filters,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9874 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Teng, Y. J. Lee, A. Al Noman, Y. Xuan, Z. Kong, Y. Tang, and M. Qi, “Phase insensitive high order mode pass filter with low reflection for two-mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Exhibition (OFC), Th2A.5 (2019).

E. D. Palik, “Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids,” Academic (1998).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the proposed silicon HOM-pass filter based on cascaded plasmonic BSWG waveguides. Cross-sections of the plasmonic BSWG in (b) a Si-Al-Si block and (c) an Al block. (d) Schematic diagram of the plasmonic BSWG.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Variations of the effective indices of fundamental and first-order TM modes with the waveguide width of BSWG for both silicon and aluminum bridges. Here, the BSWG pitch, Λ = 250 nm; duty cycle, f = 0.5; bridge width, Wb = 100 nm and operating wavelength, λ = 1550 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Mode fields of Poynting vector, Pz of both (a)(b) TM1 and (c)(d) TM0 Bloch-modes at (a)(c) wide (Si-Al-Si) and (b)(d) bridge (Al) segments of the plasmonic BSWG with W = 2 µm and Wb = 100 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Variations of the effective indices of both TM1 and TM0 Bloch-modes with the bridge width, Wb of the plasmonic BSWG. Here, the BSWG pitch, Λ = 250 nm; duty cycle, f = 0.5 and BSWG width, W = 2 µm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Variation of the power transfer efficiency of the input TM1 mode with the pitch number for the adiabatic taper. The horizontally dash-dotted line represents the power transfer efficiency of the TM0 mode for the taper with the pitch number, N = 100. The Poynting vector, Pz propagation fields of both the TM0 and TM1 modes are shown as two insets for N = 100. Here, the BSWG pitch, Λ = 250 nm; duty cycle, f = 0.5; BSWG width, W = 2 µm; bridge width, Wb = 100 nm and BSWG length, Lb = 12.5 µm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Variations of the power transmittance with the number of cascaded filters for both the TM0 and TM1 modes. Here, the BSWG pitch, Λ = 250 nm; duty cycle, f = 0.5; BSWG width; W = 2 µm and bridge width, Wb = 100 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Poynting vector, Pz field of TM0 mode and (b) Hx field of TM1 mode along the propagation direction for the mode filter based on 4-cascaded mode filters.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Variations of the power transmittance of (a) 4-cascaded mode filters and (b) one mode filter with the operating wavelength for both the TM0 and TM1 modes.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Variations of the power transmittance with (a) width error of the plasmonic BSWG and (b) offset between the Al bridge and adiabatic taper for the optimized mode filter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of reported HOM-pass filters and our proposed structure

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