Abstract

Tamm plasmons (TPs), whose plasmon modes are confined at the Bragg reflector/metal interface due to the photonic stopband of the reflector and the negative dielectric constant of the metal, exhibit many advantages over the conventional surface plasmons (SPs) and potential applications in sensors, filters, optical circuits and light-emitting devices. In this paper, a TP-cavity structure has been proposed for accelerating the light emission and alleviating the large metal loss, which is hopeful for solving the efficiency droop and “green gap” problems in InGaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The light emission performance of TP-cavity LEDs was systematically investigated based on transfer matrix and finite-difference time domain methods. Purcell factor (Fp) and light extraction efficiency (LEE) were both remarkably enhanced, which would be attributed to the presence of the TP and/or SP modes induced by the TP-cavity structure. In addition, two important factors including the thicknesses of the top Ag film and medium layer were investigated in detail and taken into account for the balance between the Fp and the LEE. Finally, light emission intensity was significantly enhanced for the TP-cavity green LEDs after the structure optimization as compared to the conventional green LEDs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

X. Hu, F. Xiao, Q. Zhou, Y. Zheng, and W. Liu, “High-luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice interlayer and Al-doped indium tin oxide film,” J. Alloys Compd. 794, 137–143 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Adams, B. Cemlyn, I. Henning, M. Parker, E. Harbord, and R. Oulton, “Model for confined Tamm plasmon devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36(1), 125 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y.-W. Kiang, Y.-F. Yao, W.-Y. Chang, C.-Y. Su, C.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Chao, C. C. Yang, and C.-G. Tu, “Coupling of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon polariton or localized surface plasmon induced on surface silver gratings of different geometries,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9205 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. M. Morozov, K. A. Ivanov, N. Selenin, S. Mikhrin, D. de Sa Pereira, C. Menelaou, A. P. Monkman, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Purcell effect investigation in organic Tamm plasmon structures,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1135, 012082 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Leem and S. Y. Yim, “Microscopic Observation of Low Efficiency in Green Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 1129–1136 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

S. Zhu, S. Lin, J. Li, Z. Yu, H. Cao, C. Yang, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “Influence of quantum confined Stark effect and carrier localization effect on modulation bandwidth for GaN-based LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171105 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and K. Tamada, “High-efficiency light emission by means of exciton–surface-plasmon coupling,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., C 32, 58–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Tateishi, P. Wang, S. Ryuzaki, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Micro-photoluminescence mapping of surface plasmon enhanced light emissions from InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 172105 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Jones, C. H. Teng, Q. Yan, P. C. Ku, and E. Kioupakis, “Impact of carrier localization on recombination in InGaN quantum wells and the efficiency of nitride light-emitting diodes: Insights from theory and numerical simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 113501 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. R. Gubaydullin, C. Symonds, J. Bellessa, K. A. Ivanov, E. D. Kolykhalova, M. E. Sasin, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, G. Pozina, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission in Tamm plasmon structures,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9014 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. der Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. Di Carlo, “Efficiency Drop in Green InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes: The Role of Random Alloy Fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(2), 027401 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Fadil, Y. Ou, D. Iida, S. Kamiyama, P. M. Petersen, and H. Ou, “Combining surface plasmonic and light extraction enhancement on InGaN quantum-well light-emitters,” Nanoscale 8(36), 16340–16348 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Cho and S.-J. Park, “Enhanced optical output and reduction of the quantum-confined Stark effect in surface plasmon-enhanced green light-emitting diodes with gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7488 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

I.-H. Lee, L.-W. Jang, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Performance enhancement of GaN-based light emitting diodes by the interaction with localized surface plasmons,” Nano Energy 13, 140–173 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Z. Deng, T. Lu, Z. Ma, P. Zuo, L. Dai, L. Wang, H. Jia, W. Wang, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and H. Chen, “Realization of high-luminous-efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes in the “green gap” range,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10883 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C. P. Massabuau, S. L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(13), 132106 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-C. Zhu, Z.-G. Yu, L.-X. Zhao, J.-X. Wang, and J.-M. Li, “Enhancement of the modulation bandwidth for GaN-based light-emitting diode by surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 23(11), 13752 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, “Modification of internal quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via the Purcell effect,” Opt. Express 23(19), A1157 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Dawson, M. J. Davies, C. J. Humphreys, M. A. Hopkins, R. A. Oliver, T. Williams, S. K. Pamenter, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, D. W. E. Allsopp, F. C.-P. Massabuau, J. Etheridge, M. J. Kappers, F. Oehler, A. Kovács, and E. J. Thrush, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-G. Yu, L.-X. Zhao, X.-C. Wei, X.-J. Sun, P.-B. An, S.-C. Zhu, L. Liu, L.-X. Tian, F. Zhang, H.-X. Lu, J.-X. Wang, Y.-P. Zeng, and J.-M. Li, “Surface plasmon-enhanced nanoporous GaN-based green light-emitting diodes with Al2O3 passivation layer,” Opt. Express 22(S6), A1596 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

S. De, A. Layek, S. Bhattacharya, D. Kumar Das, A. Kadir, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Quantum-confined stark effect in localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121919 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Zhou, G. Yang, K. Wang, H. Long, and P. Lu, “Multiple optical Tamm states at a metal-dielectric mirror interface,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4112–4114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

M. Kwon, J. Kim, B. Kim, I. Park, C. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Goto, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. M. Merzlikin, A. V. Baryshev, A. P. Vinogradov, M. Inoue, A. A. Lisyansky, and A. B. Granovsky, “Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113902 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, N. N. Fellows, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of light emission from sidewalls of primary-color light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(7), 072001 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Kaliteevski, I. Iorsh, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. V. Kavokin, and I. A. Shelykh, “Tamm plasmon-polaritons: Possible electromagnetic states at the interface of a metal and a dielectric Bragg mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165415 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Ma and X. Liu, “Phase shift and penetration depth of metal mirrors in a microcavity structure,” Appl. Opt. 46(25), 6247–8250 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abram, R. A.

M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Kaliteevski, I. Iorsh, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. V. Kavokin, and I. A. Shelykh, “Tamm plasmon-polaritons: Possible electromagnetic states at the interface of a metal and a dielectric Bragg mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165415 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adams, M.

Akimov, I. A.

M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

P. Dawson, M. J. Davies, C. J. Humphreys, M. A. Hopkins, R. A. Oliver, T. Williams, S. K. Pamenter, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, D. W. E. Allsopp, F. C.-P. Massabuau, J. Etheridge, M. J. Kappers, F. Oehler, A. Kovács, and E. J. Thrush, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, P.-B.

Baryshev, A. V.

T. Goto, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. M. Merzlikin, A. V. Baryshev, A. P. Vinogradov, M. Inoue, A. A. Lisyansky, and A. B. Granovsky, “Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M.

M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bellessa, J.

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Chao, C.-Y.

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M. Kwon, J. Kim, B. Kim, I. Park, C. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
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H. Masui, N. N. Fellows, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of light emission from sidewalls of primary-color light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(7), 072001 (2008).
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J. Li, P. Gou, N. Chi, and H. Ou, “Enhanced Emission and Modulation Properties of Localized Surface Plasma Coupled GaN-based Green Light-Emitting Diodes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2018), (c), paper Th2A.65.

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T. Goto, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. M. Merzlikin, A. V. Baryshev, A. P. Vinogradov, M. Inoue, A. A. Lisyansky, and A. B. Granovsky, “Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113902 (2008).
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C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
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J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
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S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C. P. Massabuau, S. L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(13), 132106 (2015).
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T. Goto, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. M. Merzlikin, A. V. Baryshev, A. P. Vinogradov, M. Inoue, A. A. Lisyansky, and A. B. Granovsky, “Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113902 (2008).
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M. Kaliteevski, I. Iorsh, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. V. Kavokin, and I. A. Shelykh, “Tamm plasmon-polaritons: Possible electromagnetic states at the interface of a metal and a dielectric Bragg mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165415 (2007).
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K. M. Morozov, K. A. Ivanov, N. Selenin, S. Mikhrin, D. de Sa Pereira, C. Menelaou, A. P. Monkman, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Purcell effect investigation in organic Tamm plasmon structures,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1135, 012082 (2018).
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G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
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Y. Jiang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Z. Deng, T. Lu, Z. Ma, P. Zuo, L. Dai, L. Wang, H. Jia, W. Wang, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and H. Chen, “Realization of high-luminous-efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes in the “green gap” range,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10883 (2015).
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Jin, Y.

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S. De, A. Layek, S. Bhattacharya, D. Kumar Das, A. Kadir, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Quantum-confined stark effect in localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121919 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. Kaliteevski, I. Iorsh, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. V. Kavokin, and I. A. Shelykh, “Tamm plasmon-polaritons: Possible electromagnetic states at the interface of a metal and a dielectric Bragg mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165415 (2007).
[Crossref]

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K. M. Morozov, K. A. Ivanov, N. Selenin, S. Mikhrin, D. de Sa Pereira, C. Menelaou, A. P. Monkman, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Purcell effect investigation in organic Tamm plasmon structures,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1135, 012082 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. R. Gubaydullin, C. Symonds, J. Bellessa, K. A. Ivanov, E. D. Kolykhalova, M. E. Sasin, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, G. Pozina, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission in Tamm plasmon structures,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kalitteevski, M. A.

M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
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M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
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M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
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Pozina, G.

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Ryuzaki, S.

K. Tateishi, P. Wang, S. Ryuzaki, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Micro-photoluminescence mapping of surface plasmon enhanced light emissions from InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 172105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sahonta, S. L.

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C. P. Massabuau, S. L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(13), 132106 (2015).
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Salewski, M.

M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
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Sasin, M. E.

A. R. Gubaydullin, C. Symonds, J. Bellessa, K. A. Ivanov, E. D. Kolykhalova, M. E. Sasin, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, G. Pozina, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission in Tamm plasmon structures,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9014 (2017).
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M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schneider, C.

M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Selenin, N.

K. M. Morozov, K. A. Ivanov, N. Selenin, S. Mikhrin, D. de Sa Pereira, C. Menelaou, A. P. Monkman, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Purcell effect investigation in organic Tamm plasmon structures,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1135, 012082 (2018).
[Crossref]

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A. R. Gubaydullin, C. Symonds, J. Bellessa, K. A. Ivanov, E. D. Kolykhalova, M. E. Sasin, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, G. Pozina, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission in Tamm plasmon structures,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9014 (2017).
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M. Kaliteevski, I. Iorsh, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. V. Kavokin, and I. A. Shelykh, “Tamm plasmon-polaritons: Possible electromagnetic states at the interface of a metal and a dielectric Bragg mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 76(16), 165415 (2007).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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Song, J. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Su, C.-Y.

Sun, X.-J.

Symonds, C.

A. R. Gubaydullin, C. Symonds, J. Bellessa, K. A. Ivanov, E. D. Kolykhalova, M. E. Sasin, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, G. Pozina, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission in Tamm plasmon structures,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tamada, K.

K. Tateishi, P. Wang, S. Ryuzaki, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Micro-photoluminescence mapping of surface plasmon enhanced light emissions from InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 172105 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and K. Tamada, “High-efficiency light emission by means of exciton–surface-plasmon coupling,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., C 32, 58–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, H. H.

G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tateishi, K.

K. Tateishi, P. Wang, S. Ryuzaki, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Micro-photoluminescence mapping of surface plasmon enhanced light emissions from InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 172105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Teng, C. H.

C. M. Jones, C. H. Teng, Q. Yan, P. C. Ku, and E. Kioupakis, “Impact of carrier localization on recombination in InGaN quantum wells and the efficiency of nitride light-emitting diodes: Insights from theory and numerical simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 113501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thrush, E. J.

P. Dawson, M. J. Davies, C. J. Humphreys, M. A. Hopkins, R. A. Oliver, T. Williams, S. K. Pamenter, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, D. W. E. Allsopp, F. C.-P. Massabuau, J. Etheridge, M. J. Kappers, F. Oehler, A. Kovács, and E. J. Thrush, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, L.-X.

Tu, C.-G.

Vasil’Ev, A. P.

M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
[Crossref]

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T. Goto, A. V. Dorofeenko, A. M. Merzlikin, A. V. Baryshev, A. P. Vinogradov, M. Inoue, A. A. Lisyansky, and A. B. Granovsky, “Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 113902 (2008).
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M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.-X.

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

Y. Jiang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Z. Deng, T. Lu, Z. Ma, P. Zuo, L. Dai, L. Wang, H. Jia, W. Wang, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and H. Chen, “Realization of high-luminous-efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes in the “green gap” range,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10883 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

K. Tateishi, P. Wang, S. Ryuzaki, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Micro-photoluminescence mapping of surface plasmon enhanced light emissions from InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 172105 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. Jiang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Z. Deng, T. Lu, Z. Ma, P. Zuo, L. Dai, L. Wang, H. Jia, W. Wang, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and H. Chen, “Realization of high-luminous-efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes in the “green gap” range,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10883 (2015).
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Williams, T.

P. Dawson, M. J. Davies, C. J. Humphreys, M. A. Hopkins, R. A. Oliver, T. Williams, S. K. Pamenter, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, D. W. E. Allsopp, F. C.-P. Massabuau, J. Etheridge, M. J. Kappers, F. Oehler, A. Kovács, and E. J. Thrush, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
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Xiao, F.

X. Hu, F. Xiao, Q. Zhou, Y. Zheng, and W. Liu, “High-luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice interlayer and Al-doped indium tin oxide film,” J. Alloys Compd. 794, 137–143 (2019).
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G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
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J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
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M. Salewski, S. V. Poltavtsev, Y. V. Kapitonov, J. Vondran, D. R. Yakovlev, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Oulton, I. A. Akimov, A. V. Kavokin, and M. Bayer, “Photon echoes from (In,Ga)As quantum dots embedded in a Tamm-plasmon microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035312 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

C. M. Jones, C. H. Teng, Q. Yan, P. C. Ku, and E. Kioupakis, “Impact of carrier localization on recombination in InGaN quantum wells and the efficiency of nitride light-emitting diodes: Insights from theory and numerical simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 113501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

S. Zhu, S. Lin, J. Li, Z. Yu, H. Cao, C. Yang, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “Influence of quantum confined Stark effect and carrier localization effect on modulation bandwidth for GaN-based LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, G.

Yang, H.

J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
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Yao, Y.-F.

Ye, J.

G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
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D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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Yim, S. Y.

Y. C. Leem and S. Y. Yim, “Microscopic Observation of Low Efficiency in Green Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 1129–1136 (2018).
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Yu, Z.

S. Zhu, S. Lin, J. Li, Z. Yu, H. Cao, C. Yang, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “Influence of quantum confined Stark effect and carrier localization effect on modulation bandwidth for GaN-based LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.-G.

Zeng, Y.-P.

Zhang, B.

J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

S. Zhu, S. Lin, J. Li, Z. Yu, H. Cao, C. Yang, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “Influence of quantum confined Stark effect and carrier localization effect on modulation bandwidth for GaN-based LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.-X.

Zheng, Y.

X. Hu, F. Xiao, Q. Zhou, Y. Zheng, and W. Liu, “High-luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice interlayer and Al-doped indium tin oxide film,” J. Alloys Compd. 794, 137–143 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhong, C.

J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
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Zhou, H.

Zhou, J.

Y. Jiang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Z. Deng, T. Lu, Z. Ma, P. Zuo, L. Dai, L. Wang, H. Jia, W. Wang, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and H. Chen, “Realization of high-luminous-efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes in the “green gap” range,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10883 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

X. Hu, F. Xiao, Q. Zhou, Y. Zheng, and W. Liu, “High-luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice interlayer and Al-doped indium tin oxide film,” J. Alloys Compd. 794, 137–143 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, S. Lin, J. Li, Z. Yu, H. Cao, C. Yang, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “Influence of quantum confined Stark effect and carrier localization effect on modulation bandwidth for GaN-based LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-C.

Zhu, Z.

Zuo, P.

Y. Jiang, Y. Li, Y. Li, Z. Deng, T. Lu, Z. Ma, P. Zuo, L. Dai, L. Wang, H. Jia, W. Wang, J. Zhou, W. Liu, and H. Chen, “Realization of high-luminous-efficiency InGaN light-emitting diodes in the “green gap” range,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10883 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

Y. C. Leem and S. Y. Yim, “Microscopic Observation of Low Efficiency in Green Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 1129–1136 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, X. Guo, F. Ren, Y. Li, B. Liu, J. Ye, H. Ge, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “High-Brightness Polarized Green InGaN / GaN Light-Emitting Diode Structure with Al-Coated p-GaN Grating,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1912–1918 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Kwon, J. Kim, B. Kim, I. Park, C. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. Park, “Surface-Plasmon-Enhanced Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

M. E. Sasin, R. P. Seisyan, M. A. Kalitteevski, S. Brand, R. A. Abram, J. M. Chamberlain, A. Y. Egorov, A. P. Vasil’Ev, V. S. Mikhrin, and A. V. Kavokin, “Tamm plasmon polaritons: Slow and spatially compact light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251112 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
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K. Tateishi, P. Wang, S. Ryuzaki, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Micro-photoluminescence mapping of surface plasmon enhanced light emissions from InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 172105 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Jones, C. H. Teng, Q. Yan, P. C. Ku, and E. Kioupakis, “Impact of carrier localization on recombination in InGaN quantum wells and the efficiency of nitride light-emitting diodes: Insights from theory and numerical simulations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 113501 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Dawson, M. J. Davies, C. J. Humphreys, M. A. Hopkins, R. A. Oliver, T. Williams, S. K. Pamenter, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, D. W. E. Allsopp, F. C.-P. Massabuau, J. Etheridge, M. J. Kappers, F. Oehler, A. Kovács, and E. J. Thrush, “The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(11), 112110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C. P. Massabuau, S. L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(13), 132106 (2015).
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S. De, A. Layek, S. Bhattacharya, D. Kumar Das, A. Kadir, A. Bhattacharya, S. Dhar, and A. Chowdhury, “Quantum-confined stark effect in localized luminescent centers within InGaN/GaN quantum-well based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121919 (2012).
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S. Zhu, S. Lin, J. Li, Z. Yu, H. Cao, C. Yang, J. Li, and L. Zhao, “Influence of quantum confined Stark effect and carrier localization effect on modulation bandwidth for GaN-based LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171105 (2017).
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J. Alloys Compd. (1)

X. Hu, F. Xiao, Q. Zhou, Y. Zheng, and W. Liu, “High-luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice interlayer and Al-doped indium tin oxide film,” J. Alloys Compd. 794, 137–143 (2019).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Xing, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Chen, Y. Ren, X. Han, C. Zhong, H. Yang, D. Huang, Y. Hou, Z. Wu, Y. Liu, and B. Zhang, “Enhancement of emission of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well nanorods by coupling to Au-nanoparticle plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(19), 193101 (2018).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Photochem. Photobiol., C (1)

K. Okamoto, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and K. Tamada, “High-efficiency light emission by means of exciton–surface-plasmon coupling,” J. Photochem. Photobiol., C 32, 58–77 (2017).
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J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
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J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

K. M. Morozov, K. A. Ivanov, N. Selenin, S. Mikhrin, D. de Sa Pereira, C. Menelaou, A. P. Monkman, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Purcell effect investigation in organic Tamm plasmon structures,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1135, 012082 (2018).
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I.-H. Lee, L.-W. Jang, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Performance enhancement of GaN-based light emitting diodes by the interaction with localized surface plasmons,” Nano Energy 13, 140–173 (2015).
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Nanoscale (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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Opt. Express (7)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic structures of the InGaN-based LEDs (a) with TP-cavity structure (sample A), (b) without top Ag film (sample B) and (c) without bottom DBR (sample C).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Fp and (b) LEE of sample A, sample B and sample C.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Reflection spectra of the TP-cavity LEDs calculated by transfer matrix method with s and p-polarization at different incidence angles. The pink dot-line is peak positions of the TP mode simulated by FDTD method, the colorbar at right represents the reflectivity. (b) Far-field patterns of light emission intensity in sample A. Near-field pattern at 540 nm of (c) sample A (d) sample C. The colorbars in Figs. 3(c) and 3(d) represent electric field in log scale, which is normalized by the electric field of dipole source in bulk material. The red lines are the location of InGaN layer, and the white lines are the boundaries of different materials.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Reflection spectra of the InGaN TP-cavity LEDs calculated by the transfer matrix method as function of the thickness of the top Ag film. The colorbar represents the reflectivity of the TP-cavity structure. (b) Fp and (c) LEE of the TP-cavity LEDs simulated by FDTD method as the Ag film thickness changed from 10 to 50 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Medium layer thickness dependent (a) reflection spectra of the TP-cavity LEDs calculated by transfer matrix method. (b) Fp and (c) LEE of the TP-cavity LEDs as function of the thickness of the medium layer. 8 nm step length of the medium layer is adopted. The zigzag patterns are caused by the limited simulation step length. The colorbars in Figs. 5(a)–5(c) represent the value of the reflectivity, FP and LEE, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Normalized EL spectra of green LEDs with peak wavelength of 540 nm (EL-A) and 530 nm (EL-B). (b) Medium layer thickness dependent integrated emission intensity of the TP- cavity green LEDs and the normal green LEDs.

Equations (9)

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M j = ( cos δ j i sin δ j / η j i η j sin δ j cos δ j )
η j = n j cos θ j ( s p o l a r i z a t i o n )
η j = n j / cos θ j ( p p o l a r i z a t i o n )
( E A H A ) = j = 1 N M j ( 1 η s u b )
Y = H A E A
R = | η 0 Y η 0 + Y | 2
ω c n c a v L c a v + ω 0 c n m L m + ( ω ω 0 ) c n D B R L D B R = ( N 1 2 ) π
I = I E L η I Q E η L E E η E Q E
η I Q E = F p η I Q E ( F p 1 ) η I Q E + 1

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