Abstract

We present the design and performance of an active stabilization system for attosecond pump-probe setups based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. The system employs a CW laser propagating coaxially with the pump and probe beams in the interferometer. The stabilization is achieved with a standalone feedback controller that adjusts the length of one of its arms to maintain a constant relative phase between the CW beams. With this system, the time delay between the pump and probe beams is stabilized within 10 as rms over several hours. The system is easy to operate and only requires a few minutes to set up before any pump/probe measurements.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

A. Zaïr, E. Mével, E. Cormier, and E. Constant, “Ultrastable collinear delay control setup for attosecond IR-XUV pump-probe experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(5), A110 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. R. Harrison, J. C. Vaughan, B. Hidle, and G. M. Laurent, “DAVIS: A direct algorithm for velocity-map imaging system,” J. Chem. Phys. 148(19), 194101 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

T. Leitner, R. Taïeb, M. Meyer, and P. Wernet, “Probing photoelectron angular distributions in molecules with polarization-controlled two-color above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 063411 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. Kim, T. Kim, I. Litvinyuk, C. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, and M. Kling, “Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles,” J. Instrum. 9(05), P05005 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of electron emission from atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 488(1), 012008 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083001 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, M. J. Bell, A. R. Beck, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, C. P. Steiner, J. Robinson, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Tunable frequency-controlled isolated attosecond pulses characterized by either 750 nm or 400 nm wavelength streak fileds,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25887 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Chini, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Chen, C. Yun, S. Scott, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, “Delay control in attosecond pump-probe experiments,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21459 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Böttcher, B. Manschwetus, H. Rottke, N. Zhavoronkov, Z. Ansari, and W. Sandner, “Interferometric long-term stabilization of a delay line: a tool for pump-probe photoelectron-photoion-coincidence spectroscopy on the attosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91(2), 287–293 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 74(S1), s17–s21 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, “Chanel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 021401 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (n+1)-color (n>1) ir-uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54(1), 721–728 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

Abel, M. J.

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

N. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. Kim, T. Kim, I. Litvinyuk, C. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, and M. Kling, “Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles,” J. Instrum. 9(05), P05005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ansari, Z.

F. M. Böttcher, B. Manschwetus, H. Rottke, N. Zhavoronkov, Z. Ansari, and W. Sandner, “Interferometric long-term stabilization of a delay line: a tool for pump-probe photoelectron-photoion-coincidence spectroscopy on the attosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91(2), 287–293 (2008).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beck, A. R.

Becker, W.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, “Chanel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 021401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bell, M. J.

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ben-Itzhak, I.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of electron emission from atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 488(1), 012008 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. Kim, T. Kim, I. Litvinyuk, C. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, and M. Kling, “Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles,” J. Instrum. 9(05), P05005 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16914 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083001 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of asymmetric electron emission in two-color ionization of helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in PhysicsK. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012), p.173.

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Böttcher, F. M.

F. M. Böttcher, B. Manschwetus, H. Rottke, N. Zhavoronkov, Z. Ansari, and W. Sandner, “Interferometric long-term stabilization of a delay line: a tool for pump-probe photoelectron-photoion-coincidence spectroscopy on the attosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91(2), 287–293 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caillat, J.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of electron emission from atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 488(1), 012008 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16914 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083001 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of asymmetric electron emission in two-color ionization of helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in PhysicsK. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012), p.173.

Castiglioni, L.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Caumes, J. P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Chen, C. Yun, S. Scott, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, “Delay control in attosecond pump-probe experiments,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21459 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chériaux, G.

Chini, M.

M. Chini, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Chen, C. Yun, S. Scott, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, “Delay control in attosecond pump-probe experiments,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21459 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cocke, C.

N. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. Kim, T. Kim, I. Litvinyuk, C. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, and M. Kling, “Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles,” J. Instrum. 9(05), P05005 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cocke, C. L.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of electron emission from atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 488(1), 012008 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16914 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083001 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of asymmetric electron emission in two-color ionization of helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in PhysicsK. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012), p.173.

Constant, E.

A. Zaïr, E. Mével, E. Cormier, and E. Constant, “Ultrastable collinear delay control setup for attosecond IR-XUV pump-probe experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(5), A110 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cormier, E.

Czasch, A.

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dahlström, J. M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

De, S.

N. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. Kim, T. Kim, I. Litvinyuk, C. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, and M. Kling, “Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles,” J. Instrum. 9(05), P05005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dennhardt, B.

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Echenique, P.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Elouga, L. B.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Evans, J. W.

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fieß, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fordell, T.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, E.

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gallmann, L.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gilbertson, S.

M. Chini, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. Chen, C. Yun, S. Scott, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, “Delay control in attosecond pump-probe experiments,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21459 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, C. Li, S. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “A low-loss, robust setup for double optical gating of high harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gisselbrecht, M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, “Chanel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 021401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Greif, M.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guénot, D.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gura, A.

N. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. Kim, T. Kim, I. Litvinyuk, C. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, and M. Kling, “Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles,” J. Instrum. 9(05), P05005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hagen, K.

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Harrison, G. R.

G. R. Harrison, J. C. Vaughan, B. Hidle, and G. M. Laurent, “DAVIS: A direct algorithm for velocity-map imaging system,” J. Chem. Phys. 148(19), 194101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hengsberger, M.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, J.

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hidle, B.

G. R. Harrison, J. C. Vaughan, B. Hidle, and G. M. Laurent, “DAVIS: A direct algorithm for velocity-map imaging system,” J. Chem. Phys. 148(19), 194101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huppert, M.

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jahnke, T.

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Joffre, M.

Johnsson, P.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jordan, I.

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kabachnik, N.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, R. Kopold, and W. Becker, “Chanel-closing-induced resonances in the above-threshold ionization plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 021401 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Véniard, R. Taïeb, and A. Maquet, “Phase dependence of (n+1)-color (n>1) ir-uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 54(1), 721–728 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, V. Strelkov, I. Sola, L. B. Elouga, A. Zaïr, E. Mével, and E. Constant, “Shaping of attosecond pulses by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 80(6), 063837 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Leitner, R. Taïeb, M. Meyer, and P. Wernet, “Probing photoelectron angular distributions in molecules with polarization-controlled two-color above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 063411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 183901 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Gagnon, A. Sandhu, A. Paul, K. Hagen, A. Czasch, T. Jahnke, P. Ranitovic, C. Cocke, B. Walker, M. M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Time-resolved momentum imaging system for molecular dynamics studies using a tabletop ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet light source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(6), 063102 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, M. Lucchini, J. Herrmann, M. Sabbar, M. Weger, A. Ludwig, L. Castiglioni, M. Greif, M. Hengsberger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Versatile attosecond beamline in a two-foci configuration for simultaneous time-resolved measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013113 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fieß, M. Schultze, E. Goulielmakis, B. Dennhardt, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Versatile apparatus for attosecond metrology and spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(9), 093103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Study of asymmetric electron emission in two-color ionization of helium (XUV-IR),” in Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics, vol. 125 of Springer Proceedings in PhysicsK. Yamanouchi and K. Midorikawa, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012), p.173.

P. D. Keathley, “Engineering strong-field phenomena: From attosecond pulse characterization to nanostructured electron emitters,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technolgy (2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic view of the experimental setup designed for time-resolved photoelectron and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements. It combines a femtosecond laser system, an attosecond XUV pump-IR probe Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a velocity-map imaging system (VMI), and an XUV spectrometer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic view of the optical actuator, which allows both the stabilization and the control of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer used in the attosecond beamline. It is based on a 532-nm CW laser propagating in the interferometer coaxially with both the attosecond and IR beams. The stabilization is achieved with an active feedback system that adjusts the length of one arm of the interferometer to maintain the relative phase between the two waves constant. A phase shifter, on the other hand, imparting a controlled relative phase to the waves, is used to adjust the relative path length between the two arms of the interferometer to any desired value.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Relative path length drift in the Mach-Zehnder (a) and Michelson (b) interferometers without active stabilization and long-term stability of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer when both interferometers are actively stabilized (c). Spectral composition of the short-term stability of the interferometer without (d) and with (e) active stabilization.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Control of the time delay between two 532-nm waves traveling in the interferometer: Interference signal captured by the photo-detector (a) and time delay between the two waves (b) as a function of the angle of the Evans’ phase shifter. The subplot in (b) displays the statistical distribution of the delay steps deduced from the interference signal.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. RABITT experiment in argon with 50-as delay step. (a) Photoelectron energy spectra as a function of the time delay between the APT composed of odd harmonics and the IR field. (b) Envelope-normalized intensity of sideband H18 (formed by harmonics 17$^{\mathrm {th}}$ and 19$^{\mathrm {th}}$) as a function of the time delay. (c) Short-time Fourier transform of the H18-sideband intensity modulation (13.5-fs window, 50-as time step). (d) H18-sideband period deduced from the frequency measured in (c) as a function of time.

Equations (3)

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S 2 E X U V E I R c o s φ ,
M ( θ ) ( e i 2 θ 0 0 e i 2 θ ) ,
I S B c o s ( 2 ω I R τ + ϕ s p e c t r a l + ϕ a t o m i c ) ,

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