Abstract

We report on the simultaneous observation from four directions of the fluorescence of single $^{87}$Rb atoms trapped at the common focus of four high numerical aperture ($\textrm {NA}=0.5$) aspheric lenses. We use an interferometrically-guided pick-and-place technique to precisely and stably position the lenses along the four cardinal directions with their foci at a single central point. The geometry gives right angle access to a single quantum emitter, and will enable new trapping, excitation, and collection methods. The fluorescence signals indicate both sub-Poissonian atom number statistics and photon anti-bunching, showing suitability for cold atom quantum optics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

D. Barredo, V. Lienhard, S. de Léséleuc, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Synthetic three-dimensional atomic structures assembled atom by atom,” Nature 561(7721), 79–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Weiss, M. O. Araújo, R. Kaiser, and W. Guerin, “Subradiance and radiation trapping in cold atoms,” New J. Phys. 20(6), 063024 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Palacios, S. Coop, P. Gomez, T. Vanderbruggen, Y. N. M. de Escobar, M. Jasperse, and M. W. Mitchell, “Multi-second magnetic coherence in a single domain spinor bose–einstein condensate,” New J. Phys. 20(5), 053008 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Gallego, W. Alt, T. Macha, M. Martinez-Dorantes, D. Pandey, and D. Meschede, “Strong purcell effect on a neutral atom trapped in an open fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(17), 173603 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y.-S. Chin, M. Steiner, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Nonlinear photon-atom coupling with 4pi microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1200 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. E. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, “Topological quantum optics in two-dimensional atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(2), 023603 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Moreno-Cardoner, A. Albrecht, H. J. Kimble, and D. E. Chang, “Exponential improvement in photon storage fidelities using subradiance and “selective radiance” in atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031024 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. Saffman, “Quantum computing with atomic qubits and rydberg interactions: progress and challenges,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(20), 202001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Guerin, M. O. Araújo, and R. Kaiser, “Subradiance in a large cloud of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(8), 083601 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Labuhn, D. Barredo, S. Ravets, S. de Léséleuc, T. Macrí, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single rydberg atoms for realizing quantum ising models,” Nature 534(7609), 667–670 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Leong, M. A. Seidler, M. Steiner, A. Cerè, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13716 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. M. Kaufman, B. J. Lester, C. M. Reynolds, M. L. Wall, M. Foss-Feig, K. R. A. Hazzard, A. M. Rey, and C. A. Regal, “Two-particle quantum interference in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers,” Science 345(6194), 306–309 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sondermann and G. Leuchs, “Light–matter interaction in free space,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(1), 36–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Leuchs and M. Sondermann, “Time-reversal symmetry in optics,” Phys. Scr. 85(5), 058101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Fuhrmanek, A. M. Lance, C. Tuchendler, P. Grangier, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Imaging a single atom in a time-of-flight experiment,” New J. Phys. 12(5), 053028 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Slodička, G. Hétet, S. Gerber, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Electromagnetically induced transparency from a single atom in free space,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153604 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, “Stylus ion trap for enhanced access and sensing,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 551–554 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Aljunid, M. K. Tey, B. Chng, T. Liew, G. Maslennikov, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Phase shift of a weak coherent beam induced by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(15), 153601 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 110–114 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Stobińska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, “Perfect excitation of a matter qubit by a single photon in free space,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14007 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, G. Maslennikov, T. C. H. Liew, S. A. Aljunid, F. Huber, B. Chng, Z. Chen, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Interfacing light and single atoms with a lens,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 043011 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033425 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411(6841), 1024–1027 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39(11), 691–695 (1977).
[Crossref]

Alber, G.

M. Stobińska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, “Perfect excitation of a matter qubit by a single photon in free space,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14007 (2009).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, A.

A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Moreno-Cardoner, A. Albrecht, H. J. Kimble, and D. E. Chang, “Exponential improvement in photon storage fidelities using subradiance and “selective radiance” in atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031024 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aljunid, S. A.

S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Aljunid, M. K. Tey, B. Chng, T. Liew, G. Maslennikov, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Phase shift of a weak coherent beam induced by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(15), 153601 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, G. Maslennikov, T. C. H. Liew, S. A. Aljunid, F. Huber, B. Chng, Z. Chen, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Interfacing light and single atoms with a lens,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 043011 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alt, W.

J. Gallego, W. Alt, T. Macha, M. Martinez-Dorantes, D. Pandey, and D. Meschede, “Strong purcell effect on a neutral atom trapped in an open fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(17), 173603 (2018).
[Crossref]

Araújo, M. O.

P. Weiss, M. O. Araújo, R. Kaiser, and W. Guerin, “Subradiance and radiation trapping in cold atoms,” New J. Phys. 20(6), 063024 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Guerin, M. O. Araújo, and R. Kaiser, “Subradiance in a large cloud of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(8), 083601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Armellin, C.

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Asenjo-Garcia, A.

A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Moreno-Cardoner, A. Albrecht, H. J. Kimble, and D. E. Chang, “Exponential improvement in photon storage fidelities using subradiance and “selective radiance” in atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031024 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barredo, D.

D. Barredo, V. Lienhard, S. de Léséleuc, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Synthetic three-dimensional atomic structures assembled atom by atom,” Nature 561(7721), 79–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Labuhn, D. Barredo, S. Ravets, S. de Léséleuc, T. Macrí, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single rydberg atoms for realizing quantum ising models,” Nature 534(7609), 667–670 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beguin, L.

L. Beguin, “Measurement of the van der waals interaction between two rydberg atoms,” Ph.D. thesis, Institut d’Optique Graduate School (2013).

Bergquist, J. C.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, “Stylus ion trap for enhanced access and sensing,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 551–554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernien, H.

H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Besbes, M.

S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beugnon, J.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blatt, R.

L. Slodička, G. Hétet, S. Gerber, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Electromagnetically induced transparency from a single atom in free space,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153604 (2010).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Elsevier Science, 2013). P. 468.

Borregaard, J.

J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. E. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, “Topological quantum optics in two-dimensional atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(2), 023603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Britton, J.

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, “Stylus ion trap for enhanced access and sensing,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 551–554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Browaeys, A.

D. Barredo, V. Lienhard, S. de Léséleuc, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Synthetic three-dimensional atomic structures assembled atom by atom,” Nature 561(7721), 79–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Labuhn, D. Barredo, S. Ravets, S. de Léséleuc, T. Macrí, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single rydberg atoms for realizing quantum ising models,” Nature 534(7609), 667–670 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Fuhrmanek, A. M. Lance, C. Tuchendler, P. Grangier, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Imaging a single atom in a time-of-flight experiment,” New J. Phys. 12(5), 053028 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033425 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
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J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
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J. Gallego, W. Alt, T. Macha, M. Martinez-Dorantes, D. Pandey, and D. Meschede, “Strong purcell effect on a neutral atom trapped in an open fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(17), 173603 (2018).
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S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
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S. A. Aljunid, M. K. Tey, B. Chng, T. Liew, G. Maslennikov, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Phase shift of a weak coherent beam induced by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(15), 153601 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, G. Maslennikov, T. C. H. Liew, S. A. Aljunid, F. Huber, B. Chng, Z. Chen, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Interfacing light and single atoms with a lens,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 043011 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
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Mercier, R.

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
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J. Gallego, W. Alt, T. Macha, M. Martinez-Dorantes, D. Pandey, and D. Meschede, “Strong purcell effect on a neutral atom trapped in an open fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(17), 173603 (2018).
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Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
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J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
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A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
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J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
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S. Palacios, S. Coop, P. Gomez, T. Vanderbruggen, Y. N. M. de Escobar, M. Jasperse, and M. W. Mitchell, “Multi-second magnetic coherence in a single domain spinor bose–einstein condensate,” New J. Phys. 20(5), 053008 (2018).
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A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Moreno-Cardoner, A. Albrecht, H. J. Kimble, and D. E. Chang, “Exponential improvement in photon storage fidelities using subradiance and “selective radiance” in atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031024 (2017).
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H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
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S. Palacios, S. Coop, P. Gomez, T. Vanderbruggen, Y. N. M. de Escobar, M. Jasperse, and M. W. Mitchell, “Multi-second magnetic coherence in a single domain spinor bose–einstein condensate,” New J. Phys. 20(5), 053008 (2018).
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Pandey, D.

J. Gallego, W. Alt, T. Macha, M. Martinez-Dorantes, D. Pandey, and D. Meschede, “Strong purcell effect on a neutral atom trapped in an open fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(17), 173603 (2018).
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J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. E. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, “Topological quantum optics in two-dimensional atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(2), 023603 (2017).
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J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. E. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, “Topological quantum optics in two-dimensional atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(2), 023603 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pillet, P.

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
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N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411(6841), 1024–1027 (2001).
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H. Labuhn, D. Barredo, S. Ravets, S. de Léséleuc, T. Macrí, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single rydberg atoms for realizing quantum ising models,” Nature 534(7609), 667–670 (2016).
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A. M. Kaufman, B. J. Lester, C. M. Reynolds, M. L. Wall, M. Foss-Feig, K. R. A. Hazzard, A. M. Rey, and C. A. Regal, “Two-particle quantum interference in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers,” Science 345(6194), 306–309 (2014).
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A. M. Kaufman, B. J. Lester, C. M. Reynolds, M. L. Wall, M. Foss-Feig, K. R. A. Hazzard, A. M. Rey, and C. A. Regal, “Two-particle quantum interference in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers,” Science 345(6194), 306–309 (2014).
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N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411(6841), 1024–1027 (2001).
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A. M. Kaufman, B. J. Lester, C. M. Reynolds, M. L. Wall, M. Foss-Feig, K. R. A. Hazzard, A. M. Rey, and C. A. Regal, “Two-particle quantum interference in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers,” Science 345(6194), 306–309 (2014).
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D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
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S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
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M. Saffman, “Quantum computing with atomic qubits and rydberg interactions: progress and challenges,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(20), 202001 (2016).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 110–114 (2009).
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S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
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Scarani, V.

S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
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S. A. Aljunid, M. K. Tey, B. Chng, T. Liew, G. Maslennikov, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Phase shift of a weak coherent beam induced by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(15), 153601 (2009).
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M. K. Tey, G. Maslennikov, T. C. H. Liew, S. A. Aljunid, F. Huber, B. Chng, Z. Chen, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Interfacing light and single atoms with a lens,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 043011 (2009).
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S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
[Crossref]

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N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411(6841), 1024–1027 (2001).
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H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
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V. Leong, M. A. Seidler, M. Steiner, A. Cerè, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13716 (2016).
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L. Slodička, G. Hétet, S. Gerber, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Electromagnetically induced transparency from a single atom in free space,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153604 (2010).
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M. Sondermann and G. Leuchs, “Light–matter interaction in free space,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(1), 36–42 (2013).
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G. Leuchs and M. Sondermann, “Time-reversal symmetry in optics,” Phys. Scr. 85(5), 058101 (2012).
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S. Jennewein, M. Besbes, N. J. Schilder, S. D. Jenkins, C. Sauvan, J. Ruostekoski, J.-J. Greffet, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Coherent scattering of near-resonant light by a dense microscopic cold atomic cloud,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(23), 233601 (2016).
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A. Fuhrmanek, A. M. Lance, C. Tuchendler, P. Grangier, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Imaging a single atom in a time-of-flight experiment,” New J. Phys. 12(5), 053028 (2010).
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C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033425 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
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Y.-S. Chin, M. Steiner, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Nonlinear photon-atom coupling with 4pi microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1200 (2017).
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V. Leong, M. A. Seidler, M. Steiner, A. Cerè, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13716 (2016).
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M. Stobińska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, “Perfect excitation of a matter qubit by a single photon in free space,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14007 (2009).
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M. K. Tey, G. Maslennikov, T. C. H. Liew, S. A. Aljunid, F. Huber, B. Chng, Z. Chen, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Interfacing light and single atoms with a lens,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 043011 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Aljunid, M. K. Tey, B. Chng, T. Liew, G. Maslennikov, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Phase shift of a weak coherent beam induced by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(15), 153601 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
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A. Fuhrmanek, A. M. Lance, C. Tuchendler, P. Grangier, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Imaging a single atom in a time-of-flight experiment,” New J. Phys. 12(5), 053028 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033425 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(1), 013406 (2007).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 110–114 (2009).
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S. Palacios, S. Coop, P. Gomez, T. Vanderbruggen, Y. N. M. de Escobar, M. Jasperse, and M. W. Mitchell, “Multi-second magnetic coherence in a single domain spinor bose–einstein condensate,” New J. Phys. 20(5), 053008 (2018).
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A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
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H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 110–114 (2009).
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A. M. Kaufman, B. J. Lester, C. M. Reynolds, M. L. Wall, M. Foss-Feig, K. R. A. Hazzard, A. M. Rey, and C. A. Regal, “Two-particle quantum interference in tunnel-coupled optical tweezers,” Science 345(6194), 306–309 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. A. Aljunid, G. Maslennikov, Y. Wang, H. L. Dao, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Excitation of a single atom with exponentially rising light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103001 (2013).
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P. Weiss, M. O. Araújo, R. Kaiser, and W. Guerin, “Subradiance and radiation trapping in cold atoms,” New J. Phys. 20(6), 063024 (2018).
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A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
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R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, “Stylus ion trap for enhanced access and sensing,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 551–554 (2009).
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E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 110–114 (2009).
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J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. E. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, “Topological quantum optics in two-dimensional atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(2), 023603 (2017).
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H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
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J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. E. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, and M. D. Lukin, “Topological quantum optics in two-dimensional atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(2), 023603 (2017).
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D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000).
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Europhys. Lett. (1)

M. Stobińska, G. Alber, and G. Leuchs, “Perfect excitation of a matter qubit by a single photon in free space,” Europhys. Lett. 86(1), 14007 (2009).
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J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Sondermann and G. Leuchs, “Light–matter interaction in free space,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(1), 36–42 (2013).
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J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Saffman, “Quantum computing with atomic qubits and rydberg interactions: progress and challenges,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(20), 202001 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

V. Leong, M. A. Seidler, M. Steiner, A. Cerè, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13716 (2016).
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Y.-S. Chin, M. Steiner, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Nonlinear photon-atom coupling with 4pi microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1200 (2017).
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Nat. Phys. (5)

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3(10), 696–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Maiwald, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, J. C. Bergquist, G. Leuchs, and D. J. Wineland, “Stylus ion trap for enhanced access and sensing,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 551–554 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Gaëtan, Y. Miroshnychenko, T. Wilk, A. Chotia, M. Viteau, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Observation of collective excitation of two individual atoms in the rydberg blockade regime,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 115–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Observation of rydberg blockade between two atoms,” Nat. Phys. 5(2), 110–114 (2009).
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Nature (4)

D. Barredo, V. Lienhard, S. de Léséleuc, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Synthetic three-dimensional atomic structures assembled atom by atom,” Nature 561(7721), 79–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature 411(6841), 1024–1027 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. Keesling, H. Levine, A. Omran, H. Pichler, S. Choi, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator,” Nature 551(7682), 579–584 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Labuhn, D. Barredo, S. Ravets, S. de Léséleuc, T. Macrí, T. Lahaye, and A. Browaeys, “Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single rydberg atoms for realizing quantum ising models,” Nature 534(7609), 667–670 (2016).
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New J. Phys. (4)

M. K. Tey, G. Maslennikov, T. C. H. Liew, S. A. Aljunid, F. Huber, B. Chng, Z. Chen, V. Scarani, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Interfacing light and single atoms with a lens,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 043011 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Palacios, S. Coop, P. Gomez, T. Vanderbruggen, Y. N. M. de Escobar, M. Jasperse, and M. W. Mitchell, “Multi-second magnetic coherence in a single domain spinor bose–einstein condensate,” New J. Phys. 20(5), 053008 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Weiss, M. O. Araújo, R. Kaiser, and W. Guerin, “Subradiance and radiation trapping in cold atoms,” New J. Phys. 20(6), 063024 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Fuhrmanek, A. M. Lance, C. Tuchendler, P. Grangier, Y. R. P. Sortais, and A. Browaeys, “Imaging a single atom in a time-of-flight experiment,” New J. Phys. 12(5), 053028 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

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A. Asenjo-Garcia, M. Moreno-Cardoner, A. Albrecht, H. J. Kimble, and D. E. Chang, “Exponential improvement in photon storage fidelities using subradiance and “selective radiance” in atomic arrays,” Phys. Rev. X 7(3), 031024 (2017).
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Article in preparation.

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M. M. Dorantes, “Fast non-destructive internal state detection of neutral atoms in optical potentials,” Ph.D. thesis, Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (2016).

J. C. G. Fernández, “Strong coupling between small atomic ensembles and an open fiber cavity,” Ph.D. thesis, Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (2017).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Four-lens geometry and atomic signals. Top left: illustration of central optical components and support. Four lenses (cyan) are positioned to minimize aberrations and affixed to a Macor ceramic substrate (grey) with ultra-high-vacuum compatible epoxy. The four lenses share a single focus which lies within their diffraction-limited field of view. A single-beam FORT (orange) is used to trap a single atom from a co-located MOT (not shown) and hold it at the common focus. Top center: The four lenses glued in place and being tested by placing a gold first-surface mirror with a transmissive aperture centered at their mutual focus. Top right: an intermediate step of the alignment in vacuum, using 780 nm light to excite resonance fluorescence of a $^{87}$Rb vapour to visualize the overlap of the foci. Bottom left: fluorescence signals acquired into single-mode fibre from each of the four lenses for periods with one atom (green shading) or with no atom (white and blue shading). In agreement with theory, lenses L1 and L2 (along the FORT axis) show higher collection efficiency than right-angle lenses L3 and L4, due to the elongated shape of the atom’s spatial distribution at finite temperature. A background, due to scattering of the MOT beams, of about 10 % full scale has been subtracted. Bottom right: normalized second-order autocorrelation function showing anti-bunching, confirming the sub-Poissonian atom number.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. a) Spot diagram simulated in ZEMAX-EE at focus for a collimated beam, spot size is $3\, \mu$m. b) Spot diagram at focus for a convergent beam (1.9 mrad), the spot size is $0.77\, \mu$m. c) SI fringes measured for a divergent ($\sim$1 mrad), collimated and convergent ($\sim$1 mrad) beam passing twice through the same aspheric lens, backreflected at focus by a gold mirror. The evident distortion in the first two images indicates the presence of spherical aberration.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Left: Setup and measurement of the stability of the coupling efficiency of light into a SMF through a lens glued with Torr Seal as a function of the curing time of the epoxy. Right: reflection optical micrographs of two samples of glue after curing, the sample on the right was kept at 10−3 mbar for 20 minutes, in order to expand the residual bubbles and pull them near the surface.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Procedure for positioning the lenses. See text for details.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. High-NA focus localization using a micro-fabricated mirror with transmissive aperture. Left: illustration of the geometry showing four lenses and a gold-coated cover slip (green, indicated by arrow). Cover slip position, controlled by a micro-positioner, is used to locate the beam foci. Right: Reflection optical micrograph of the mirror with the 5 µm aperture, made with optical lithography on a gold-coated quartz plate.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Geometry of diffraction-limited fields of view (DLFoVs) for different lens positioning. The DLFoVs of the two pairs of lenses are represented by a grey and a red area for the vertical and horizontal pair, respectively. $x$ and $y$ indicate the directions of aperture translation, normal and in-plane of the mirror. Left: DLFoVs for ideally-positioned lenses. Foci can be separated (along $x$ or $y$) by up to 100 µm while remaining aberration-free. Right: Closest-approach non-overlapping DLFoVs. Foci can be separated (along $x$ or $y$) by up to 153 µm while remaining aberration-free.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Shearing interference fringes for 780 nm (bottom, $\Theta _{780} \simeq$ 1.2 mrad) and 852 nm (top, $\Theta _{852} \simeq$ 1.7 mrad). The images were taken with lenses in vacuum and with the foci of the four 780 nm collection beams overlapped with the focus of the 852 nm optical dipole trapping beam. The equal and opposite fringe tilts indicate reflection symmetry about the centre, and thus focal overlap at this point.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Predicted performance of at system of two high-NA lenses in vacuum, for three wavelengths of interest. In each case, the divergence $\Theta$ is chosen to maximize $S_1$, the Strehl ratio after one lens. $w_L(z_L)$ is the beam waist at the lens. Negative values of $\Theta$ indicate that the beam is convergent at the lens input. We also report $S_2$, the Strehl ratio after two lenses and $w_0$, the beam waist at focus.

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