Abstract

Chip-scale frequency comb generators have the potential to become key building blocks of compact wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transceivers in future metropolitan or campus-area networks. Among the various comb generator concepts, quantum-dash (QD) mode-locked laser diodes (MLLD) stand out as a particularly promising option, combining small footprint with simple operation by a DC current and offering flat broadband comb spectra. However, the data transmission performance achieved with QD-MLLD was so far limited by strong phase noise of the individual comb tones, restricting experiments to rather simple modulation formats such as quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or requiring hardware-based compensation schemes. Here we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome by digital symbol-wise blind phase search (BPS) techniques, avoiding any hardware-based phase-noise compensation. We demonstrate 16QAM dual-polarization WDM transmission on 38 channels at an aggregate net data rate of 10.68 Tbit/s over 75 km of standard single-mode fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this corresponds to the highest data rate achieved through a DC-driven chip-scale comb generator without any hardware-based phase-noise reduction schemes.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (3)

A. Fülop, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, O. B. Helgason, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1598 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, F. Da Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Porto da Silva, M. Nooruzzaman, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, P. Guan, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Single-source chip-based frequency comb enabling extreme parallel data transmission,” Nat. Photonics 12(8), 469–473 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Moscoso-Mártir, A. Tabatabaei-Mashayekh, J. Müller, J. Nojić, R. Setter, M. Nielsen, A. Sandomirsky, S. Rockman, E. Mentovich, F. Merget, A. Garreau, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “8-channel WDM silicon photonics transceiver with SOA and semiconductor mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25446–25459 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Vedala, M. Al-Qadi, M. O’Sullivan, J. Cartledge, and R. Hui, “Phase noise characterization of a QD-based diode laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15890–15904 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1999–2002 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. S. G. Pillai, B. Sedighi, K. Guan, N. P. Anthapadmanabhan, W. Shieh, K. J. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “End-to-end energy modeling and analysis of long-haul coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(18), 3093–3111 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

R. Rosales, S. G. Murdoch, R. T. Watts, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, L. P. Barry, and A. Ramdane, “High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8649–8657 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
[Crossref]

K. Kikuchi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise and estimation of bit-error rate performance with low-speed offline digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5291–5302 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, and A. Ramdane, “Timing jitter from the optical spectrum in semiconductor passively mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9151–9160 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Magarini, L. Barletta, A. Spalvieri, F. Vacondio, T. Pfau, M. Pepe, M. Bertolini, and G. Gavioli, “Pilot-symbols-aided carrier-phase recovery for 100-G PM-QPSK digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(9), 739–741 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P. M. Anandarajah, R. Maher, Y. Xu, S. Latkowski, J. O’Carroll, S. G. Murdoch, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, and L. Barry, “Generation of coherent multicarrier signals by gain switching of discrete mode lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(1), 112–122 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-µm applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

A. Akrout, A. Shen, R. Brenot, F. Van Dijk, O. Legouezigou, F. Pommereau, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, and G.-H. Duan, “Separate error-free transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s using comb generation in a quantum-dash-based mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1746–1748 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffman, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 989–999 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Frequency estimation in intradyne reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 366–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

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J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

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C. Calò, V. Vujicic, R. Watts, C. Browning, K. Merghem, V. Panapakkam, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, B.-E. Benkelfat, A. Ramdane, and L. P. Barry, “Single-section quantum well mode-locked laser for 400 Gb/s SSB-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26442–26449 (2015).
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J. Pfeifle, R. Watts, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, V. Vujicic, P. Landais, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, C. Calò, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, L. P. Barry, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Simultaneous phase noise reduction of 30 comb lines from a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode enabling coherent Tbit/s data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3I.5.

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J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

J. Pfeifle, R. Watts, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, V. Vujicic, P. Landais, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, C. Calò, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, L. P. Barry, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Simultaneous phase noise reduction of 30 comb lines from a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode enabling coherent Tbit/s data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3I.5.

P. Marin, J. Pfeifle, J. N. Kemal, S. Wolf, K. Vijayan, N. Chimot, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, and C. Koos, “8.32 Tbit/s coherent transmission using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1F.1.

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F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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Derouin, E.

F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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Dijk, F.

F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
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W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

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F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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A. Akrout, A. Shen, R. Brenot, F. Van Dijk, O. Legouezigou, F. Pommereau, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, and G.-H. Duan, “Separate error-free transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s using comb generation in a quantum-dash-based mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1746–1748 (2009).
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F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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Freude, W.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
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J. N. Kemal, J. Pfeifle, P. Marin, M. D. G. Pascual, S. Wolf, F Smyth, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Multi-wavelength coherent transmission using an optical frequency comb as a local oscillator,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25432–25445 (2016).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Vujicic, R. T. Watts, P. C. Schindler, C. Weimann, R. Zhou, W. Freude, L. P. Barry, and C. Koos, “Flexible terabit/s Nyquist-WDM super-channels using a gain-switched comb source,” Opt. Express 23(2), 724–738 (2015).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
[Crossref]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, V. Panapakkam, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, K. Merghem, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “WDM transmission using quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes as multi-wavelength source and local oscillator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3F.6.

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J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductormode-locked laser,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 119–145 (2015).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
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W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

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Hirano, M.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2015), paper PDP 3.1.

Hoffman, S.

Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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Hu, H.

H. Hu, F. Da Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Porto da Silva, M. Nooruzzaman, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, P. Guan, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Single-source chip-based frequency comb enabling extreme parallel data transmission,” Nat. Photonics 12(8), 469–473 (2018).
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Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
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W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

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G. Vedala, M. Al-Qadi, M. O’Sullivan, J. Cartledge, and R. Hui, “Phase noise characterization of a QD-based diode laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15890–15904 (2017).
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K. Zanette, J. C. Cartledge, R. Hui, and M. O’Sullivan, “Phase noise characterization of a mode-locked quantum-dot coherent optical frequency comb source laser,” 2018 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC). IEEE, 2018.

Huynh, T. N.

Iglesias-Olmedo, M.

J. Rodrigo-Navarro, A. Kakkar, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, R. Schatz, M. Iglesias-Olmedo, G. Jacobsen, and S. Popov, “Carrier phase recovery algorithms for coherent optical circular mQAM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(11), 2717–2723 (2016).
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M. Iglesias-Olmedo, X. Pang, M. Piels, R. Schatz, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, I. Tafur Monroy, and D. Zibar, “Carrier recovery techniques for semiconductor laser frequency noise for 28 GBd DP-16QAM,” Proc. of OFC (Los Angeles, California, 2015), paper Th2A.10.

Ingerslev, K.

H. Hu, F. Da Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Porto da Silva, M. Nooruzzaman, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, P. Guan, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Single-source chip-based frequency comb enabling extreme parallel data transmission,” Nat. Photonics 12(8), 469–473 (2018).
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Ippen, E. P.

Y. Takushima, H. Sotobayashi, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Linewidth of mode combs of passively and actively mode-locked semiconductor laser diodes,” in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications IV, Proc. SPIE5595, 213–227 (2004).

Islamova, E.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductormode-locked laser,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 119–145 (2015).
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J. Rodrigo-Navarro, A. Kakkar, X. Pang, O. Ozolins, R. Schatz, M. Iglesias-Olmedo, G. Jacobsen, and S. Popov, “Carrier phase recovery algorithms for coherent optical circular mQAM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(11), 2717–2723 (2016).
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M. Iglesias-Olmedo, X. Pang, M. Piels, R. Schatz, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, I. Tafur Monroy, and D. Zibar, “Carrier recovery techniques for semiconductor laser frequency noise for 28 GBd DP-16QAM,” Proc. of OFC (Los Angeles, California, 2015), paper Th2A.10.

Jordan, M.

Joshi, S.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductormode-locked laser,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 119–145 (2015).
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J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

J. Pfeifle, R. Watts, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, V. Vujicic, P. Landais, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, C. Calò, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, L. P. Barry, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Simultaneous phase noise reduction of 30 comb lines from a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode enabling coherent Tbit/s data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3I.5.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
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W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

Kakkar, A.

Kaneda, N.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Frequency estimation in intradyne reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 366–368 (2007).
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Karlsson, M.

Karpov, M.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
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Kemal, J. N.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
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J. N. Kemal, J. Pfeifle, P. Marin, M. D. G. Pascual, S. Wolf, F Smyth, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Multi-wavelength coherent transmission using an optical frequency comb as a local oscillator,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25432–25445 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, V. Panapakkam, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, K. Merghem, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “WDM transmission using quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes as multi-wavelength source and local oscillator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3F.6.

P. Marin, J. Pfeifle, J. N. Kemal, S. Wolf, K. Vijayan, N. Chimot, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, and C. Koos, “8.32 Tbit/s coherent transmission using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1F.1.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

Kikuchi, K.

Kippenberg, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Klaus, W.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2015), paper PDP 3.1.

Kleinow, P.

Koc, U.-V.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Frequency estimation in intradyne reception,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(6), 366–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
[Crossref]

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

Koos, C.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. N. Kemal, J. Pfeifle, P. Marin, M. D. G. Pascual, S. Wolf, F Smyth, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Multi-wavelength coherent transmission using an optical frequency comb as a local oscillator,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25432–25445 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Vujicic, R. T. Watts, P. C. Schindler, C. Weimann, R. Zhou, W. Freude, L. P. Barry, and C. Koos, “Flexible terabit/s Nyquist-WDM super-channels using a gain-switched comb source,” Opt. Express 23(2), 724–738 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012). Erratum: ibid. 24(23), 2198 (2012)
[Crossref]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, V. Panapakkam, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, K. Merghem, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “WDM transmission using quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes as multi-wavelength source and local oscillator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3F.6.

P. Marin, J. Pfeifle, J. N. Kemal, S. Wolf, K. Vijayan, N. Chimot, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, and C. Koos, “8.32 Tbit/s coherent transmission using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1F.1.

J. Pfeifle, R. Watts, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, V. Vujicic, P. Landais, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, C. Calò, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, L. P. Barry, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Simultaneous phase noise reduction of 30 comb lines from a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode enabling coherent Tbit/s data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3I.5.

Kordts, A.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
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Kuo, B. P.-P.

Landais, P.

R. Maldonado-Basilio, J. Parra-Cetina, S. Latkowski, and P. Landais, “Timing-jitter, optical, and mode-beating linewidths analysis on subpicosecond optical pulses generated by a quantum-dash passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1184–1186 (2010).
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J. Pfeifle, R. Watts, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, V. Vujicic, P. Landais, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, C. Calò, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, L. P. Barry, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Simultaneous phase noise reduction of 30 comb lines from a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode enabling coherent Tbit/s data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3I.5.

Landreau, J.

F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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P. M. Anandarajah, R. Maher, Y. Xu, S. Latkowski, J. O’Carroll, S. G. Murdoch, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, and L. Barry, “Generation of coherent multicarrier signals by gain switching of discrete mode lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(1), 112–122 (2011).
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R. Maldonado-Basilio, J. Parra-Cetina, S. Latkowski, and P. Landais, “Timing-jitter, optical, and mode-beating linewidths analysis on subpicosecond optical pulses generated by a quantum-dash passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1184–1186 (2010).
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S. M. Bilal, K. P. Zhong, J. Cheng, A. P. T. Lau, G. Bosco, and C. Lu, “Performance and complexity comparison of carrier phase estimation algorithms for DP-64-QAM optical signals,” 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC). IEEE, 2014.

Lauermann, M.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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A. Fülop, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, O. B. Helgason, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1598 (2018).
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A. Akrout, A. Shen, R. Brenot, F. Van Dijk, O. Legouezigou, F. Pommereau, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, and G.-H. Duan, “Separate error-free transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s using comb generation in a quantum-dash-based mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1746–1748 (2009).
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A. Moscoso-Mártir, A. Tabatabaei-Mashayekh, J. Müller, J. Nojić, R. Setter, M. Nielsen, A. Sandomirsky, S. Rockman, E. Mentovich, F. Merget, A. Garreau, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “8-channel WDM silicon photonics transceiver with SOA and semiconductor mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25446–25459 (2018).
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C. Calò, V. Vujicic, R. Watts, C. Browning, K. Merghem, V. Panapakkam, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, B.-E. Benkelfat, A. Ramdane, and L. P. Barry, “Single-section quantum well mode-locked laser for 400 Gb/s SSB-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26442–26449 (2015).
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J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductormode-locked laser,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 119–145 (2015).
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R. Rosales, S. G. Murdoch, R. T. Watts, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, L. P. Barry, and A. Ramdane, “High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8649–8657 (2012).
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R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, and A. Ramdane, “Timing jitter from the optical spectrum in semiconductor passively mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9151–9160 (2012).
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R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-µm applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1292–1301 (2011).
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A. Akrout, A. Shen, R. Brenot, F. Van Dijk, O. Legouezigou, F. Pommereau, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, and G.-H. Duan, “Separate error-free transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s using comb generation in a quantum-dash-based mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1746–1748 (2009).
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F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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P. Marin, J. Pfeifle, J. N. Kemal, S. Wolf, K. Vijayan, N. Chimot, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, and C. Koos, “8.32 Tbit/s coherent transmission using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1F.1.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, V. Panapakkam, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, K. Merghem, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “WDM transmission using quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes as multi-wavelength source and local oscillator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3F.6.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

J. Pfeifle, R. Watts, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, V. Vujicic, P. Landais, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, C. Calò, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, L. P. Barry, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Simultaneous phase noise reduction of 30 comb lines from a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode enabling coherent Tbit/s data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu3I.5.

J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and F. Levi, “Rf spectrum of a carrier with a random phase modulation of arbitrary slope,” Metrologia 45(3), 313–324 (2008).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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Liu, J.

Z. Lu, J. Liu, L. Mao, C.-Y. Song, J. Weber, and P. Poole, “12.032 Tbit/s coherent transmission using an ultra-narrow linewidth qantum dot 34.46-GHz C-Band coherent comb laser,” In Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems VIII (Vol. 10947, p. 109470J). International Society for Optics and Photonics (2019).

Liu, J. R.

Liu, L.

Lorences-Riesgo, A.

A. Fülop, M. Mazur, A. Lorences-Riesgo, O. B. Helgason, P.-H. Wang, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, P. A. Andrekson, A. M. Weiner, and V. Torres-Company, “High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1598 (2018).
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S. M. Bilal, K. P. Zhong, J. Cheng, A. P. T. Lau, G. Bosco, and C. Lu, “Performance and complexity comparison of carrier phase estimation algorithms for DP-64-QAM optical signals,” 2014 The European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC). IEEE, 2014.

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, J. Liu, L. Mao, C.-Y. Song, J. Weber, and P. Poole, “12.032 Tbit/s coherent transmission using an ultra-narrow linewidth qantum dot 34.46-GHz C-Band coherent comb laser,” In Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems VIII (Vol. 10947, p. 109470J). International Society for Optics and Photonics (2019).

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Luís, R. S.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2015), paper PDP 3.1.

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Magarini, M.

M. Magarini, L. Barletta, A. Spalvieri, F. Vacondio, T. Pfau, M. Pepe, M. Bertolini, and G. Gavioli, “Pilot-symbols-aided carrier-phase recovery for 100-G PM-QPSK digital coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(9), 739–741 (2012).
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P. M. Anandarajah, R. Maher, Y. Xu, S. Latkowski, J. O’Carroll, S. G. Murdoch, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, and L. Barry, “Generation of coherent multicarrier signals by gain switching of discrete mode lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(1), 112–122 (2011).
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F. Lelarge, B. Dagens, J. Renaudier, R. Brenot, A. Accard, F. Dijk, D. Make, O. L. Gouezigou, J.-G. Provost, F. Poingt, J. Landreau, O. Drisse, E. Derouin, B. Rousseau, F. Pommereau, and G.-H. Duan, “Recent advances on InAs/InP quantum dash based semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers operating at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(1), 111–124 (2007).
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Maldonado-Basilio, R.

Mao, L.

Z. Lu, J. Liu, L. Mao, C.-Y. Song, J. Weber, and P. Poole, “12.032 Tbit/s coherent transmission using an ultra-narrow linewidth qantum dot 34.46-GHz C-Band coherent comb laser,” In Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems VIII (Vol. 10947, p. 109470J). International Society for Optics and Photonics (2019).

Marciante, J.

B. J. Puttnam, R. S. Luís, W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, J.-M. Delgado Mendinueta, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, Y. Tamura, T. Hayashi, M. Hirano, and J. Marciante, “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2015), paper PDP 3.1.

Marin, P.

J. N. Kemal, J. Pfeifle, P. Marin, M. D. G. Pascual, S. Wolf, F Smyth, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Multi-wavelength coherent transmission using an optical frequency comb as a local oscillator,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25432–25445 (2016).
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P. Marin, J. Pfeifle, J. N. Kemal, S. Wolf, K. Vijayan, N. Chimot, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, and C. Koos, “8.32 Tbit/s coherent transmission using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1F.1.

Marin-Palomo, P.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, V. Panapakkam, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, K. Merghem, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “WDM transmission using quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes as multi-wavelength source and local oscillator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th3F.6.

J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

Martinez, A.

C. Calò, V. Vujicic, R. Watts, C. Browning, K. Merghem, V. Panapakkam, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, B.-E. Benkelfat, A. Ramdane, and L. P. Barry, “Single-section quantum well mode-locked laser for 400 Gb/s SSB-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26442–26449 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, S. G. Murdoch, R. T. Watts, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, L. P. Barry, and A. Ramdane, “High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8649–8657 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, and A. Ramdane, “Timing jitter from the optical spectrum in semiconductor passively mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9151–9160 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-µm applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

P. Marin, J. Pfeifle, J. N. Kemal, S. Wolf, K. Vijayan, N. Chimot, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, and C. Koos, “8.32 Tbit/s coherent transmission using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser diode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh1F.1.

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V. Torres-Company, J. Schröder, A. Fülöp, M. Mazur, L. Lundberg, O. B. Helgason, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Laser frequency combs for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(7), 1663–1670 (2019).
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Mentovich, E.

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A. Moscoso-Mártir, A. Tabatabaei-Mashayekh, J. Müller, J. Nojić, R. Setter, M. Nielsen, A. Sandomirsky, S. Rockman, E. Mentovich, F. Merget, A. Garreau, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “8-channel WDM silicon photonics transceiver with SOA and semiconductor mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25446–25459 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, “Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductormode-locked laser,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 4(2), 119–145 (2015).
[Crossref]

Merghem, K.

C. Calò, V. Vujicic, R. Watts, C. Browning, K. Merghem, V. Panapakkam, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, B.-E. Benkelfat, A. Ramdane, and L. P. Barry, “Single-section quantum well mode-locked laser for 400 Gb/s SSB-OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26442–26449 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, and A. Ramdane, “Timing jitter from the optical spectrum in semiconductor passively mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9151–9160 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, S. G. Murdoch, R. T. Watts, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, A. Accard, L. P. Barry, and A. Ramdane, “High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8649–8657 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Rosales, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, A. Akrout, J. P. Tourrenc, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, and A. Ramdane, “InAs/InP quantum-dot passively mode-locked lasers for 1.55-µm applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1292–1301 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. N. Kemal, P. Marin-Palomo, K. Merghem, G. Aubin, C. Calo, R. Brenot, F. Lelarge, A. Ramdane, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “32QAM WDM transmission using a quantum-dash passively mode-locked laser with resonant feedback,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference Postdeadline Papers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Th5C.3.

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J. Pfeifle, I. Shkarban, S. Wolf, J. N. Kemal, C. Weimann, W. Hartmann, N. Chimot, S. Joshi, K. Merghem, A. Martinez, M. Weber, A. Ramdane, F. Lelarge, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.19.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Frequency-comb generation in quantum-dash mode-locked laser diodes (QD-MLLD). (a) Top view and cross-section schematic of a QD-MLLD consisting of a ridge waveguide of 1.5 µm width and 980 µm length. The active region comprises six stacked layers of InAs QD separated by 40 nm-thick InGaAsP barriers, see transmission-electron microscope (TEM) image in the Inset [13]. Carriers are injected into the active region through 80-nm-thick separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) layers of InGaAsP, designed to have a bandgap corresponding to a photon energy λg = 1.17 µm. The emission wavelength of the devices used in our experiments is approximately 1.55 µm. (b) Setup for frequency comb characterization. The QD-MLLD is driven by a DC current. LF: Lensed fiber. OI: Optical isolator. PD: Photodiode. ESA: Electrical spectrum analyzer. OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer. (c) Number of lines within the 3-dB bandwidth of the comb (blue) and FWHM of the RF beat note (“RF linewidth”, red) at the FSR frequency of 42 GHz as a function of injection current. (d) Optical output power (green) and average OCNR (black) of the comb lines as a function of injection current. Shaded region: Range of favorable operating currents for low RF linewidth, high output power and OCNR, and large number of lines. (e) QD-MLLD frequency comb spectrum for an injection current of 390 mA at a stabilized temperature of 21.2 °C.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Linewidth measurement and phase-noise characterization for selected comb lines of the QD-MLLD. (a) Experimental setups: In Setup I, the QD-MLLD output is superimposed with the output of a narrowband local oscillator laser (LO I) and detected by a single photodiode (PD) and an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA) to extract the long-term linewidth $\Delta {f_\textrm{G}}$. In Setup II, a second LO laser (LO II) is used along with a coherent receiver and a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for measuring the temporal phase-noise characteristics, from which we extract the FM-noise spectrum that reveals the intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth $\Delta {f_\textrm{L}}.$ LF: Lensed fiber. OI: Optical isolator. PC: Polarization controller. LO I, LO II: Tunable external cavity lasers (ECL). OH: Optical hybrid. BPD: Balanced photodiodes. Inp I, Inp II: Auxiliary inputs for verification of the LO laser linewidths. (b) Long-term and short-term optical linewidths of the different comb lines. The long-term linewidths were recorded with an effective ESA observation time of ${\tau _{0,\textrm{ESA}}} \approx 150$ µs. (c) Power spectra ${S_{{f_{\textrm{inst}}}}}$ of instantaneous frequency fluctuations (FM noise) along with model fits according to Eq. (1). The length of the recorded time-domain beat signal is 125 µs. The data were obtained by testing a QD-MLLD tone with Setup II (QD-MLLD, blue) or by connecting LO I to Inp II of Setup II (LO I/II, red). In both cases, the wavelength of the tested tone was 1547.3 nm. Note that the second measurement can only reveal the relative phase fluctuations of LO II with respect to LO I, which can be considered as an upper boundary of the phase noise of each of the sources. Since the linewidth of LO I is much smaller than that of the QD-MLLD tone, the phase fluctuations in the first measurement can be attributed to the QD-MLLD tone. (d) Phase-noise variance $\sigma _\phi ^2$ as a function of measurement time τ, both for LO I and for the QD-MLLD tone. (e) Power spectra as a function of the frequency offset from the carrier for LO I and for the QD-MLLD tone (resolution bandwidth $\delta f = 400\,\textrm{kHz}\textrm{)}\,\textrm{.}$
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Influence of phase noise on coherent transmission at different symbol rates, modulation formats, and OSNR values. The analysis relies on using a single comb line with an intrinsic linewidth of 1.9 MHz as a carrier at a wavelength of 1540.4 nm. As a reference, we use a narrowband optical carrier provided by an ECL with an intrinsic linewidth of ∼ 10 kHz. The transmission performance of the ECL tone is compared to that of the QD-MLLD tone using either block-wise CPR (MLLD/block-wise CPR) or symbol-wise BPS (MLLD/symbol-wise BPS). (a) Experimental setup. EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier. POF: Programmable optical filter. IQ-mod: In-phase/quadrature (IQ) modulator. AWG: Arbitrary waveform generator. PDM: Polarization division multiplexing. VOA: Variable optical attenuator. OSNR meas.: Optical signal-to-noise-ratio measurement unit. DL: Delay line. PBC: polarization beam combiner. ASE: Amplified spontaneous emission. BPF: Band-pass filter. LO: Local oscillator. (b) Error-vector magnitude (EVM) measured for PDM-QPSK signaling at different symbol rates. For QPSK, we did not find a sufficient number of errors within our limited recording lengths and can hence only provide the EVM. We find that symbol-wise BPS algorithm can essentially overcome the phase-noise-related limitations observed for block-wise CPR and bring the transmission performance of the MLLD tone close to that of a narrowband ECL tone. (c) BER results for PDM-16QAM signaling for different symbol rates. In these measurements, the OSNR was around 35 dB. For practically relevant symbol rates beyond 30 GBd, symbol-wise BPS can essentially overcome the phase-noise-related impairments. The measured BER values fit well to the simulation results (dashed lines) labelled “Sim. MLLD” and “Sim. ECL”. (d) BER results for PDM-16QAM signaling at 38 GBd for different OSNR values. The OSNR values are measured after EDFA 4, see Subfigure (a). For OSNR values of 25 dB or less, symbol-wise BPS allows the QD-MLLD tone to perform nearly as good as a narrowband ECL carrier with OSNR penalties of approximately 0.5 dB.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. FM- noise compensation by blind-phase search (BPS) for different averaging lengths N: In the simulation, we assume 16QAM transmission at a symbol rate of 38 GBd, an intrinsic linewidth of the carrier of $\Delta {f_\textrm{L}} = 1.9\;\textrm{MHz,}$ and an OSNR of 35 dB. The traces show the residual FM-noise spectrum of the received signal after blind phase search, relying on averaging of measured phases over a moving group of N = 10 (red trace) and N = 100 (green trace) symbols. The blue trace indicates the spectrally white FM-noise spectrum of the carrier prior to modulation. As a rough estimate, BPS relying on a moving group of N symbols can effectively suppress frequency noise components occurring at Fourier frequencies up to $f = {1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 {N{T_\textrm{S}}}}} \right.} {N{T_\textrm{S}}}}$, where ${T_\textrm{S}} \approx 26\,\textrm{ps}$ corresponds to the symbol duration. Flicker and random-walk frequency would occur at Fourier frequencies below 106 Hz and would hence also be effectively suppressed by BPS.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PDM-QPSK data transmission with QD-MLLD. (a) Experimental setup used to emulate the WDM transmission experiment. EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier. POF: Programmable optical filter. AWG: Arbitrary-waveform generator. PDM: Polarization division multiplexing. VOA: Variable optical attenuator. DL: Delay line. PBC: Polarization beam combiner. SSMF: Standard single-mode fiber. BPF: Band-pass filter. LO: Local oscillator. (b) Optical spectrum of the QD-MLLD frequency comb. The 52 lines selected for WDM experiment are colored in blue. (c) Top: Superimposed spectra of odd and even carriers before modulation. Bottom: Spectrum of 52 modulated carriers. (d) EVM of the transmitted WDM channels. The maximum recording length of 2 × 106 bit leads to a minimum BER of 6.5 × 10−6 that can be measured in a statistically reliable way. This corresponds to an EVM of 22.9%. Below this value, the expected BER is smaller and cannot be measured within our recordings of 106 symbols – the associated range of EVM values is shaded in green. Importantly, all 52 channels fall below an EVM of 38.5%, which corresponds to a BER of 4.7 × 10−3, representing the threshold for hard-decision FEC with 6.25% overhead [44].
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Data transmission results of 38 channels carrying PDM-16QAM signals at 38 GBd. (a) Top: Combined odd and even carriers prior to modulation. Bottom: 38 modulated carriers prior to transmission. The line rate amounts to 304 Gbit/s per channel. (b) Measured BER of the transmitted channels. The BER increase towards lower carrier frequencies is attributed to an increase of the noise figures of EDFA5 and EDFA6 with decreasing optical frequency. (c) Exemplary constellation diagrams recorded at different optical carrier frequencies.

Equations (9)

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S f inst ( f ) = S L + S 1 f 1 + S 2 f 2
S f inst ( f high ) = ( 8 f high ln 2 ) / π 2 .
Δ f G = [ 8 ln ( 2 ) A ] 1 / 2 ,
A = f low f high S f inst ( f ) d f
Δ f L = π S L .
2 π f inst ( t ) = d ϕ ( t ) d t ϕ ( t + τ s ) ϕ ( t ) τ s ,
σ ϕ 2 ( τ ) = Δ ϕ τ ( t ) 2 .
Δ f L = lim τ 0 σ ϕ 2 ( τ ) 2 π τ .
τ 0,ESA = κ Δ f δ f 2 ,

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