Abstract

Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides and components in glasses has been a remarkably growing research field during the last two decades. However, such laser- inscribed optical components were mostly written within the volume of the glass due to the unavoidable ablation that arises when the focal spot is approaching the glass surface. This has generally limited the interaction of light with the surrounding medium thus preventing sensing functionality. In this paper, we present the inscription of surface and near-surface silver based waveguides in a silver containing glass with no need for additional processing as it is the case for standard type I waveguides. In addition, an ultra-sensitive refractive index sensor in a 1 cm glass chip is obtained based on near-surface waveguides interacting with liquid droplets acting as top-layer on the glass surface. Remarkably, the device exhibits a novel double-wing feature that sharpens the response and enhances its sensitivity. Our results highlight the advantages of silver based waveguides paving the way towards further surface based sensors in fibers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (2)

H. O. Çirkinoğlu, M. M. Bayer, U. S. Gökay, A. Serpengüzel, B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, R. Ramponi, and S. M. Eaton, “Silicon microsphere whispering gallery modes excited by femtosecond-laser-inscribed glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(14), 3687–3692 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Liao, J. Wang, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Li, T. Yang, F. Zhu, K. Yang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Fiber surface Bragg grating waveguide for refractive index measurements,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1684–1687 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

J.-P. Bérubé and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3074–3077 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lapointe, F. Parent, E. S. de Lima Filho, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, “Toward the integration of optical sensors in smartphone screens using femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5654–5657 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “A simple and low-cost cure monitoring system based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 117001 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg grating waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11719–11729 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Zhou, Y. Lai, X. Chen, K. Sugden, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “A refractometer based on a micro-slot in a fiber Bragg grating formed by chemically assisted femtosecond laser processing,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15848–15853 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1253–1255 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

P. S. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. N. S. Pillai, and P. Radhakrishnan, “A fibre optic evanescent wave sensor used for the detection of trace nitrites in water,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(3), 247–250 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. M. Ribeiro, J. L. P. Canedo, M. M. Werneck, and L. R. Kawase, “An evanescent-coupling plastic optical fibre refractometer and absorptionmeter based on surface light scattering,” Sens. Actuators, A 101(1–2), 69–76 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Lalanne, “Electromagnetic analysis of photonic crystal waveguides operating above the light cone,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 800–804 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

Abou Khalil, A.

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, and R. Vallée, “Comparative study between the standard type I and the type A femtosecond laser induced refractive index change in silver containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2640 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alberti, E.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alberto, N.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “A simple and low-cost cure monitoring system based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 117001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

An, R.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baida, F.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M. M.

Bellec, M.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Bernier, M.

Berton, B.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berube, J. P.

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bérubé, J.-P.

Besbes, M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bharadwaj, V.

Bienstman, P.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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Bilro, L.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “A simple and low-cost cure monitoring system based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 117001 (2010).
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Bona, G. L.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
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Bourhis, K.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
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K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
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Bousquet, B.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brasselet, E.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brow, R. K.

Bures, J.

Canedo, J. L. P.

R. M. Ribeiro, J. L. P. Canedo, M. M. Werneck, and L. R. Kawase, “An evanescent-coupling plastic optical fibre refractometer and absorptionmeter based on surface light scattering,” Sens. Actuators, A 101(1–2), 69–76 (2002).
[Crossref]

Canioni, L.

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, and R. Vallée, “Comparative study between the standard type I and the type A femtosecond laser induced refractive index change in silver containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2640 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Cardinal, T.

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, and R. Vallée, “Comparative study between the standard type I and the type A femtosecond laser induced refractive index change in silver containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2640 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
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G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
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Chen, X.

Chimier, B.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
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J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
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Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1253–1255 (2005).
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Çirkinoglu, H. O.

Crespi, A.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
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A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1253–1255 (2005).
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A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, and R. Vallée, “Comparative study between the standard type I and the type A femtosecond laser induced refractive index change in silver containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2640 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
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De Silvestri, S.

Della Valle, G.

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
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A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
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Desmoulin, J.-C.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
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J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
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Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dongre, C.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
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Dou, Y.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
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Duchateau, G.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dussauze, M.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
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H. O. Çirkinoğlu, M. M. Bayer, U. S. Gökay, A. Serpengüzel, B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, R. Ramponi, and S. M. Eaton, “Silicon microsphere whispering gallery modes excited by femtosecond-laser-inscribed glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 57(14), 3687–3692 (2018).
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S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2387–2391 (2011).
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Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fargin, E.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
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Fargues, A.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feth, J. R.

Fletcher, L. B.

Fontana, F.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

Gagne, M.

Ghosh, R.

Gökay, U. S.

Gong, Q.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, H. M.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
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Granet, G.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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Grenier, J. R.

Gross, S.

Guérineau, T.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
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Guizal, B.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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Haryono, H.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
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He, J.

Helfert, S.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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Heo, J.

Herman, P. R.

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2387–2391 (2011).
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V. Maselli, J. R. Grenier, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser written optofluidic sensor: Bragg grating waveguide evanescent probing of microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11719–11729 (2009).
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Hirsch, L.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
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Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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Hugonin, J.-P.

Janssen, O. T. A.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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Kashyap, R.

Kawase, L. R.

R. M. Ribeiro, J. L. P. Canedo, M. M. Werneck, and L. R. Kawase, “An evanescent-coupling plastic optical fibre refractometer and absorptionmeter based on surface light scattering,” Sens. Actuators, A 101(1–2), 69–76 (2002).
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J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
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Kuan, K.

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P. S. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. N. S. Pillai, and P. Radhakrishnan, “A fibre optic evanescent wave sensor used for the detection of trace nitrites in water,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(3), 247–250 (2002).
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Lahaye, M.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
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Lai, Y.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
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P. Lalanne, “Electromagnetic analysis of photonic crystal waveguides operating above the light cone,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 800–804 (2002).
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E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, and Q. Cao, “Use of grating theories in integrated optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(11), 2865–2875 (2001).
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Lapointe, J.

Laporta, P.

Le Camus, A.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
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Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1253–1255 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1253–1255 (2005).
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Li, M. J.

Li, Y.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liao, C.

Lin, C.

Liu, D.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
[Crossref]

Loranger, S.

Lu, C.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mansuripur, M.

Marangoni, M.

Martínez, J.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maselli, V.

Messaddeq, Y.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

Moreau, A.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

P. S. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. N. S. Pillai, and P. Radhakrishnan, “A fibre optic evanescent wave sensor used for the detection of trace nitrites in water,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(3), 247–250 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ng, M. L.

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nogueira, R. N.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “A simple and low-cost cure monitoring system based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 117001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nolli, D.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nugrowati, A. M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Eaton, M. L. Ng, R. Osellame, and P. R. Herman, “High refractive index contrast in fused silica waveguides by tightly focused, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11–13), 2387–2391 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11(1), 013001 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
[Crossref]

Parent, F.

Pereira, S. F.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Petit, Y.

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, and R. Vallée, “Comparative study between the standard type I and the type A femtosecond laser induced refractive index change in silver containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2640 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Pillai, V. N. S.

P. S. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. N. S. Pillai, and P. Radhakrishnan, “A fibre optic evanescent wave sensor used for the detection of trace nitrites in water,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(3), 247–250 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pinto, J. L.

L. Bilro, N. Alberto, J. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “A simple and low-cost cure monitoring system based on a side-polished plastic optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 117001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Polli, D.

Pollnau, M.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Radhakrishnan, P.

P. S. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. N. S. Pillai, and P. Radhakrishnan, “A fibre optic evanescent wave sensor used for the detection of trace nitrites in water,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(3), 247–250 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

Rao, M. K.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rehfeld, N.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reis, S. T.

Ribeiro, R. M.

R. M. Ribeiro, J. L. P. Canedo, M. M. Werneck, and L. R. Kawase, “An evanescent-coupling plastic optical fibre refractometer and absorptionmeter based on surface light scattering,” Sens. Actuators, A 101(1–2), 69–76 (2002).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ródenas, A.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, M.

Royon, A.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saggese, S. J.

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1253–1255 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scharf, T.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scholder, O.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seideman, T.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Serpengüzel, A.

Shaw, H. J.

Shorubalko, I.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sigel, G. H.

Silberstein, E.

Smetanina, E.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Solis, J.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sotillo, B.

Stake, A.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stokes, L. F.

Sugden, K.

Sukharev, M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

Tai, H.

Talaga, D.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Tanaka, T.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Traveria, M.

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
[Crossref]

Treguer, M.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Troy, N.

Urbach, H.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

P. S. Kumar, C. P. G. Vallabhan, V. P. N. Nampoori, V. N. S. Pillai, and P. Radhakrishnan, “A fibre optic evanescent wave sensor used for the detection of trace nitrites in water,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(3), 247–250 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vallee, R.

A. Abou Khalil, J. P. Berube, S. Danto, J. C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallee, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

van de Nes, A. S.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

van den Vlekkert, H.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Haver, S.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Labeke, D.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Varkentina, N.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9(1), 91–96 (2009).
[Crossref]

Videau, J.-J.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Werneck, M. M.

R. M. Ribeiro, J. L. P. Canedo, M. M. Werneck, and L. R. Kawase, “An evanescent-coupling plastic optical fibre refractometer and absorptionmeter based on surface light scattering,” Sens. Actuators, A 101(1–2), 69–76 (2002).
[Crossref]

Witcher, J. J.

Withford, M. J.

Xu, M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baida, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” JEOS:RP 2, 07022 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. A 84(3), 257–260 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Yang, T.

Yohana, A.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, T.

Zgraggen, E.

E. Zgraggen, O. Scholder, G. L. Bona, F. Fontana, E. Alberti, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, T. Scharf, and I. Shorubalko, “Optical properties of waveguide-coupled nanowires for sub-wavelength detection in microspectrometer applications,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, K.

Zhu, F.

Zhu, Y.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, and Y. Zhu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 65–69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. Technol. (1)

J. Martínez, A. Ródenas, A. Stake, M. Traveria, M. Aguiló, J. Solis, R. Osellame, T. Tanaka, B. Berton, S. Kimura, N. Rehfeld, and F. Díaz, “Harsh-Environment-Resistant OH-Vibrations-Sensitive Mid-Infrared Water-Ice Photonic Sensor,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700085 (2017).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       In this video we observe the double-wing featured shown in figure 5 of the manuscript. The transmission of the waveguide increases for a liquid's RI of 1.602 matching the glass's. while on the other side, with a liquid of 1.604 matching the effective

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic presentation of (a) the stair pattern fs LW process (b) side view of the sample following fs LW of a rising near-surface waveguide. (c) Exit facet bright field images for (i) well embedded waveguide inscribed 32 µm below the surface (ii) NWG1, waveguide written on the glass surface (iii) NWG2, waveguide 1 µm below the glass surface (iv) NWG3, waveguide 3.75 µm below the glass surface (v) Top view of NWG2 near-surface waveguide portion. No ablations nor cracks were observed indicating a smooth writing process.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental near-field mode profiles for (a) NWG2 and (b) NWG3 waveguides following the injection of a 630 nm laser. The scale bar is equal to 2 µm. The spatial mode profile of the waveguide NWG2, 1 µm away from the surface, is affected by the glass-air interface whereas NWG3’s mode (3.75 µm away from the surface) is not.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Top view phase image of the rising portion of a near-surface waveguide (b) Refractive index change (Δn) profile extracted from the phase image in Fig. 3(a). A moderate Δn value of 2 × 10−3 was measured for the portion of the waveguide neighboring the glass surface.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Normalized transmission power of the written near-surface waveguides as a function of their distance from the surface following the deposition of 4 mm oil droplet with a refractive index matching that of the glass (noil=1.604).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Normalized transmission of experimental values following the deposition of 4 mm oil droplets exhibiting different refractive indices for a near-surface waveguide (black) 1 µm away from the surface (NWG2), (blue) 3.75 µm away from the surface (NWG3). NWG2 exhibits a non-standard original response with a two wing-feature. Inset: Close-up of the double-wing feature (see Visualization 1). (b) The sensing sensitivity corresponding to the derivative of the normalized transmission as a function of the refractive index (dT/dn) presented in logarithmic scale for: NWG2 (black) and NWG3 (blue) in the different sensing regions. Inset: Close-up of the sensitivity (dT/dn) in the double-wing feature zone in linear scale (1.57 to 1.632).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The normalized transmission ${T_t}/{T_{FP}}\; $ for different oil’s refractive indices as a function of the propagation distance. Inset: Schematic presentation of the geometry simulated in the theoretical model. The mode propagating in the oil section is different from the mode in the air section due to refractive index mismatch. The double arrows in the oil section indicates that the numerical mode could propagate in both ways. (b) simulated near-field mode profiles for different outer refractive indexes n (i) n = 1 (air) (ii) n = 1.602 (glass refractive index) (iii) n = 1.75. The spatial mode profile is affected also by the outer refractive index deposited on the glass surface. The scale bare is equal to 2 µm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Simulated (blue and orange respectively for 1 and 4 mm oil droplet) and experimental (black dots) normalized transmission of the refractive index sensor for different oil’s refractive indexes. The new theoretical methods simulate well the behavior of our refractive index sensor with the increase and decrease of the transmission. (b) The transverse mode-mismatch ${T_M}$ between the buried mode and the near-surface mode as a function of different oil RI (c) The leakage/damping of the guided mode as a function of the different RI (d) The reconstruction of the mode mismatch and leakage from Figs. 7(b) – 7(c) explaining that physical behavior of our sensor is based on the mode mismatch and mode leakage following the deposition of different oil RI.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Dimensions of the interaction zone, magnitude and refractive index range of the transmission drop for different refractive index sensors previously reported and our sensor.

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