Abstract

Although light sources are designed assuming the same color sensitivity for all viewers, inter-user variability can in fact cause significant discrepancies in individual perception. Here, perception variability related to short-wavelength effects is investigated. An experimental study is reported on LED sources with reduced blue content, which cause reduced circadian stimulation. Perceived chromaticity is strongly dependent on the viewer’s age and spectral shape, in excellent agreement with a model based on modern colorimetry. Broader implications for LED sources in lighting and displays are discussed, and significant effects are found. These results confirm the inadequacy of conventional colorimetry and support the use of modern color science in the design and engineering of lighting products.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

M. J. Murdoch and M. D. Fairchild, “Modelling the effects of inter-observer variation on colour rendition,” Light. Res. Technol. 51(1), 37–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. A. Rahman, M. A. St Hilaire, and S. W. Lockley, “The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep,” Physiol. Behav. 177, 221–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Safdar, G. Cui, Y. J. Kim, and M. R. Luo, “Perceptually uniform color space for image signals including high dynamic range and wide gamut,” Opt. Express 25(13), 15131–15151 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, L. Blonde, and P. Morvan, “Color matching experiment for highlighting interobserver variability,” Color Res. Appl. 41(5), 530–539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, and L. Blonde, “Individual colorimetric observer model,” PLoS One 11(2), e0145671 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Chang, D. Aeschbach, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(4), 1232–1237 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Perceptual responses to LED illumination with colour rendering indices of 85 and 97,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 810–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Sarkar, F. Autrusseau, F. Vienot, P. Le Callet, and L. Blonde, “From CIE 2006 physiological model to improved age-dependent and average colorimetric observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(10), 2033–2048 (2011).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295(5557), 1065–1070 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

J. M. Zeitzer, D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” J. Physiol. 526(3), 695–702 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Cajochen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and D.-J. Dijk, “Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness,” Behav. Brain Res. 115(1), 75–83 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118(5), 691–700 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

G. Abraham, H. Korosi, J. Schanda, A. G. Shapiro, and K. Wenzel, “Anomalies in additive colour matches,” Color Res. Appl. 20(4), 235–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

W. A. Thornton, “Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry. Parts I-III,” Color Res. Appl. 17(2), 79–122 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1942 (1)

1931 (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The CIE colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Abraham, G.

G. Abraham, H. Korosi, J. Schanda, A. G. Shapiro, and K. Wenzel, “Anomalies in additive colour matches,” Color Res. Appl. 20(4), 235–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Aeschbach, D.

A. M. Chang, D. Aeschbach, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(4), 1232–1237 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asano, Y.

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, and L. Blonde, “Individual colorimetric observer model,” PLoS One 11(2), e0145671 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, L. Blonde, and P. Morvan, “Color matching experiment for highlighting interobserver variability,” Color Res. Appl. 41(5), 530–539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Autrusseau, F.

Berson, D. M.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295(5557), 1065–1070 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blonde, L.

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, and L. Blonde, “Individual colorimetric observer model,” PLoS One 11(2), e0145671 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, L. Blonde, and P. Morvan, “Color matching experiment for highlighting interobserver variability,” Color Res. Appl. 41(5), 530–539 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Sarkar, F. Autrusseau, F. Vienot, P. Le Callet, and L. Blonde, “From CIE 2006 physiological model to improved age-dependent and average colorimetric observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(10), 2033–2048 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brainard, G. C.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brown, E.

J. M. Zeitzer, D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” J. Physiol. 526(3), 695–702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brown, T. M.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byrne, B.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cajochen, C.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cajochen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and D.-J. Dijk, “Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness,” Behav. Brain Res. 115(1), 75–83 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chamberlain, K.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, A. M.

A. M. Chang, D. Aeschbach, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(4), 1232–1237 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chellappa, S. L.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cooper, H. M.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, G.

Czeisler, C.

J. M. Zeitzer, D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” J. Physiol. 526(3), 695–702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Czeisler, C. A.

A. M. Chang, D. Aeschbach, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(4), 1232–1237 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Cajochen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and D.-J. Dijk, “Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness,” Behav. Brain Res. 115(1), 75–83 (2000).
[Crossref]

David, A.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Perceptual responses to LED illumination with colour rendering indices of 85 and 97,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 810–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames and A. David, “US patent 9410664 – circadian-friendly LED light source,” (2014).

A. David, T. Esposito, K. Houser, M. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, and L. Whitehead, “A vector field color rendition model for characterizing color shifts and metameric mismatch,” LEUKOS (posted 01 February 2019, in press).

DeLille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dijk, D. J.

J. M. Zeitzer, D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” J. Physiol. 526(3), 695–702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dijk, D.-J.

C. Cajochen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and D.-J. Dijk, “Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness,” Behav. Brain Res. 115(1), 75–83 (2000).
[Crossref]

Duffy, J. F.

A. M. Chang, D. Aeschbach, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(4), 1232–1237 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Esposito, T.

A. David, T. Esposito, K. Houser, M. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, and L. Whitehead, “A vector field color rendition model for characterizing color shifts and metameric mismatch,” LEUKOS (posted 01 February 2019, in press).

Fairchild, M. D.

M. J. Murdoch and M. D. Fairchild, “Modelling the effects of inter-observer variation on colour rendition,” Light. Res. Technol. 51(1), 37–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, and L. Blonde, “Individual colorimetric observer model,” PLoS One 11(2), e0145671 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, L. Blonde, and P. Morvan, “Color matching experiment for highlighting interobserver variability,” Color Res. Appl. 41(5), 530–539 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. L. Long and M. D. Fairchild, “Modeling observer variability and metamerism failure in electronic color displays,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2014).

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2002).

Figueiro, M. G.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gabel, V.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamlin, P. D.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerner, E.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Glickman, G.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gooley, J. J.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

Greeson, J. M.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guild, J.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The CIE colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Hanifin, J. P.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hattar, S.

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295(5557), 1065–1070 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hommes, V.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houser, K.

A. David, T. Esposito, K. Houser, M. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, and L. Whitehead, “A vector field color rendition model for characterizing color shifts and metameric mismatch,” LEUKOS (posted 01 February 2019, in press).

Houser, K. W.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Perceptual responses to LED illumination with colour rendering indices of 85 and 97,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 810–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hunt, R. W. G.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2002).

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jagle, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khalsa, S. B.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

Klausen, G.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Knau, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Korosi, H.

G. Abraham, H. Korosi, J. Schanda, A. G. Shapiro, and K. Wenzel, “Anomalies in additive colour matches,” Color Res. Appl. 20(4), 235–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Perceptual responses to LED illumination with colour rendering indices of 85 and 97,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 810–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames and A. David, “US patent 9410664 – circadian-friendly LED light source,” (2014).

Kronauer, R.

J. M. Zeitzer, D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” J. Physiol. 526(3), 695–702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Le Callet, P.

Li, C.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2002).

Liao, H. W.

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295(5557), 1065–1070 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lockley, S. W.

S. A. Rahman, M. A. St Hilaire, and S. W. Lockley, “The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep,” Physiol. Behav. 177, 221–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(9), 4502–4505 (2003).
[Crossref]

Long, D. L.

D. L. Long and M. D. Fairchild, “Modeling observer variability and metamerism failure in electronic color displays,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2014).

Lucas, R. J.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, M. R.

M. Safdar, G. Cui, Y. J. Kim, and M. R. Luo, “Perceptually uniform color space for image signals including high dynamic range and wide gamut,” Opt. Express 25(13), 15131–15151 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2002).

Lutze, M.

MacAdam, D. L.

Maire, M.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moroney, N.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2002).

Morvan, P.

Y. Asano, M. D. Fairchild, L. Blonde, and P. Morvan, “Color matching experiment for highlighting interobserver variability,” Color Res. Appl. 41(5), 530–539 (2016).
[Crossref]

Murdoch, M. J.

M. J. Murdoch and M. D. Fairchild, “Modelling the effects of inter-observer variation on colour rendition,” Light. Res. Technol. 51(1), 37–54 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nathans, J.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Neitz, J.

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118(5), 691–700 (2000).
[Crossref]

Neitz, M.

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118(5), 691–700 (2000).
[Crossref]

Newman, T.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Proceedings of the Color and Imaging Conference, Society for Imaging Science and Technology (2002).

O’Hagan, J. B.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peirson, S. N.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pokorny, J.

Price, L. L. A.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Provencio, I.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rahman, S. A.

S. A. Rahman, M. A. St Hilaire, and S. W. Lockley, “The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep,” Physiol. Behav. 177, 221–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rajaratnam, S. M.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reichert, C. F.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reitner, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rollag, M. D.

G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag, “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” J. Neurosci. 21(16), 6405–6412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Royer, M.

A. David, T. Esposito, K. Houser, M. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, and L. Whitehead, “A vector field color rendition model for characterizing color shifts and metameric mismatch,” LEUKOS (posted 01 February 2019, in press).

Safdar, M.

Sarkar, A.

Schanda, J.

G. Abraham, H. Korosi, J. Schanda, A. G. Shapiro, and K. Wenzel, “Anomalies in additive colour matches,” Color Res. Appl. 20(4), 235–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, A. G.

G. Abraham, H. Korosi, J. Schanda, A. G. Shapiro, and K. Wenzel, “Anomalies in additive colour matches,” Color Res. Appl. 20(4), 235–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Skene, D. J.

R. J. Lucas, S. N. Peirson, D. M. Berson, T. M. Brown, H. M. Cooper, C. A. Czeisler, M. G. Figueiro, P. D. Gamlin, S. W. Lockley, J. B. O’Hagan, L. L. A. Price, I. Provencio, D. J. Skene, and G. C. Brainard, “Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age,” Trends Neurosci. 37(1), 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smet, K. A. G.

A. David, T. Esposito, K. Houser, M. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, and L. Whitehead, “A vector field color rendition model for characterizing color shifts and metameric mismatch,” LEUKOS (posted 01 February 2019, in press).

Smith, K. A.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, T.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The CIE colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Smith, V. C.

St Hilaire, M. A.

S. A. Rahman, M. A. St Hilaire, and S. W. Lockley, “The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep,” Physiol. Behav. 177, 221–229 (2017).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, H. Knau, G. Klausen, A. Reitner, and J. Nathans, “Red, green, and red-green hybrid pigments in the human retina: correlations between deduced protein sequences and psychophysically measured spectral sensitivities,” J. Neurosci. 18(23), 10053–10069 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takao, M.

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295(5557), 1065–1070 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thornton, W. A.

W. A. Thornton, “Toward a more accurate and extensible colorimetry. Parts I-III,” Color Res. Appl. 17(2), 79–122 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Reen, E.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vienot, F.

Viola, A. U.

V. Gabel, M. Maire, C. F. Reichert, S. L. Chellappa, C. Schmidt, V. Hommes, A. U. Viola, and C. Cajochen, “Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels,” Chronobiol. Int. 30(8), 988–997 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, A. David, and M. R. Krames, “Perceptual responses to LED illumination with colour rendering indices of 85 and 97,” Light. Res. Technol. 47(7), 810–827 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, K.

G. Abraham, H. Korosi, J. Schanda, A. G. Shapiro, and K. Wenzel, “Anomalies in additive colour matches,” Color Res. Appl. 20(4), 235–244 (1995).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, L.

A. David, T. Esposito, K. Houser, M. Royer, K. A. G. Smet, and L. Whitehead, “A vector field color rendition model for characterizing color shifts and metameric mismatch,” LEUKOS (posted 01 February 2019, in press).

Xu, J.

Yau, K. W.

S. Hattar, H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau, “Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity,” Science 295(5557), 1065–1070 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zeitzer, J. M.

J. J. Gooley, K. Chamberlain, K. A. Smith, S. B. Khalsa, S. M. Rajaratnam, E. Van Reen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and S. W. Lockley, “Exposure to room light before bedtime suppresses melatonin onset and shortens melatonin duration in humans,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96(3), E463–E472 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Cajochen, J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and D.-J. Dijk, “Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness,” Behav. Brain Res. 115(1), 75–83 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zeitzer, D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” J. Physiol. 526(3), 695–702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, and F. M. Steranka, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 118(5), 691–700 (2000).
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Behav. Brain Res. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Perception experiment. (a) $(u' v')$ diagram. Black line: Planckian locus, with dots showing color temperatures of 2,500 to 3,000 K and black circles showing 3-step and 6-step MacAdam circles. Dots: SPD chromaticities, as labeled. All chromaticities are according to $06-10^{\circ}$ CMFs (at age 30). (b) Reference and BF SPDs used in the experiment. (c) Digital camera picture of the four BF spots projected on a white wall. Here, the camera selected BF3 to define the white balance of the image, therefore showing the other spots with greener or pinker tint. This rendition is not necessarily representative of an observer's perception. (d) Layout of the spots during the experiment. The four BF SPDs are projected in turn.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experiment results and model. (a) Chromaticity score versus viewer age for the four BF SPDs. Boxes: experimental data. Line: model prediction. (b-c) Model details, for ages 20 and 40 respectively. Dots: SPDs as labeled. Red arrow: orthogonal projection of BF3's chromaticity along the axis defined by the reference SPDs (shown as a dashed line), from which the modeled score is derived. Black line: Planckian locus. Black circles: 3- and 6-step MacAdam circles.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Modeled chromaticity of white LEDs. (a) SPDs for general-lighting: 3,000 K LED with varying pump wavelengths ($\lambda$), targeted according to $31-2^{\circ}$ CMFs. Blue/red/green: $\lambda=440/450/460$ nm, respectively. (b) Locus of $06-10^{\circ}$ chromaticities for these SPDs and various viewer ages. ($du',dv'$) are the distances to a 3,000 K Planckian emitter. Circles/squares/diamonds: ages 20/45/70, respectively. Black line: Planckian locus. Black circles: 3- and 6-step MacAdam circles. (c) Same as previous, but with SPDs targeted according to $06-10^{\circ}$ CMFs at age 45. (d-f) Same as (a-c) for 6,500 K display LEDs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Modeled chromaticity of a display's blue primary. (a) Locus of chromaticity as a function of viewer age and LED pump wavelength ($\lambda$), according to $06-2^{\circ}$ CMFs. Blue diamonds/red circles/green squares: $\lambda=440/450/460$ nm, respectively. Ages span the range 20-70. The inset shows a magnification of the region of interest. Black square: D65 white point. Black line: edge of the chromaticity diagram (calculated for age 35). (b) Resulting dominant wavelength versus age
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Relationship between CCT and relative circadian lux (normalized to unity at 2,700 K) for various sources. Blue line: Planckian emitters. Gray dots: conventional blue-pump LEDs. Orange dot: blue-pump sleep LED. Purple dots: Blue-free LEDs. (b) SPD of a blue-free LED with good color rendition properties.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Properties of the SPDs used in the Perception Experiment. The $06-10^{\circ }$ Values are for Age 30.

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Table 2. Results of the Perception Study

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