Abstract

Neutral atoms have been observed to survive intense laser pulses in high Rydberg states with surprisingly large probability. Only with this Rydberg-state excitation (RSE) included is the picture of intense-laser-atom interaction complete. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the underlying physics. However, neither one can explain all the features observed in experiments and in time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) simulations. Here we propose a fully quantum-mechanical model based on the strong-field approximation (SFA). It well reproduces the intensity dependence of RSE obtained by the TDSE, which exhibits a series of modulated peaks. They are due to recapture of the liberated electron and the fact that the pertinent probability strongly depends on the position and the parity of the Rydberg state. We also present measurements of RSE in xenon at 800 nm, which display the peak structure consistent with the calculations.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. R. Jones, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), R49–R52 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(3), 1011–1043 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. A. Volkova, A. M. Popov, and O. V. Tikhonova, “Ionization and stabilization of atoms in a high intensity, low frequency laser field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 113(3), 394–406 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Y. Huang, Q. Z. Xia, and L. B. Fu, “Survival window for atomic tunneling ionization with elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033415 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. V. Popruzhenko, “Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling,” J. Phys. B 51(1), 014002 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).
  27. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964).
  28. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Jain and N. Tsoar, “Compton scattering in the presence of coherent electromagnetic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 18(2), 538–545 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  34. Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

S. V. Popruzhenko, “Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling,” J. Phys. B 51(1), 014002 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Huang, Q. Z. Xia, and L. B. Fu, “Survival window for atomic tunneling ionization with elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033415 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(3), 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. A. Volkova, A. M. Popov, and O. V. Tikhonova, “Ionization and stabilization of atoms in a high intensity, low frequency laser field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 113(3), 394–406 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

R. R. Jones, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), R49–R52 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

M. Jain and N. Tsoar, “Compton scattering in the presence of coherent electromagnetic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 18(2), 538–545 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964).

Agostini, P.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Antonetti, A.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

Azarm, A.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(3), 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Borchers, B.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Jones, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), R49–R52 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

Buller, J.

H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Busuladžic, M.

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

Darack, S.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

DiMauro, L. F.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ding, D. J.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dörr, M.

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(3), 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eichmann, U.

H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eilzer, S.

H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Emmanouilidou, A.

A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Faisal, F. H. M.

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Feldmann, D.

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fu, L. B.

K. Y. Huang, Q. Z. Xia, and L. B. Fu, “Survival window for atomic tunneling ionization with elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fu, P. M.

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Galstyan, A.

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gazibegovic-Busuladžic, A.

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geusic, M. E.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

Goreslavski, S. P.

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gorling, K.

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grasbon, F.

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hasovic, E.

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ho, P.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(3), 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, S.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, S. L.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. Y.

K. Y. Huang, Q. Z. Xia, and L. B. Fu, “Survival window for atomic tunneling ionization with elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jahnke, T.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jain, M.

M. Jain and N. Tsoar, “Compton scattering in the presence of coherent electromagnetic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 18(2), 538–545 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jia, X.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, M. X.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, H. D.

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. R.

R. R. Jones, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), R49–R52 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945 (1964).

Kim, H.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kopold, R.

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Kulander, K. C.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lai, X.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lazarou, C.

A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Q. G.

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. D.

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(3), 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lv, H.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Manschwetus, B.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meckel, M.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Migus, A.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

Miloševic, D. B.

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morishita, T.

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mota-Furtado, F.

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

Muller, H. G.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

Muth-Böhm, J.

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nubbemeyer, T.

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

O’Mahony, P. F.

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

Patchkovskii, S.

H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Petite, G.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ph. H. Schmidt, L.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Piraux, B.

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

Popov, A. M.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. A. Volkova, A. M. Popov, and O. V. Tikhonova, “Ionization and stabilization of atoms in a high intensity, low frequency laser field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 113(3), 394–406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Popov, Yu. V.

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

Popruzhenko, S. V.

S. V. Popruzhenko, “Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling,” J. Phys. B 51(1), 014002 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Potvliege, R. M.

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Quan, W.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42(17), 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Reiss, H. R.

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[Crossref]

Rottke, H.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Saenz, A.

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sandner, W.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sann, H.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, D.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, D. W.

R. R. Jones, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), R49–R52 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shakeshaft, R.

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sharifi, S. M.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sridharan, A.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tikhonova, O. V.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. A. Volkova, A. M. Popov, and O. V. Tikhonova, “Ionization and stabilization of atoms in a high intensity, low frequency laser field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 113(3), 394–406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, X. M.

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsoar, N.

M. Jain and N. Tsoar, “Compton scattering in the presence of coherent electromagnetic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 18(2), 538–545 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, B.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

Volkova, E. A.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. A. Volkova, A. M. Popov, and O. V. Tikhonova, “Ionization and stabilization of atoms in a high intensity, low frequency laser field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 113(3), 394–406 (2011).
[Crossref]

von Veltheim, A.

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voss, S.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vredenborg, A.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. B.

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. Q.

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, H.

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Welge, K. H.

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wolf-Rottke, B.

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, Q. Z.

K. Y. Huang, Q. Z. Xia, and L. B. Fu, “Survival window for atomic tunneling ionization with elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033415 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. F.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, B.

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, H.

H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zuo, W. L.

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. (1)

For a review, see, e.g., W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: from classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. B. Wang, X. F. Li, P. M. Fu, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Coulomb potential recapture effect in above-barrier ionization in laser pulses,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(10), 2729–2732 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

E. A. Volkova, A. M. Popov, and O. V. Tikhonova, “Ionization and stabilization of atoms in a high intensity, low frequency laser field,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 113(3), 394–406 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

S. V. Popruzhenko, “Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling,” J. Phys. B 51(1), 014002 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

A. Azarm, S. M. Sharifi, A. Sridharan, S. Hosseini, Q. Q. Wang, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, E. A. Volkova, and S. L. Chin, “Population trapping in Xe atoms,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 414, 012015 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, S. P. Goreslavski, S. V. Popruzhenko, and W. Becker, “Capture into Rydberg states and momentum distributions of ionized electrons,” Laser Phys. 19(8), 1550–1558 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

U. Eichmann, T. Nubbemeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields,” Nature 461(7268), 1261–1264 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (9)

A. Emmanouilidou, C. Lazarou, A. Staudte, and U. Eichmann, “Routes to formation of highly excited neutral atoms in the breakup of strongly driven H$_2$2,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 011402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. G. Li, X. M. Tong, T. Morishita, H. Wei, and C. D. Lin, “Fine structures in the intensity dependence of excitation and ionization probabilities of hydrogen atoms in intense 800-nm laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 89(2), 023421 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Huang, Q. Z. Xia, and L. B. Fu, “Survival window for atomic tunneling ionization with elliptically polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033415 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Piraux, F. Mota-Furtado, P. F. O’Mahony, A. Galstyan, and Yu. V. Popov, “Excitation of Rydberg wave packets in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 96(4), 043403 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. R. Jones, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Population trapping in Kr and Xe in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), R49–R52 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Rottke, B. Wolf-Rottke, D. Feldmann, K. H. Welge, M. Dörr, R. M. Potvliege, and R. Shakeshaft, “Atomic hydrogen in a strong optical radiation field,” Phys. Rev. A 49(6), 4837–4851 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Lv, W. L. Zuo, L. Zhao, H. F. Xu, M. X. Jin, D. J. Ding, S. L. Hu, and J. Chen, “Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 93(3), 033415 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Jain and N. Tsoar, “Compton scattering in the presence of coherent electromagnetic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 18(2), 538–545 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, and W. Becker, “Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. D. Jones and H. R. Reiss, “Intense-field effects in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 16(6), 2466–2473 (1977).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

J. Muth-Böhm, A. Becker, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Suppressed molecular ionization for a class of diatomics in intense femtosecond laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2280–2283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, X. Jia, C. Wang, Z. Hu, H. Kang, W. Quan, X. Lai, X. Liu, J. Chen, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Yao, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Ionization suppression of diatomic molecules in an intense midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223001 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

U. Eichmann, A. Saenz, S. Eilzer, T. Nubbemeyer, and W. Sandner, “Observing Rydberg atoms to survive intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203002 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zimmermann, J. Buller, S. Eilzer, and U. Eichmann, “Strong-field excitation of Helium: bound state distribution and spin effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(12), 123003 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Multiple recapture of electrons in multiple ionization of the Argon dimer by a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 043003 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Manschwetus, T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, G. Steinmeyer, U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Strong laser field fragmentation of H$_2$2: Coulomb explosion without double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113002 (2009).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, and M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(10), 1092–1095 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. G. Muller, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, P. Agostini, G. Petite, A. Antonetti, M. Franco, and A. Migus, “Multiphoton ionization of Xenon with 100-fs Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(7), 565–568 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, and W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zimmermann, S. Patchkovskii, M. Ivanov, and U. Eichmann, “Unified time and frequency picture of ultrafast atomic excitation in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(1), 013003 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. von Veltheim, B. Manschwetus, W. Quan, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(2), 023001 (2013).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The Rydberg-state excitation process: The dashed gray curve denotes the laser electric field. The valence electron is liberated through tunneling in one of the various optical cycles of the pulse, whereupon it evolves in the laser field. The electrons captured into a certain Rydberg state in one direction (orbit 1 & orbit 3) or the other (orbit 2 & orbit 4) have different phases and will interfere, which leads to a peak structure in the intensity dependence with interval of $\Delta U_p=\hbar \omega$. Interference between the two directions leads to a peak structure with interval of $\Delta U_p=2\hbar \omega$ (see text for details).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. A typical trajectory of the electron in the laser pulse with intensity of $1\times 10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$. The numbers indicate the instants of time $t$ when the electron is captured by the Rydberg states of $n=6$ of the hydrogen atom with different angular momenta.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Density distribution of the hydrogenic Rydberg state $n = 6$ for different angular quantum numbers $l$. The two numbers in each panel correspond to the principal quantum number $n$ and the angular-momentum quantum number $l$.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Kinetic energy of the electron during its evolution in a laser pulse of 10 optical cycles. The laser intensity is $1.14\times 10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$, and the initial phase and the transverse velocity are 92$^\circ$ and 0, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The regions in polar coordinates where the Rydberg-state densities $|\phi _{nlm}(\mathbf {r})|^2$ are larger than 80 percent of their maximal values for $n=6$ and angular momenta $l\le n-1$. Different colors denote different angular momenta.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Populations of Rydberg states with even or odd parity versus laser intensity calculated via TDSE (a) and the quantum model (QM)(b) for an initial 1$s$ state. The positions of the $N$-photon channel closings are indicated on the top $x$ axis. For visual convenience, the peaks are separated by dashed lines and underlaid with alternatingly gray or pink backgrounds. Total Rydberg-state populations on a linear scale (sum over parities) as functions of the laser intensity simulated by (c): the TDSE and (d): the QM for an initial 1$s$ state.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a): Interference pattern generated by orbits with different values of $J$ as given (see text for details). (b): The population of RSE for different $l$ for a fixed principal quantum number $n=6$ in an 800-nm laser field. (c): The electron trajectory in the field $\mathbf {E}(t)=E_0\sin \omega t \mathbf {e}_z$ corresponding to ionization at the phase $\omega t_0=92^\circ$after the field maximum. The laser intensity is $1.14\times 10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ and the transverse velocity is 0 a.u. The colored horizontal dashed lines indicate the boundaries (in the coordinate $z$) of those regions where the Rydberg states with $n=6$ and $l\le 5$ have their highest density as shown in Fig. 8 below. (d): The populations of specific $l$ within the semiclassical picture for $n=6$ at four different peak intensities (see the text for details).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a): Focal-averaged RSE vs. principal quantum number calculated by the quantum model for the He atom, for $I_0=10^{15}$ W/cm$^2$; (b): Calculated electron spectra below (multiplied by a factor of 0.2) and above the continuum threshold for the hydrogen atom and various fixed intensities; (c): Experimental yields of single ionization and RSE of the Xe atom; (d): Experimental and calculated ratios between the Rydberg excitation and the single ionization yields (see the text for more detail). The experimental ratios have been rescaled for comparison with the quantum model results in view of the nonperfect detection efficiency of the Rydberg states.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Relative Amplitudes of the four terms of Eq. (13). The Quantities $t$ and $l$ indicate the capture moment and the Angular Momentum Number shown in Fig. 2, respectively.

Equations (32)

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M n l m = lim t , t Ψ n l m ( t ) | U ( t , t ) | Ψ g ( t ) ,
U ( t , t ) = U 0 ( t , t ) i t t d τ U ( t , τ ) H I ( τ ) U 0 ( τ , t ) ,
M n l m = lim t { Ψ n l m ( t ) | Ψ g ( t ) i t d τ Ψ n l m ( t ) | U ( t , τ ) H I ( τ ) | Ψ g ( τ ) } .
U ( t , t ) = U V ( t , t ) i t t d τ U ( t , τ ) V U V ( τ , t ) ,
U V ( t , t ) = d 3 k | Ψ k ( V ) ( t ) Ψ k ( V ) ( t ) | ,
Ψ k ( V ) ( r , t ) = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 exp { i ( k + A ( t ) ) r i 2 t d t ( k + A ( t ) ) 2 } ,
U V ( r t , r t ) = i ( i 2 π ( t t ) ) 3 2 e i S ( r t , r t )
S ( r t , r t ) = A ( t ) r A ( t ) r + 1 2 t t d τ A 2 ( τ ) 1 2 ( t t ) [ r r + t t d τ A ( τ ) ] 2 .
M n l m = lim t ( i ) t d τ Ψ n l m ( t ) | U V ( t , τ ) H I ( τ ) | Ψ g ( τ ) + lim t ( i ) 2 t d τ τ d τ Ψ n l m ( t ) | U ( t , τ ) V U V ( τ , τ ) H I ( τ ) | Ψ g ( τ ) .
Ψ n l m d ( r , τ ) = ϕ n l m ( r ) e i E n τ e i r A ( τ ) e i τ d τ A 2 ( τ ) / 2 ,
ϕ n l m ( r ) = N n l R n l ( r ) Y l m ( θ , φ ) , N n l = ( 2 κ n ) 3 / 2 Γ ( 2 l + 2 ) Γ ( n + l + 1 ) 2 n Γ ( n l ) , R n l ( r ) = ( 2 κ n r ) l e κ n r   1 F 1 ( n + l + 1 , 2 l + 2 , 2 κ n r ) ,
i t Ψ n l m d ( r , t ) = [ E n ϕ n l m ( r ) + A 2 ( t ) 2 ϕ n l m ( r ) + r E ( t ) ϕ n l m ( r ) ] e i E n t e i r A ( t ) e i 0 t A 2 ( τ ) 2 d τ ,
[ 1 2 2 1 r + r E ( t ) ] Ψ n l m d ( r , t ) = [ E n ϕ n l m ( r ) i ϕ n l m ( r ) A ( t ) + A 2 ( t ) 2 ϕ n l m ( r ) + r E ( t ) ϕ n l m ( r ) ] e i E n t e i r A ( t ) e i 0 t A 2 ( τ ) 2 d τ ,
[ i t + 1 2 2 + 1 r r E ( t ) ] Ψ n l m d ( r , t ) = i e i E n t e i r A ( t ) e i 0 t A 2 ( τ ) 2 d τ A ( t ) ϕ n l m ( r ) .
M n l m = ( i ) 2 d t t d t Ψ n l m d ( t ) | V U V ( t , t ) H I ( t ) | Ψ g ( t ) = ( i ) 2 d t t d t d 3 k Ψ n l m d ( t ) | V ( r ) | Ψ k ( V ) ( t ) Ψ k ( V ) ( t ) | r E ( t ) | Ψ g ( t ) .
M n l m = ( i ) 2 d t t d t d 3 k V n l m , k V k g exp [ i S n ( t , t , k ) ] ,
V k g = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 r exp { i [ k + A ( t ) ] r } r E ( t ) ψ g ( r ) = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 ( i t ) d 3 r exp { i [ k + A ( t ) ] r } ψ g ( r ) .
V n l m , k = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 r ϕ n l m ( r ) 1 r exp ( i k r ) ,
S n ( t , t , k ) = 1 2 t d τ A 2 ( τ ) 1 2 t t d τ [ k + A ( τ ) ] 2 + E n t + I p t .
ϕ n l m ( r ) = ϕ n l m + ( r ) + ϕ n l m ( r ) ,
V n l m , k = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 r r [ ϕ n l m + ( r ) e i k r + ϕ n l m ( r ) e i k r ] = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 r r [ ϕ n l m + ( r ) e i k r + ϕ n l m ( r ) e i k r ] = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 r r ϕ n l m + ( r ) [ e i k r + ( 1 ) l e i k r ] .
V n l m , k = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 ρ 1 | ρ + r n l m | ϕ ~ n l m ( ρ ) [ e i k ρ e i k r n l m + ( 1 ) l e i k ρ e i k r n l m ] .
V n l m , k e i S n ( t , t , k ) = V n l m , k + e i [ S n ( t , t , k ) + k r n l m ] + ( 1 ) l V n l m , k e i [ S n ( t , t , k ) k r n l m ] ,
V n l m , k ± = 1 ( 2 π ) 3 / 2 d 3 ρ ϕ ~ n l m ( ρ ) 1 | ρ + r n l m | e ± i k ρ .
[ k + A ( t ) ] 2 / 2 = I p ,
[ k + A ( t ) ] 2 / 2 = A 2 ( t ) / 2 + E n ,
k st ± = 1 t t t t d τ A ( τ ) ± r n l m t t = k 0 ± r n l m τ ,
r ¨ ( t ) = E ( t ) .
d z ( t ) / d t = A ( t ) A ( t 0 ) , d x ( t ) / d t = v 0 .
z ( t ) = z ( t 0 ) A ( t 0 ) ( t t 0 ) + t 0 t A ( τ ) d τ = I p E 0 sin ω t 0 E 0 ω cos ω t 0 ( t t 0 ) + E 0 ω 2 ( sin ω t sin ω t 0 ) , x ( t ) = v 0 ( t t 0 ) .
S n ( t + T , t + T , k ) = S n ( t , t , k ) + ( E n + I p + U p ) T .
S n ( t + T / 2 , t + T / 2 , k ) = S n ( t , t , k ) + ( E n + I p + U p ) T / 2.

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