Abstract

With advances in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells enabling recycling of sub-bandgap photons, a key barrier to reaching high prototype efficiencies has become radiative losses to parasitic high-emissivity regions, such as heavily doped contact regions, defects in coatings, and inactive areas. Here, we examine the impact of such radiative losses on the performance of various candidate cell materials, including GaAs, Si, InGaAsP, InGaAs, GaSb, and InGaAsSb. The ability of a TPV design to resist this performance loss is termed “radiation-sink tolerance” (RST). We show that RST is directly proportional to the spectral overlap between the absorptance profile of the cell and the emission profile of the emitter, which can be improved by adding a lower-bandgap absorber, increasing the emitter temperature, and utilizing a selective emitter. Our RST expressions can be used to estimate the efficiency of a prototypical TPV generator based on a component-level measurement.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (6)

C. Amy, H. R. Seyf, M. A. Steiner, D. J. Friedman, and A. Henry, “Thermal energy grid storage using multi-junction photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 12(1), 334–343 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Chirumamilla, G. V. Krishnamurthy, K. Knopp, T. Krekeler, M. Graf, D. Jalas, M. Ritter, M. Störmer, A. Y. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Metamaterial emitter for thermophotovoltaics stable up to 1400 °C,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 7241 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Omair, G. Scranton, L. M. Pazos-Outón, T. P. Xiao, M. A. Steiner, V. Ganapati, P. F. Peterson, J. Holzrichter, H. Atwater, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ultraefficient thermophotovoltaic power conversion by band-edge spectral filtering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 32, 201903001 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Sakakibara, V. Stelmakh, W. R. Chan, M. Ghebrebrhan, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and I. Čelanović, “Practical emitters for thermophotovoltaics: a review,” J. Photonics Energy 9(03), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Jung, L. Yu, S. Dev, D. Wasserman, and M. L. Lee, “Design and growth of multi-functional InAsP metamorphic buffers for mid-infrared quantum well lasers on InP,” J. Appl. Phys. 125(8), 082537 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. G. Baranov, Y. Xiao, I. A. Nechepurenko, A. Krasnok, A. Alù, and M. A. Kats, “Nanophotonic engineering of active and functional thermal emitters,” Nat. Mater. 18, 920–930 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

T. Burger, D. Fan, K. Lee, S. R. Forrest, and A. Lenert, “Thin-Film Architectures with High Spectral Selectivity for Thermophotovoltaic Cells,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2748–2754 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chang, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, J. Nogan, T. S. Luk, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, M. Sykora, and H. T. Chen, “High-Temperature Refractory Metasurfaces for Solar Thermophotovoltaic Energy Harvesting,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7665–7673 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Colter, B. Hagar, and S. Bedair, “Tunnel Junctions for III-V Multijunction Solar Cells Review,” Crystals 8(12), 445 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

A. Datas and P. G. Linares, “Monolithic interconnected modules (MIM) for high irradiance photovoltaic energy conversion: A comprehensive review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 73, 477–495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Lou, X. L. Zhang, A. B. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Enhanced thermal radiation conversion in a GaSb/GaInAsSb tandem thermophotovoltaic cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 172, 124–132 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. A. Pfiester and T. E. Vandervelde, “Selective emitters for thermophotovoltaic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(1), 1600410 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. M. Bierman, A. Lenert, W. R. Chan, B. Bhatia, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping,” Nat. Energy 1(6), 16068 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Mailoa, M. Lee, I. M. Peters, T. Buonassisi, A. Panchula, and D. N. Weiss, “Energy-yield prediction for II-VI-based thin-film tandem solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(8), 2644–2653 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Shimizu, A. Kohiyama, and H. Yugami, “High-efficiency solar-thermophotovoltaic system equipped with a monolithic planar selective absorber/emitter,” J. Photonics Energy 5(1), 053099 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Dong, K. Li, Y. Sun, X. Zeng, Y. He, S. Yu, and H. Yang, “InGaAsP/InGaAs tandem photovoltaic devices for four-junction solar cells,” J. Semicond. 36(4), 044011 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Datas, “Optimum semiconductor bandgaps in single junction and multijunction thermophotovoltaic converters,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 275–290 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, T. W. Hughes, and S. R. Forrest, “Non-destructive wafer recycling for low-cost thin-film flexible optoelectronics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(27), 4284–4291 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S. G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic Photonic Crystal Absorber-Emitter for Efficient Spectral Control in High-Temperature Solar Thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(12), 1400334 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lenert, Y. Nam, D. M. Bierman, and E. N. Wang, “Role of spectral non-idealities in the design of solar thermophotovoltaics,” Opt. Express 22(S6), A1604–A1618 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

V. Rinnerbauer, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “High-temperature stability and selective thermal emission of polycrystalline tantalum photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11482–11491 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Yang, R. J. Liu, L. K. Wang, Y. Lü, T. T. Li, G. X. Li, Y. T. Zhang, and B. L. Zhang, “The design and numerical analysis of tandem thermophotovoltaic cells,” Chin. Phys. B 22(10), 108402 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Cheng, K. T. Shiu, N. Li, S. J. Han, L. Shi, and D. K. Sadana, “Epitaxial lift-off process for gallium arsenide substrate reuse and flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1577 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Lee, J. D. Zimmerman, X. Xiao, K. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, “Reuse of GaAs substrates for epitaxial lift-off by employing protection layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033527 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Vizbaras, M. Törpe, S. Arafin, and M. C. Amann, “Ultra-low resistive GaSb/InAs tunnel junctions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(7), 075021 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. V. Subashiev, O. Semyonov, Z. Chen, and S. Luryi, “Urbach tail studies by luminescence filtering in moderately doped bulk InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181914 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm −1 ≤ω≤4000 cm −1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. Wernsman, R. R. Siergiej, S. D. Link, R. G. Mahorter, M. N. Palmisiano, R. J. Wehrer, R. W. Schultz, G. P. Schmuck, R. L. Messham, S. Murray, C. S. Murray, F. Newman, D. Taylor, D. M. DePoy, and T. Rahmlow, “Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator/module system using reflective spectral control,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 51(3), 512–515 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. G. Mauk and V. M. Andreev, “GaSb-related materials for TPV cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S191–S201 (2003).
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2001 (1)

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
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2000 (1)

G. Stollwerck, “Characterization and simulation of GaSb device-related properties,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(2), 448–457 (2000).
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1998 (1)

R. K. Ahrenkiel, R. Ellingson, S. Johnston, and M. Wanlass, “Recombination lifetime of In0.53Ga0.47As as a function of doping density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3470–3472 (1998).
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1997 (1)

H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, D. L. Spears, G. W. Charache, L. R. Danielson, and D. M. Depoy, “High-performance GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic devices with an AIGaAsSb window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(26), 3758–3760 (1997).
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1995 (1)

C. Ghezzi, R. Magnanini, A. Parisini, B. Rotelli, L. Tarricone, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Optical absorption near the fundamental absorption edge in GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1463–1466 (1995).
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1993 (1)

U. Strauss, W. W. Rühle, and K. Köhler, “Auger recombination in intrinsic GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(1), 55–57 (1993).
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1988 (1)

G. R. Allan, H. A. Mackenzie, J. J. Hunter, and B. S. Wherrett, “The Identification of Urbach, Acceptor Impurity, and Phonon-Assisted Components of the Optical Absorption Band Tail of n-Type InSb,” Phys. Status Solidi 149(1), 383–389 (1988).
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1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
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1983 (1)

A. Haug, “Auger recombination in InGaAsP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(6), 512–514 (1983).
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1966 (1)

V. K. Subashiev and G. A. Chalikyan, “The Absorption Spectrum of Gallium Phosphide between 2 and 3 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 13(2), K91–K96 (1966).
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1962 (1)

M. D. Sturge, “Optical absorption of gallium arsenide between 0.6 and 2.75 eV,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 768–773 (1962).
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1961 (1)

J. R. Dixon and J. M. Ellis, “Optical properties of N-type indium arsenide in the fundamental absorption edge region,” Phys. Rev. 123(5), 1560–1566 (1961).
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Ahrenkiel, R. K.

R. K. Ahrenkiel, R. Ellingson, S. Johnston, and M. Wanlass, “Recombination lifetime of In0.53Ga0.47As as a function of doping density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(26), 3470–3472 (1998).
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Allan, G. R.

G. R. Allan, H. A. Mackenzie, J. J. Hunter, and B. S. Wherrett, “The Identification of Urbach, Acceptor Impurity, and Phonon-Assisted Components of the Optical Absorption Band Tail of n-Type InSb,” Phys. Status Solidi 149(1), 383–389 (1988).
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Alù, A.

D. G. Baranov, Y. Xiao, I. A. Nechepurenko, A. Krasnok, A. Alù, and M. A. Kats, “Nanophotonic engineering of active and functional thermal emitters,” Nat. Mater. 18, 920–930 (2019).
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Amann, M. C.

K. Vizbaras, M. Törpe, S. Arafin, and M. C. Amann, “Ultra-low resistive GaSb/InAs tunnel junctions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(7), 075021 (2011).
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Amirtharaj, P. M.

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm −1 ≤ω≤4000 cm −1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
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Amy, C.

C. Amy, H. R. Seyf, M. A. Steiner, D. J. Friedman, and A. Henry, “Thermal energy grid storage using multi-junction photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 12(1), 334–343 (2019).
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Andreev, V. M.

M. G. Mauk and V. M. Andreev, “GaSb-related materials for TPV cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S191–S201 (2003).
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V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, V. D. Rumyantsev, S. V. Sorokina, and M. Z. Shvarts, “Single-junction GaSb and tandem GaSb/InGaAsSb & AlGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells,” in 28th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1265–1268.

M. Z. Shvarts, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, V. D. Rumyantsev, S. V. Sorokina, V. I. Vasil’ev, A. S. Vlasov, and O. I. Chosta, “GaSb/InGaAsSb Tandem Thermophotovoltaic Cells for Space Applications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Space Power Conference (ESPC) (1998), pp. 527–532.

Anikeev, S.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
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Arafin, S.

K. Vizbaras, M. Törpe, S. Arafin, and M. C. Amann, “Ultra-low resistive GaSb/InAs tunnel junctions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(7), 075021 (2011).
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Artacho, I.

A. Cabrera, A. Ramos, I. Artacho, M. Gomez, K. Gavin, A. Martí, and A. Datas, “Thermophotovoltaic Efficiency Measurement: Design and Analysis of a Novel Experimental Method,” in Proceedings of the 2018 12th Spanish Conference on Electron Devices, CDE 2018 (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–4.

Atwater, H.

Z. Omair, G. Scranton, L. M. Pazos-Outón, T. P. Xiao, M. A. Steiner, V. Ganapati, P. F. Peterson, J. Holzrichter, H. Atwater, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ultraefficient thermophotovoltaic power conversion by band-edge spectral filtering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 32, 201903001 (2019).
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Azad, A. K.

C. C. Chang, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, J. Nogan, T. S. Luk, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, M. Sykora, and H. T. Chen, “High-Temperature Refractory Metasurfaces for Solar Thermophotovoltaic Energy Harvesting,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7665–7673 (2018).
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Baldasaro, P.

E. Brown, P. Baldasaro, S. Burger, L. Danielson, D. DePoy, J. Dolatowski, P. Fourspring, G. Nichols, W. Topper, and T. Rahmlow, “Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corp.,” in 2nd International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

Baldasaro, P. F.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ballinger, C. T.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baranov, D. G.

D. G. Baranov, Y. Xiao, I. A. Nechepurenko, A. Krasnok, A. Alù, and M. A. Kats, “Nanophotonic engineering of active and functional thermal emitters,” Nat. Mater. 18, 920–930 (2019).
[Crossref]

Beausang, J. F.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
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Bedair, S.

P. Colter, B. Hagar, and S. Bedair, “Tunnel Junctions for III-V Multijunction Solar Cells Review,” Crystals 8(12), 445 (2018).
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Belenky, G. L.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the lift-off of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bhatia, B.

D. M. Bierman, A. Lenert, W. R. Chan, B. Bhatia, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping,” Nat. Energy 1(6), 16068 (2016).
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Bierman, D. M.

D. M. Bierman, A. Lenert, W. R. Chan, B. Bhatia, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping,” Nat. Energy 1(6), 16068 (2016).
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A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
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V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic Photonic Crystal Absorber-Emitter for Efficient Spectral Control in High-Temperature Solar Thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(12), 1400334 (2014).
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A. Lenert, Y. Nam, D. M. Bierman, and E. N. Wang, “Role of spectral non-idealities in the design of solar thermophotovoltaics,” Opt. Express 22(S6), A1604–A1618 (2014).
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Borrego, J. M.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bosacchi, A.

C. Ghezzi, R. Magnanini, A. Parisini, B. Rotelli, L. Tarricone, A. Bosacchi, and S. Franchi, “Optical absorption near the fundamental absorption edge in GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1463–1466 (1995).
[Crossref]

Brown, E.

E. Brown, P. Baldasaro, S. Burger, L. Danielson, D. DePoy, J. Dolatowski, P. Fourspring, G. Nichols, W. Topper, and T. Rahmlow, “Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corp.,” in 2nd International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

Brown, E. J.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
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Buonassisi, T.

J. P. Mailoa, M. Lee, I. M. Peters, T. Buonassisi, A. Panchula, and D. N. Weiss, “Energy-yield prediction for II-VI-based thin-film tandem solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9(8), 2644–2653 (2016).
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Burger, S.

E. Brown, P. Baldasaro, S. Burger, L. Danielson, D. DePoy, J. Dolatowski, P. Fourspring, G. Nichols, W. Topper, and T. Rahmlow, “Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corp.,” in 2nd International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004).

Burger, S. R.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
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Burger, T.

T. Burger, D. Fan, K. Lee, S. R. Forrest, and A. Lenert, “Thin-Film Architectures with High Spectral Selectivity for Thermophotovoltaic Cells,” ACS Photonics 5(7), 2748–2754 (2018).
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T. Burger, D. Fan, K. Lee, S. R. Forrest, and A. Lenert, “Thin Films for Enhanced Photon Recycle in Thermophotovoltaics,” in 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC (2018), pp. 2857–2860.

Cabrera, A.

A. Cabrera, A. Ramos, I. Artacho, M. Gomez, K. Gavin, A. Martí, and A. Datas, “Thermophotovoltaic Efficiency Measurement: Design and Analysis of a Novel Experimental Method,” in Proceedings of the 2018 12th Spanish Conference on Electron Devices, CDE 2018 (IEEE, 2018), pp. 1–4.

Celanovic, I.

R. Sakakibara, V. Stelmakh, W. R. Chan, M. Ghebrebrhan, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and I. Čelanović, “Practical emitters for thermophotovoltaics: a review,” J. Photonics Energy 9(03), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bierman, A. Lenert, W. R. Chan, B. Bhatia, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping,” Nat. Energy 1(6), 16068 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic Photonic Crystal Absorber-Emitter for Efficient Spectral Control in High-Temperature Solar Thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(12), 1400334 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S. G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
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V. Rinnerbauer, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “High-temperature stability and selective thermal emission of polycrystalline tantalum photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11482–11491 (2013).
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Chalikyan, G. A.

V. K. Subashiev and G. A. Chalikyan, “The Absorption Spectrum of Gallium Phosphide between 2 and 3 eV,” Phys. Status Solidi 13(2), K91–K96 (1966).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. R.

R. Sakakibara, V. Stelmakh, W. R. Chan, M. Ghebrebrhan, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and I. Čelanović, “Practical emitters for thermophotovoltaics: a review,” J. Photonics Energy 9(03), 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bierman, A. Lenert, W. R. Chan, B. Bhatia, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping,” Nat. Energy 1(6), 16068 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. Nam, W. R. Chan, I. Celanović, M. Soljačić, and E. N. Wang, “A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 126–130 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, A. Lenert, D. M. Bierman, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, R. D. Geil, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. N. Wang, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “Metallic Photonic Crystal Absorber-Emitter for Efficient Spectral Control in High-Temperature Solar Thermophotovoltaics,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(12), 1400334 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Rinnerbauer, Y. X. Yeng, W. R. Chan, J. J. Senkevich, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, and I. Celanovic, “High-temperature stability and selective thermal emission of polycrystalline tantalum photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11482–11491 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chandler-Horowitz, D.

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm −1 ≤ω≤4000 cm −1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, J. Nogan, T. S. Luk, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, M. Sykora, and H. T. Chen, “High-Temperature Refractory Metasurfaces for Solar Thermophotovoltaic Energy Harvesting,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7665–7673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Charache, G. W.

P. F. Baldasaro, J. E. Raynolds, G. W. Charache, D. M. DePoy, C. T. Ballinger, T. Donovan, and J. M. Borrego, “Thermodynamic analysis of thermophotovoltaic efficiency and power density tradeoffs,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3319–3327 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, D. L. Spears, G. W. Charache, L. R. Danielson, and D. M. Depoy, “High-performance GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic devices with an AIGaAsSb window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(26), 3758–3760 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

C. C. Chang, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, J. Nogan, T. S. Luk, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, M. Sykora, and H. T. Chen, “High-Temperature Refractory Metasurfaces for Solar Thermophotovoltaic Energy Harvesting,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7665–7673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

A. V. Subashiev, O. Semyonov, Z. Chen, and S. Luryi, “Urbach tail studies by luminescence filtering in moderately doped bulk InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181914 (2010).
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Cheng, C. W.

C. W. Cheng, K. T. Shiu, N. Li, S. J. Han, L. Shi, and D. K. Sadana, “Epitaxial lift-off process for gallium arsenide substrate reuse and flexible electronics,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1577 (2013).
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Chirumamilla, M.

M. Chirumamilla, G. V. Krishnamurthy, K. Knopp, T. Krekeler, M. Graf, D. Jalas, M. Ritter, M. Störmer, A. Y. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Metamaterial emitter for thermophotovoltaics stable up to 1400 °C,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 7241 (2019).
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Choi, H. K.

H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, G. W. Turner, M. J. Manfra, D. L. Spears, G. W. Charache, L. R. Danielson, and D. M. Depoy, “High-performance GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic devices with an AIGaAsSb window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(26), 3758–3760 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chosta, O. I.

M. Z. Shvarts, V. M. Andreev, V. P. Khvostikov, V. D. Rumyantsev, S. V. Sorokina, V. I. Vasil’ev, A. S. Vlasov, and O. I. Chosta, “GaSb/InGaAsSb Tandem Thermophotovoltaic Cells for Space Applications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Space Power Conference (ESPC) (1998), pp. 527–532.

Chou, J. B.

J. B. Chou, Y. X. Yeng, Y. E. Lee, A. Lenert, V. Rinnerbauer, I. Celanovic, M. Soljačić, N. X. Fang, E. N. Wang, and S. G. Kim, “Enabling ideal selective solar absorption with 2D metallic dielectric photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 8041–8045 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chubb, D. L.

C. J. Crowley, N. A. Elkouh, S. Murray, and D. L. Chubb, “Thermophotovoltaic converter performance for radioisotope power systems,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2005).

Colter, P.

P. Colter, B. Hagar, and S. Bedair, “Tunnel Junctions for III-V Multijunction Solar Cells Review,” Crystals 8(12), 445 (2018).
[Crossref]

Connors, M. K.

M. W. Dashiell, J. F. Beausang, H. Ehsani, G. J. Nichols, D. M. Depoy, L. R. Danielson, P. Talamo, K. D. Rahner, E. J. Brown, S. R. Burger, P. M. Fourspring, W. F. Topper, P. F. Baldasaro, C. A. Wang, R. K. Huang, M. K. Connors, G. W. Turner, Z. A. Shellenbarger, G. Taylor, J. Li, R. Martinelli, D. Donetski, S. Anikeev, G. L. Belenky, and S. Luryi, “Quaternary InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53(12), 2879–2891 (2006).
[Crossref]

Crowley, C. J.

C. J. Crowley, N. A. Elkouh, S. Murray, and D. L. Chubb, “Thermophotovoltaic converter performance for radioisotope power systems,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2005).

Dalvit, D. A. R.

C. C. Chang, W. J. M. Kort-Kamp, J. Nogan, T. S. Luk, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, M. Sykora, and H. T. Chen, “High-Temperature Refractory Metasurfaces for Solar Thermophotovoltaic Energy Harvesting,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7665–7673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Danielson, L.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of (a) the cylindrical TPV generator, (b) a representative interconnected module, and (c) various cell structures considered in this study (the breaks in the Si thickness indicate a thick layer).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Absolute efficiency and (b) normalized efficiency profiles of GaSb, InGaAs, GaAs, and Si single-junction cells at Te = 1800 K and γ = 0.9 as a function of k. Dashed lines are curves of best-fit according to Eq. (3) with one fitting parameter: radiation-sink tolerance (RST).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Spectral overlap between the emission spectrum of the emitter and the absorption profile of the cell for GaSb and InGaAs. (b) RST vs. spectral overlap (${\bar{\varepsilon }_{c - e}}$) of hypothetical cells. (c) RST vs. spectral overlap (${\bar{\varepsilon }_{c - e}}$) of GaSb, InGaAs, Si, and GaAs single-junction cells.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Absolute efficiency and (b) RST of GaSb- and InGaAs-based single- and dual-junction cells at Te = 1500 K and γ = 0.9. (c) The spectral overlap between the emission spectrum of the emitter and the absorption profile for GaSb- and InGaAs-based single- and dual-junction cells.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Impact of selective emission on (a) RST and (c) peak efficiency (at k = 0) of single-junction GaSb and InGaAs cells. The selective emission profile indicates the value of the emitter emissivity ($\varepsilon_e$) above and below the bandgap of the active cell. “BB (100/100)” corresponds to a blackbody emitter with $\varepsilon_e=1$ for all photon energies. Impact of emitter temperature on (b) RST and (d) peak efficiency (at k = 0) for single-junction GaSb and InGaAs cells.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Refractive Index and Extinction Coefficients profiles of (a) GaSb, (b) InGaAs, (c) GaAs, (d) Si, (e) InGaAsSb, and (f) InGaAsP.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Hemispherically averaged emissivity profiles of (a) GaSb, (b) InGaAs, (c) GaAs, (d) GaSb/InGaAsSb, (e) InGaAsP/InGaAs, and (f) Si-based TPV cells.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Squared error (δ2) of the prediction by the trained linear model relative to true RST value.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimized properties of GaSb, InGaAs, Si, and GaAs devices at Te = 1800 K and γ = 0.9.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optimized properties of GaSb- and InGaAs-based devices at Te = 1500 K and γ = 0.9.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Minimum emitter temperature (in K) required to achieve RST of 0.28.

Tables Icon

Table 4. Intrinsic concentration (ni) and recombination parameters for materials.

Equations (43)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = P o u t Q h
η ~ | k 0 = exp ( k R S T )
η ~ = 1 k ( 1 k ) + k R S T
η = P o u t Q h = P o u t Q c + Q s
η = η 0 Q c Q c + Q s
Q c = ε ¯ c e F e c J e = ε ¯ c e ( 1 k ) A e J e
Q s = ε ¯ s e F e s J e = ε ¯ s e k A e J e
ε ¯ c e = ε c ε e B e ( E ) d E ε e B e ( E ) d E
B e ( E ) = 2 π E 3 c 2 h 3 ( exp ( E k B T e ) 1 )
η = ( 1 k ) ε ¯ c e ( 1 k ) ε ¯ c e + k ε ¯ s e η o
η ~ = η η 0 = ( 1 k ) ε ¯ c e ε ¯ s e ( 1 k ) ε ¯ c e ε ¯ s e + k
η ~ | k 0 = exp ( ε ¯ s e ε ¯ c e k )
R S T ε ¯ c e ε ¯ s e
R S T = ( 1.0806 ε ¯ s e + 0.0219 γ 0.103 ε ¯ e ) ε ¯ c e
F e e = 0
F e s = k
F e c = 1 k
F s e = γ
F s s = 1 F s e F s c
F s c = ( 1 γ ) ( 1 k )
F c e = γ
F c s = ( 1 γ ) k
F c c = 1 F c e F c s
B e = 2 π E 3 c 2 h 3 ( exp ( E k B T e ) 1 )
B s = 2 π E 3 c 2 h 3 ( exp ( E k B T s ) 1 )
B c = 2 π E 3 c 2 h 3 ( exp ( E k B T c ) 1 )
J e = ε e B e + ( 1 ε e ) H e
J s = ε s B s + ( 1 ε s ) H s
J c = ε c B c + ( 1 ε c ) H c
H e = J e F e e + J s F e s + J c F e c
H s = J e F s e + J s F s s + J c F s c
H c = J e F c e + J s F c s + J c F c c
Q e = ε e A e ( B e H e )
Q s = ε s A s ( B s H s )
Q c = ε c A c ( B c H c )
ε c ( E ) = 0 2 π 0 π / π 2 2 ε c ( E , θ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ d ϕ 0 2 π 0 π / π 2 2 cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ d ϕ
J S C = q E g a ( E ) H c ( E ) E d E
J ( V ) = J s c q ( R r a d + R S R H + R A u g )
R r a d = exp ( q V k B T c ) E g ε c ( E ) B c ( E ) E d E
R S R H = L n i 2 τ S R H exp ( q V 2 k B T c )
R A u g = L ( C n + C p ) n i 3 exp ( 3 q V 2 k B T c )
P o u t = J ( V ) V
η T P V = J M P P V M P P 0 Q e ( E ) d E

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