Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of high-quality tunable terahertz (THz) vortices in an eigenmode by employing soft-aperture difference frequency generation of vortex and Gaussian modes. The generated THz vortex output exhibits a high-quality orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode with a topological charge of THz = ±1 in a frequency range of 2-6 THz. The maximum average power of the THz vortex output obtained was ∼3.3 µW at 4 THz.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (4)

E. J. Sie, C. M. Nyby, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. J. Park, X. Shen, J. Yang, M. C. Hoffmann, B. K. Ofori-Okai, R. Li, A. H. Reid, S. Weathersby, E. Mannebach, N. Finney, D. Rhodes, D. Chenet, A. Antony, L. Balicas, J. Hone, T. P. Devereaux, T. F. Heinz, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “An ultrafast symmetry switch in a Weyl semimetal,” Nature 565(7737), 61–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Luo, X. Yang, X. Liu, Z. Liu, C. Vaswani, D. Cheng, M. Mootz, X. Zhao, Y. Yao, C. Z. Wang, K. M. Ho, I. E. Perakis, M. Dobrowolska, J. K. Furdyna, and J. Wang, “Ultrafast manipulation of topologically enhanced surface transport driven by mid-infrared and terahertz pulses in Bi2Se3,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 607 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Syubaev, A. Zhizhchenko, O. Vitrikc, A. Porfirev, S. Fomchenkov, S. Khonina, S. Kudryashov, and A. Kuchmizhak, “Chirality of laser-printed plasmonic nanoneedles tunable by tailoring spiral-shape pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 470(15), 526–534 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Pinheiro da Silva, D. S. Tasca, E. F. Galvão, and A. Z. Khoury, “Astigmatic tomography of orbital-angular-momentum superpositions,” Phys. Rev. A 99(4), 043820 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y. Toda, H. Mochizuki, S. Tsuchiya, T. Kurosawa, M. Oda, T. Mertelj, and D. Mihailovic, “Nonequilibrium quasiparticle dynamics in Bi-based superconductors measured by modulation photoexcitation spectroscopy,” J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 31(3), 753–756 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kamper, H. Ta, N. A. Jensen, S. W. Hell, and S. Jakobs, “Near-infrared STED nanoscopy with an engineered bacterial phytochrome,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4762 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Araki, K. Ando, K. Miyamoto, and T. Omatsu, “Ultra-widely tunable mid-infrared (6-18 µm) optical vortex source,” Appl. Opt. 57(4), 620–624 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(8), 9417–9431 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (9)

M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum 25 years on [Invited],” Opt. Express 25(10), 11265–11274 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ge, P. Chen, Z. Shen, W. Sun, X. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Lu, “Terahertz vortex beam generator based on a photopatterned large birefringence liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 25(11), 12349–12356 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Arikawa, S. Morimoto, and K. Tanaka, “Focusing light with orbital angular momentum by circular array antenna,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13728–13735 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Ge, Z. X. Shen, P. Chen, X. Liang, X. K. Wang, W. Hu, Y. Zhang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Generating, separating and polarizing terahertz vortex beams via liquid crystals with gradient-rotation directors,” Crystals 7(10), 314 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Ni, C. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Hu, L. Yang, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, “Three-dimensional chiral microstructures fabricated by structured optical vortices in isotropic material,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(7), e17011 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Soskin, S. V. Boriskina, Y. Chong, M. R. Dennis, and A. Desyatnikov, “Singular optics and topological photonics,” J. Opt. 19(1), 010401 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stohr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Nagai, S. Aono, M. Ashida, K. Kawase, A. Irizawa, and G. Isoyama, “Luminescence induced by electrons outside zinc oxide nanoparticles driven by intense terahertz pulse trains,” New J. Phys. 19(5), 053017 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

H. Hoshina, H. Suzuki, C. Otani, M. Nagai, K. Kawase, A. Irizawa, and G. Isoyama, “Polymer Morphological Change Induced by Terahertz Irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27180 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Trichili, C. Rosales-guzmán, A. Dudley, B. Ndagano, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27674 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. C. Sidenstein, E. D’Este, M. J. Böhm, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Multicolour multilevel STED nanoscopy of actin/spectrin organization at synapses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26725 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Takahashi, K. Miyamoto, H. Hidai, K. Yamane, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21738 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Barada, G. Juman, I. Yoshida, K. Miyamoto, S. Kawata, S. Ohno, and T. Omatsu, “Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051108 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Miyamoto, B. J. Kang, W. T. Kim, Y. Sasaki, H. Niinomi, K. Suizu, F. Rotermund, and T. Omatsu, “Highly intense monocycle terahertz vortex generation by utilizing a Tsurupica spiral phase plate,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38880 (2016).
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A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
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2015 (8)

B. A. Knyazev, Y. Y. Choporova, M. S. Mitkov, V. S. Pavelyev, and B. O. Volodkin, “Generation of Terahertz Surface Plasmon Polaritons Using Nondiffractive Bessel Beams with Orbital Angular Momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(16), 163901 (2015).
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N. Oda, S. Kurashina, M. Miyoshi, K. Doi, T. Ishi, T. Sudou, T. Morimoto, H. Goto, and T. Sasaki, “Microbolometer Terahertz Focal Plane Array and Camera with Improved Sensitivity in the Sub-Terahertz Region,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 36(10), 947–960 (2015).
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Y. Iketaki, H. Kumagai, K. Jahn, and N. Bokor, “Creation of a three-dimensional spherical fluorescence spot for super-resolution microscopy using a two-color annular hybrid wave plate,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1057–1060 (2015).
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M.-T. Horikawa, A. Ogawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Yusufu, and T. Omatsu, “Handedness control in a tunable midinfrared (6.0-12.5um) vortex laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(12), 2406–2410 (2015).
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M. Watabe, G. Juman, K. Miyamoto, and T. Omatsu, “Light induced conch-shaped relief in an azo-polymer film,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4281 (2015).
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M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Miller, R. W. Chhajlany, L. Tagliacozzo, B. Green, S. Kovalev, D. Prabhakaran, M. Lewenstein, M. Gensch, and S. Wall, “Terahertz field control of in-plane orbital order in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8175 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospect of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (12)

K. Miyamoto, A. Lee, T. Saito, T. Akiba, K. Suizu, and T. Omatsu, “Broadband terahertz light source pumped by a 1 µm picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(3), 321–326 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Li and Z. Wang, “Generation of optical vortex based on computer-generated holographic gratings by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141110 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Yusufu, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, and T. Omatsu, “Handedness control in a 2-µm optical vortex parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23604–23610 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a Spining Object Using Light’s Orbital Anglar Momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Shigematsu, Y. Toda, K. Yamane, and R. Morita, “Orbital Angular Momentum Spectral Dynamics of GaN Excitons Excited by Optical Vortices Orbital Angular Momentum Spectral Dynamics of GaN Excitons Excited by Optical Vortices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL08 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Toyoda, F. Takahashi, S. Takizawa, Y. Tokizane, K. Miyamoto, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Transfer of light helicity to nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(14), 143603 (2013).
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I. Heller, G. Sitters, O. D. Broekmans, G. Farge, C. Menges, W. Wende, S. W. Hell, E. J. G. Peterman, and G. J. L. Wuite, “STED nanoscopy combined with optical tweezers reveals protein dynamics on densely covered DNA,” Nat. Methods 10(9), 910–916 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. A. Litvin, A. Dudley, F. S. Roux, and A. Forbes, “Azimuthal decomposition with digital holograms,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10996–11004 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tanaka, H. Hirori, and M. Nagai, “THz Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Solids,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 301–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Nature of the Orbital Angular Momentum of a Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 053601 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(5), 826–829 (1995).
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1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-Wave-Front Laser-Beams Produced With a Spiral Phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akiba, T.

K. Miyamoto, K. Suizu, T. Akiba, and T. Omatsu, “Direct observation of the topological charge of a terahertz vortex beam generated by a Tsurupica spiral phase plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 261104 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Miyamoto, A. Lee, T. Saito, T. Akiba, K. Suizu, and T. Omatsu, “Broadband terahertz light source pumped by a 1 µm picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 110(3), 321–326 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Nature of the Orbital Angular Momentum of a Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 053601 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Alpmann, C.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
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Ando, K.

Andrews, D. L.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
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Antony, A.

E. J. Sie, C. M. Nyby, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. J. Park, X. Shen, J. Yang, M. C. Hoffmann, B. K. Ofori-Okai, R. Li, A. H. Reid, S. Weathersby, E. Mannebach, N. Finney, D. Rhodes, D. Chenet, A. Antony, L. Balicas, J. Hone, T. P. Devereaux, T. F. Heinz, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “An ultrafast symmetry switch in a Weyl semimetal,” Nature 565(7737), 61–66 (2019).
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Aoki, N.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Omatsu, K. Chujo, K. Miyamoto, M. Okida, K. Nakamura, N. Aoki, and R. Morita, “Metal microneedle fabrication using twisted light with spin,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17967–17973 (2010).
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Aono, S.

M. Nagai, S. Aono, M. Ashida, K. Kawase, A. Irizawa, and G. Isoyama, “Luminescence induced by electrons outside zinc oxide nanoparticles driven by intense terahertz pulse trains,” New J. Phys. 19(5), 053017 (2017).
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Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stohr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Araki, S.

Arikawa, T.

Arita, Y.

Y. Arita, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2374 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ashida, M.

M. Nagai, S. Aono, M. Ashida, K. Kawase, A. Irizawa, and G. Isoyama, “Luminescence induced by electrons outside zinc oxide nanoparticles driven by intense terahertz pulse trains,” New J. Phys. 19(5), 053017 (2017).
[Crossref]

Axel Zeitler, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stohr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baek, I. H.

Baker, M.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balicas, L.

E. J. Sie, C. M. Nyby, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. J. Park, X. Shen, J. Yang, M. C. Hoffmann, B. K. Ofori-Okai, R. Li, A. H. Reid, S. Weathersby, E. Mannebach, N. Finney, D. Rhodes, D. Chenet, A. Antony, L. Balicas, J. Hone, T. P. Devereaux, T. F. Heinz, X. Wang, and A. M. Lindenberg, “An ultrafast symmetry switch in a Weyl semimetal,” Nature 565(7737), 61–66 (2019).
[Crossref]

Banerji, J.

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barada, D.

D. Barada, G. Juman, I. Yoshida, K. Miyamoto, S. Kawata, S. Ohno, and T. Omatsu, “Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a Spining Object Using Light’s Orbital Anglar Momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, T.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-Wave-Front Laser-Beams Produced With a Spiral Phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Belmonte, A.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Belov, V. N.

S. C. Sidenstein, E. D’Este, M. J. Böhm, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Multicolour multilevel STED nanoscopy of actin/spectrin organization at synapses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26725 (2016).
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Ben Salem, A.

A. Trichili, C. Rosales-guzmán, A. Dudley, B. Ndagano, A. Ben Salem, M. Zghal, and A. Forbes, “Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27674 (2016).
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Berry, M. V.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bigelow, N. P.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, F.

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Böhm, M. J.

S. C. Sidenstein, E. D’Este, M. J. Böhm, J. G. Danzl, V. N. Belov, and S. W. Hell, “Multicolour multilevel STED nanoscopy of actin/spectrin organization at synapses,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 26725 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bokor, N.

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stohr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Boriskina, S. V.

M. Soskin, S. V. Boriskina, Y. Chong, M. R. Dennis, and A. Desyatnikov, “Singular optics and topological photonics,” J. Opt. 19(1), 010401 (2017).
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Boyd, R. W.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brasselet, E.

Broekmans, O. D.

I. Heller, G. Sitters, O. D. Broekmans, G. Farge, C. Menges, W. Wende, S. W. Hell, E. J. G. Peterman, and G. J. L. Wuite, “STED nanoscopy combined with optical tweezers reveals protein dynamics on densely covered DNA,” Nat. Methods 10(9), 910–916 (2013).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental setup for tunable THz vortex generation based on 1.5 µm dual wavelength pumped DFG. (b) Spatial profile of OPA1 output with a wavelength λ1, of 1.56 µm. (c) Spatial profile of OPA2 output with wavelength λ2. λ2 was tuned in the wavelength range of 1.50-1.64 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Tunability of Gaussian output from OPA2. The broken line shows the lasing wavelength of the vortex output from OPA1. (b) Frequency tunability of the THz vortex output from DAST-DFG. The red and blue circles represent experimental plots with a topological charge of THz = ±1. (c) Average power of the THz vortex at the 4 THz output as a function of the 1.5 µm dual-wavelength incident power.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental (a, b) far- and (d, e) near-fields of the 4 THz vortex outputs with THz = ±1 generated from the present system. Experimental (c) far- and (f) near-fields of the 4 THz vortex output with THz = 1 produced with the Tsurupica-SPP. (g-i) Spatial forms of the focused 4 THz vortex outputs with an inclined lens.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Spatial forms of the THz vortex outputs with a topological charge of  = ±1 at frequencies of 2, 3, 5 and 6 THz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Soft-aperture effect via DFG to produce a high purity THz vortex output. (b) Simulated component ratios of the vortex outputs with =1 generated from the SPP and DFG as a function of the radial index, p. The undesired higher-order radial modes are suppressed in the vortex output generated from the DFG due to soft-aperture effects.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Simulated spatial forms of (a) a pure LG0,1 mode, (b) optical vortex output produced by the SPP and (c) vortex mode generated by DFG.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Spatial distributions of the DFG output at 4 THz when the diameters of the pump beams were (a) ∼170 µm and (b) less than 60 µm. [Note that (a) is the same as presented in Fig. 3(a)].
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a, b) Far-fields of the 4 THz vortex outputs with THz = ±2 generated from the soft-aperture DFG. (c, g) Spatial forms of 4 THz vortex outputs focused by an inclined lens.

Equations (6)

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T H z = ( O P A 1 O P A 2 ) λ O P A 2 λ O P A 1 | λ O P A 2 λ O P A 1 | ,
u v o r t e x ( r , ϕ , ω ) = c 0 e i ϕ e r 2 ω 2 = p a p , u p , L G ( r , ϕ , ω ) ,
u p , L G ( r , ϕ , ω ) = c p , L p | | ( 2 r 2 ω 2 ) ( 2 r ω ) | | e i ϕ e r 2 ω 2 ,
η p , = | a p , | 2 = | u p , L G u v o r t e x r d r d ϕ | 2 . .
u D F G ( r , ϕ , ω 1 , ω 2 ) ( p a p , u p , L G ( r , ϕ , ω 1 ) e i ( 2 p + ) π 2 ) e r 2 ω 2 2 ,
η 0 , D F G ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) = | u 0 , L G ( r , ϕ , ω D F G ) u D F G ( r , ϕ , ω 1 , ω 2 ) r d r d ϕ | 2 ,