Abstract

We experimentally study the pressure dependent high harmonic generation (HHG) from Argon in a semi-infinite gas cell. A spatio-temporal model considering the time dependent radial variation of the ionization rate, quantum diffusion, and phase mismatch is proposed. It is used to predict the relationship between the gas pressure and photon flux of high harmonics form Argon in experiments. Good consistence is found between the theoretical prediction and the experimental data over 11 odd order harmonics when the gas pressure varies from 30 mbar to 200 mbar. The comparison between our model and simplified on-axis HHG model proves that the radial and temporal variations of experimental parameters are able to significantly modify the phase-matching condition and the origin of observable HHG. We also find at the optimal gas pressure (e.g. 150 mbar @ 27th harmonic), most of the observable HHG radiation (∼82%) comes from a condensed capsule-like spatial volume (∼4.17%) within the laser and gas interaction region, where the transient phase-matching condition is satisfied. Therefore, the quick numerical calculation within such small spatio-temporal volume can be used as an efficient guidance to search the optimal gas pressure in experiment. The spatio-temporal dependence of the observable HHG radiation also hints the existence of time dependent spatial chirp among the different attosecond pulses generated by a multi-cycle driving laser.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (2)

2017 (1)

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. T. Le, H. Wei, C. Jin, and C. D. Lin, “Strong-field approximation and its extension for high-order harmonic generation with mid-infrared lasers,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(5), 053001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight foxusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16(3), 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, C. Hutchison, T. Witting, F. Frank, S. Weber, W. A. Okell, E. Fiordilino, D. Cricchio, F. Persico, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in fullerenes using few- and multi-cycle pulses of different wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 7–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lai, G. Cirmi, K. H. Hong, J. Moses, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, P. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation close to the multiphoton ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. H. Wu, P. R. Bolton, J. B. Murphy, and X. M. Zhong, “Free electron laser seeded by IR laser driven high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021109 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x ray by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 66(2), 021802 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. Dasilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 51(2), R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ajor, B. M.

Alogh, E. B.

Altucci, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Arcus, G. M.

Arjú, K. V.

Arnold, C. L.

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bartz, P.

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, S.

C. J. Lai, G. Cirmi, K. H. Hong, J. Moses, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, P. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation close to the multiphoton ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blanc, C. L.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bolton, P. R.

J. H. Wu, P. R. Bolton, J. B. Murphy, and X. M. Zhong, “Free electron laser seeded by IR laser driven high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brizuela, F.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Campi, F.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carva, K.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z. H.

Chen, C.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

Chini, M.

Cirmi, G.

C. J. Lai, G. Cirmi, K. H. Hong, J. Moses, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, P. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation close to the multiphoton ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Crane, J. K.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. Dasilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 51(2), R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cricchio, D.

Dachraoui, H.

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dahlström, J. M.

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C. J. Lai, G. Cirmi, K. H. Hong, J. Moses, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, P. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation close to the multiphoton ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 073901 (2013).
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T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
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A. T. Le, H. Wei, C. Jin, and C. D. Lin, “Strong-field approximation and its extension for high-order harmonic generation with mid-infrared lasers,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(5), 053001 (2016).
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E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
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Mills, B.

Miloševic, D. B.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moses, J.

C. J. Lai, G. Cirmi, K. H. Hong, J. Moses, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, P. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation close to the multiphoton ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mueller, N.

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. W. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C. C. Chen, J. W. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22470–22479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Murphy, J. B.

J. H. Wu, P. R. Bolton, J. B. Murphy, and X. M. Zhong, “Free electron laser seeded by IR laser driven high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x ray by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 66(2), 021802 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. Dasilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 51(2), R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Obara, M.

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x ray by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 66(2), 021802 (2002).
[Crossref]

Okell, W. A.

Oppeneer, P. M.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Osa, V. T.

Otsuka, T.

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x ray by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 66(2), 021802 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ovács, K. K.

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. Dasilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 51(2), R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref]

Persico, F.

Persson, A.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, W.

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Poletto, L.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, T.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Praeger, M.

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Y.

Rading, L.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rakowski, R.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raymondson, D. A.

Rogers, E. T. F.

Rong, L.

Rothhardt, J.

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight foxusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16(3), 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rudawski, P.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salieres, P.

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schlotter, W. F.

Schwenke, J.

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seaberg, M. D.

Shpyrko, O. G.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, S. D.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stebbings, S. L.

Takahashi, E.

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x ray by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 66(2), 021802 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Townsend, E. L.

Tünnermann, A.

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight foxusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16(3), 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. F.

L. F. Wang, W. M. Zhu, H. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Spectrum modification of high-order harmonic generation in a gas mixture of Ar and Kr,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(4), A39–A44 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. W.

Weber, S.

Wei, H.

A. T. Le, H. Wei, C. Jin, and C. D. Lin, “Strong-field approximation and its extension for high-order harmonic generation with mid-infrared lasers,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(5), 053001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. Y.

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

Witting, T.

Wu, J. H.

J. H. Wu, P. R. Bolton, J. B. Murphy, and X. M. Zhong, “Free electron laser seeded by IR laser driven high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Yang, Y. J.

Yun, C. X.

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zaïr, A.

Zallas, P. T.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, W.

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, K.

Zhong, X. M.

J. H. Wu, P. R. Bolton, J. B. Murphy, and X. M. Zhong, “Free electron laser seeded by IR laser driven high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W. M.

Zusin, D.

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

L. F. Wang, X. K. He, H. Teng, C. X. Yun, W. Zhang, and Z. Y. Wei, “Optimization of few-cycle laser pulse pumped high-order harmonic generation at 60–70 eV by changing the gas pressure,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 121(1), 81–85 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. H. Wu, P. R. Bolton, J. B. Murphy, and X. M. Zhong, “Free electron laser seeded by IR laser driven high-order harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 021109 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (5)

A. T. Le, H. Wei, C. Jin, and C. D. Lin, “Strong-field approximation and its extension for high-order harmonic generation with mid-infrared lasers,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(5), 053001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Dachraoui, T. Auguste, A. Helmstedt, P. Bartz, M. Michelswirth, N. Mueller, W. Pfeiffer, P. Salieres, and U. Heinzmann, “Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(17), 175402 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, C. L. Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high-order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dahlström, A. L’Huillier, and A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(18), 183001 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight foxusing regime,” New J. Phys. 16(3), 033022 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. (5)

P. Balcou, P. Salieres, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nguyen, L. B. Dasilva, and M. D. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 51(2), R902–R905 (1995).
[Crossref]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x ray by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 66(2), 021802 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. D. Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys. 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mevel, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimization high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lai, G. Cirmi, K. H. Hong, J. Moses, S. W. Huang, E. Granados, P. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, and F. X. Kärtner, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation close to the multiphoton ionization regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

T. T. Fan, P. Grychtol, R. Kunt, C. H. Garcia, D. D. Hickstein, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, F. J. Dollar, C. A. Mancuso, C. W. Hogle, O. Kfir, D. Legut, K. Carva, J. L. Ellis, K. M. Dorney, C. Chen, O. G. Shpyrko, E. E. Fullerton, O. Cohen, P. M. Oppeneer, D. B. Milošević, A. Becker, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14206–14211 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Rudawski, C. M. Heyl, F. Brizuela, J. Schwenke, A. Persson, E. Mansten, R. Rakowski, L. Rading, F. Campi, B. Kim, P. Johnsson, and A. L’Huillier, “A high-flux high-order harmonic source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(7), 073103 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental HHG spectra from Ar gas pressure varied from 30 mbar to 200 mbar.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Flux of individual harmonics from 23rd to 43rd order generated from Ar with varied backing pressure form 30 mbar to 200 mbar predicted by numerical simulation using 1D on-axis model M1 in [13], model M2 in [18], proposed model M3 in this paper and observed in experiments using a 1.2 mJ, 30 fs, 800 nm laser pulse.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Distribution of 27th order HHG flux (log scale) in terms of radial position (r) and ionization time (ti) for p = 150 mbar. (b) The radial distribution of 27th order HHG flux within the half time cycle of [-13.2 -13.0] fs (marked as purple rectangle in (a)). The green box shows the contribution of phase-matching HHG ${ {|\Delta \varphi } |_{3{L_{abs}}}}|\le \pi $. The sharp drop of HHG flux is around 33 µm, beyond which the laser intensity is too weak to generate targeted harmonic. (c) Calculated 27th HHG intensity with respect to the backing pressure. The red line and the blue line show the total HHG flux and phase-matching HHG intensity respectively. The percentage of phase-matching HHG to the total HHG at 115 mbar, 120 mbar, 150 mbar and 200 mbar are labeled.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Flux distribution of phase-matching ($|{\Delta \varphi {|_{3{L_{abs}}}}} |\le \pi $) 27th harmonic with respect to the radial position (r) and ionization time (ti) for different gas pressures. The radial ranges of 27th harmonic generated in the first two half cycles of driving laser are labeled in the insert.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Illustration of multi-layer capsule structure of 27th HHG under perfect phase-matching. (b) Enlarged HHG structure in (a). (c) Dynamics of HHG generation. Each layer represents a HHG pulse (marked with different colors) is generated within different half time cycles of the driving laser pulse.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( r , t ) | z 0 z 0 + L m e d ρ ( z , r , t i ) A ( z , r , t i ) e x p [ L m e d z 2 L a b s ( P ) ] e x p [ i φ ( z , r , t i ) ] d z | 2 .
φ ( z , r , t i ) = φ 0 + Δ k ( z , r , t i ) ( L m e d z )
I a l l + d t 0 + 2 π r d r { p [ 1 η ( z c , r , t i ) ] } 2 w ( z c , r , t i ) / τ 3 ( z c , r , t i ) × [ 4 L a b s 2 1 + 4 π 2 ( L a b s 2 / L c o h 2 ( z c , r t i ) ) ] × [ 1 + exp ( L m e d L a b s ) 2 cos ( π L m e d L c o h ) exp ( L m e d 2 L a b s ) ] }
L c o h π Δ k ( z , r , t i )
L m e d = 3 L a b s ( P )

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