Abstract

The light field display can provide vivid and natural 3D performance, which can find many applications, such as relics research and exhibition. However, current light field displays are constrained by the viewing angle, which cannot meet the expectations. With three groups directional backlights and a fast-switching LCD panel, a time-multiplexed light field display with a 120-degree wide viewing angle is demonstrated. Up to 192 views are constructed within the viewing range to ensure the right geometric occlusion and smooth parallax motion. Clear 3D images can be perceived at the entire range of viewing angle. Additionally, the designed holographic functional screen is used to recompose the light distribution and the compound aspheric lens array is optimized to balance the aberrations and improve the 3D display quality. Experimental results verify that the proposed light field display has the capability to present realistic 3D images of historical relics in 120-degree wide viewing angle.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (7)

B. J. Jackin, L. Jorissen, R. Oi, J. Y. Wu, K. Wakunami, M. Okui, Y. Ichihashi, P. Bekaert, Y. P. Huang, and K. Yamamoto, “Digitally designed holographic optical element for light field displays,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3738–3741 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Yao, D. Cheng, T. Yang, and Y. Wang, “Design of an optical see-through light-field near-eye display using a discrete lenslet array,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18292–18301 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Yang, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Ni, Z. Li, H. Li, and X. Liu, “360-degree large-scale multiprojection light-field 3D display system,” Appl. Opt. 57(8), 1817–1823 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Huang and H. Hua, “Systematic characterization and optimization of 3D light field displays,” Opt. Express 25(16), 18508–18525 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balram, N.

N. Balram and I. Tosic, “Light-field imaging and display systems,” Inf. Disp. 32(4), 6–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bekaert, P.

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Zeng, S. Xie, and N. Guo, “Performance improvement of compressive light field display with the viewing-position-dependent weight distribution,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29781–29793 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhao, Z. Fan, and H. Liao, “360 degree crosstalk-free viewable 3D display based on multiplexed light field: theory and experiments,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(11), 1309–1318 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao, B. Su, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “360 degree viewable floating autostereoscopic display using integral photography and multiple semitransparent mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9812–9823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, D.

Cheng, Q.

Choi, S.

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dou, W.

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fan, F. C.

Fan, Z.

G. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhao, Z. Fan, and H. Liao, “360 degree crosstalk-free viewable 3D display based on multiplexed light field: theory and experiments,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(11), 1309–1318 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

Guo, N.

Hua, H.

Huang, H.

Huang, Y. P.

Ichihashi, Y.

Jackin, B. J.

Jiang, C. C.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jorissen, L.

Li, H.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liao, H.

G. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhao, Z. Fan, and H. Liao, “360 degree crosstalk-free viewable 3D display based on multiplexed light field: theory and experiments,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(11), 1309–1318 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao, B. Su, G. Chen, and H. Liao, “360 degree viewable floating autostereoscopic display using integral photography and multiple semitransparent mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9812–9823 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

Liu, B.

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Ma, C.

G. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhao, Z. Fan, and H. Liao, “360 degree crosstalk-free viewable 3D display based on multiplexed light field: theory and experiments,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(11), 1309–1318 (2016).
[Crossref]

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ni, L.

Oi, R.

Okui, M.

Peng, Y.

Sang, X.

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Yang, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Zeng, S. Xie, and N. Guo, “Performance improvement of compressive light field display with the viewing-position-dependent weight distribution,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29781–29793 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, J. Yuan, F. C. Fan, C. C. Jiang, S. Choi, X. Sang, C. Lin, and D. Xu, “The modulation function and realizing method of holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27820–27826 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, W.

Song, W.

Su, B.

Su, C.

Surman, P.

Takaki, Y.

Tosic, I.

N. Balram and I. Tosic, “Light-field imaging and display systems,” Inf. Disp. 32(4), 6–13 (2016).
[Crossref]

Uchida, S.

Wakunami, K.

Wang, H.

Wang, K.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Yang, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Wu, J. Y.

Wu, Y.

Xia, X.

Xie, S.

Xing, S.

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

Yan, B.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Yang, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

Yang, L.

Yang, Q.

Yang, S.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

Yao, C.

Yoshida, S.

Yu, C.

Yu, X.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Yang, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction,” Opt. Express 26(26), 34412–34427 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, X. Sang, X. Yu, P. Wang, S. Xing, D. Chen, B. Yan, K. Wang, and C. Yu, “Wide field of view tabletop light field display based on piece-wise tracking and off-axis pickup,” Opt. Commun. 402, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Zeng, S. Xie, and N. Guo, “Performance improvement of compressive light field display with the viewing-position-dependent weight distribution,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29781–29793 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, S. Xing, T. Zhao, D. Chen, Y. Cai, B. Yan, K. Wang, C. Yu, and W. Dou, “Natural three-dimensional display with smooth motion parallax using active partially pixelated masks,” Opt. Commun. 313, 146–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, X. Sang, D. Chen, P. Wang, X. Gao, T. Zhao, B. Yan, C. Yu, D. Xu, and W. Dou, “Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display with high dense views and the narrow structure pitch,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 060008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

Zeng, X.

Zhao, D.

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This video shows the 3D display result of the ancient Buddha statue. It shows that a natural and realistic 3D image can be perceived in a wide viewing angle of 120°. The motion parallax is continuous and smooth. We can clearly see the details of the
» Visualization 2       This video shows a 3D display of a group of Tri-colored glazed potteries in the Tang Dynasty. The colors of the potteries are realistically reverted and the relative position occlusions of different potteries can be clearly perceived.
» Visualization 3       This video show an interactive dynamic 3D display of an ancient Bronze Drinking Vessel, the rotation and zoom operation are controlled through the mouse drag and wheel respectively.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The schematic diagram of the proposed light-field display. (b) The structure of a MDBU.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The simulation result of the wavelength dispersion in the MDBU.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The viewpoints construction process of (a) the central viewing zone, (b) the right viewing zone and (c) the left viewing zone. (d) The construction process of the DC
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The sub-pixels’ arrangement in an image unit.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time sequence diagram of the CM.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The process of light field pickup and the formation of synthesized images.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Illustration of the modulation function of HFS. (a) Schematic diagram of the HFS modulation of thin light beams under the time-multiplexing way. (b) Comparison of the light intensity distribution before and after being modulated by HFS. (c) Comparison of the observed 3D image in the same position without and with HFS. (d) The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the HFS surface.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The optimized structure and corresponding parameters for the compound aspheric lens. (b) Comparison of modulation transfer function for the optimized compound aspheric lens and the standard lens.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) The reproduced 3D image with the standard lens array. (b) The reproduced 3D image with the optimized compound aspheric lens array
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. 3D light field display result of the ancient Buddha statue (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. 3D light field display of a group of Tri-colored glazed potteries in the Tang Dynasty (see Visualization 2).
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Interactive dynamic 3D display of an ancient Bronze Drinking Vessel (see Visualization 3).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Configuration of experiments

Equations (3)

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N = [ ( l 1 ) 3 × ( l 1 ) × tan θ + ( k 1 ) ] mod w w / w N t N t
Ω = Ω C + Ω L + Ω R = n = 1 N ω n C + n = 1 N ω n L + n = 1 N ω n R
z = c r 2 1 + 1 ( 1 + k ) c 2 r 2 + a 2 r 2 + a 4 r 4 + a 6 r 6 +

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