Abstract

Controlling diffracted waves has attracted extensive research interests these last years particularly for the potential application of beaming functionality. In this paper, we propose to realize on-axis beaming of diffracted electromagnetic waves by using a phase- gradient metasurface. The structure is optimally designed in order to transform surface waves to propagating waves and to enhance transmission through a subwavelength aperture. Both numerical simulations and near-field measurements are performed at microwave frequencies to validate the proposed concept. Furthermore, the metasurface is frequency-tunable and can be controlled by an external DC bias voltage. Consequently, by adjusting the electromagnetic response of each unit cell through the bias voltage, different phase gradients can be tailored, enabling broadband operation spanning from 9 GHz to 12 GHz.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Beaming of electromagnetic waves emitted through a subwavelength annular aperture

Humeyra Caglayan, Irfan Bulu, and Ekmel Ozbay
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(3) 419-422 (2006)

Flat metasurfaces to collimate electromagnetic waves with high efficiency

Hua Zhu, Tao Xu, Zhuo Wang, Junhao Li, Zhihong Hang, Lei Zhou, Shuqi Chen, Xun Li, and Lin Chen
Opt. Express 26(22) 28531-28543 (2018)

Reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas

Badreddine Ratni, André de Lustrac, Gérard-Pascal Piau, and Shah Nawaz Burokur
Opt. Express 26(3) 2613-2624 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon, “Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning,” Science 324(5929), 917–921 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2613–2624 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (4)

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon, “Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning,” Science 324(5929), 917–921 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Andrew, T. L.

T. L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon, “Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning,” Science 324(5929), 917–921 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V. S.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baena, J. D.

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belov, P. A.

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[Crossref]

Burokur, S. N.

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2613–2624 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chan, K.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheah, K. W.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Lustrac, A.

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2613–2624 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Degiron, A.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Del Risco, J. P.

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Díaz-Rubio, A.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Elsakka, A.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

Enoch, S.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Glybovski, S. B.

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guan, C.

Guo, Q.

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hibbins, A. P.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, C. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, K. F.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lockyear, M. J.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

T. L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon, “Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning,” Science 324(5929), 917–921 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nevière, M.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

Piau, G.-P.

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2613–2624 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Popov, E.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ratni, B.

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Reconfigurable meta-mirror for wavefronts control: applications to microwave antennas,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2613–2624 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reinisch, R.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slobozhanyuk, A. P.

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, Q.

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, K.

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thio, T.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S. A.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H.-Y.

T. L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon, “Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning,” Science 324(5929), 917–921 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weiner, J.

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wen, D.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wong, P. W. H.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. J.

J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yue, F.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yue Bun Pun, E.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, H. C.

J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Y. Wang, C. Guan, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Multi-focus hologram utilizing pancharatnam–berry phase elements based metamirror,” Opt. Lett. 44(9), 2189–2192 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “High efficiency metalenses with switchable functionalities in microwave region,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(31), 28423–28430 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Z. Wang, X. Ding, K. Zhang, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, X. Gu, and Q. Wu, “Huygens metasurface holograms with the modulation of focal energy distribution,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(12), 1800121 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Ratni, A. de Lustrac, G.-P. Piau, and S. N. Burokur, “Electronic control of linear-to-circular polarization conversion using a reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(21), 214101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. J. Xu, H. C. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Efficient conversion of surface-plasmon-like modes to spatial radiated modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Lockyear, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, “Surface-topography-induced enhanced transmission and directivity of microwave radiation through a subwavelength circular metal aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2040–2042 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

Q. Tan, Q. Guo, H. Liu, X. Huang, and S. Zhang, “Controlling the plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining the geometric and dynamic phases,” Nanoscale 9(15), 4944–4949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Yue Bun Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

Y. Yuan, K. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, and Q. Wu, “Complementary transmissive ultra-thin meta-deflectors for broadband polarization-independent refractions in the microwave region,” Photonics Res. 7(1), 80–88 (2019).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. P. Del Risco, A. P. Slobozhanyuk, S. B. Glybovski, and P. A. Belov, “Self-complementary metasurfaces for linear-to-circular polarization conversion,” Phys. Rev. B 92(24), 245413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Sci. Adv. 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Zhu, X. Yin, L. Chen, and X. Li, “Directional beaming of light from a subwavelength metal slit with phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 12098 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon, “Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning,” Science 324(5929), 917–921 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustrating the beaming of electromagnetic waves through a subwavelength aperture flanked by phase-gradient metasurfaces on both sides. The illuminating incident wave is diffracted from the aperture to be converted into surface wave propagating along the metasurface with a propagating constant $k_{sw}$. An appropriate phase gradient $\frac {d\phi }{dx}$ along the metasurfaces allows to compensate the momentum mismatch for efficient surface to propagating wave transformation and thus enabling beam radiation in a specific direction.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulation results showing the conversion of diffracted waves into surface waves when an electromagnetic wave illuminates a subwavelength aperture flanked by two metasurfaces with constant phase that does not allow compensating the momentum mismatch for surface to propagating wave conversion.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic principle of the setup used to show beaming phenomenon. A subwavelength aperture is flanked by two phase-gradient metasurfaces. The metasurfaces are composed of five supercells having each three unit cells. Inset shows the design of the elementary cell composing the metasurface, where geometrical dimensions are: p = 6 mm, w = 0.5 mm and g = 1.9 mm. (b)-(c) Numerical and experimental reflection coefficient responses in magnitude and phase for different capacitance values used in simulations and their corresponding applied DC bias voltages used in measurements.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic view of the simulated supercell under the illumination of an incident plane wave. (b) Optimized phase gradient for configurations A to D that correspond to the working frequencies of 9 GHz, 10 GHz, 11 GHz and 12 GHz, respectively. (c) Reflection coefficient curves of the simulated supercells for each configuration (A to D) under different incident angles. The reflection dip indicates that incident electromagnetic wave is coupled into surface wave.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Photography of the fabricated prototype using microwave printed circuit board technique. (a) Top face of the device showing the microstrip lines and varactor diodes. (b) Bottom face showing the ground plane with a subwavelength aperture of width 2.2 mm. The varactor diodes are reversely biased using DC voltage through an electronic control system.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Simulated and (b) measured electric field intensity distributions in the $xoz$ plane when no phase gradient is applied to the metasurfaces. A classical diffraction phenomenon is observed.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Simulated and measured electric field intensity distributions in the $xoz$ plane. (a) Phase gradient having the same direction as the propagation constant of the surface wave is applied and therefore the surface wave is bounded on the metasurfaces and is gradually diffracted without directivity. (b)-(e) Different configurations (A to D) of phase-gradient metasurfaces for operating frequencies of 9 GHz, 10 GHz, 11 GHz and 12 GHz are applied (phase gradient opposite to the propagation constant of the surface wave) to compensate the momentum mismatch for efficient conversion of surface to propagating wave for electromagnetic waves beaming through a subwavelength aperture.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the different phase-gradient configurations used for the validation of electromagnetic waves beaming

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k t sin ( θ t ) k i sin ( θ i ) = d ϕ d x
k 0 sin ( θ ) k s w = d ϕ d x

Metrics