Abstract

We present a continuously tunable thulium(Tm)-doped fiber laser operating in the important 2.1 μm region, which is tandem-pumped by another Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm. The advantages of pumping a Tm-doped fiber laser at the long-wavelength absorption tail (>1900 nm) of the fiber include a reduced quantum-defect, and efficient suppression of the amplified spontaneous noise (and potential parasitic lasing) at the short-wavelength region. This facilitates attainment of stable lasing operation in the long-wave emission tail of the Tm fiber at ~2.1 μm. By rotating a diffraction grating inside the Tm fiber laser cavity, we experimentally achieved a wavelength-tuning range of 2000-2172 nm. At central wavelengths of 2050 nm, 2150 nm, and 2172 nm, the slope efficiencies were 23%, 16%, and 9.9%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of long-wavelength operation of a Tm fiber laser system tandem-pumped at >1900 nm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power widely tunable Tm:fibre lasers pumped by an Er,Yb co-doped fibre laser at 1.6 μm,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6084–6090 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. E. Johnson, “Use of the holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 213–218 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, S. U.

Alam, S.-U.

Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrés, M. V.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

Augere, B.

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. R.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

Barua, P.

Boyland, A. J.

Bravo-Huerta, E.

Byer, R. L.

Cariou, J. P.

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carman, R. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Carter, A.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chicklis, E. P.

Clarkson, W. A.

Creeden, D.

Cruz, J. L.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

Daniel, J. M. O.

David, D.

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dawes, J. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Durán-Sánchez, M.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichhorn, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M.

Gong, M.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1989–1991 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Haub, J.

A. Hemming, N. Simakov, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(6), 621–630 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, W. A. Clarkson, J. Haub, and A. Carter, “A cladding-pumped, tunable holmium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28415–28422 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidt, A. M.

Hemming, A.

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

Ibarra-Escamilla, B.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibsen, M.

Jackson, S. D.

Jiang, J.

Jin, X.

Johnson, B. R.

Johnson, D. E.

D. E. Johnson, “Use of the holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14(3), 213–218 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

King, T. A.

Kuzin, E. A.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

Leindecker, N.

Leng, J.

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Liang, S.

Liu, Q.

Z. Hu, P. Yan, Q. Xiao, Q. Liu, and M. Gong, “227-W output all-fiberized Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm,” Chin. Phys. B 23(10), 104206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Luo, H.

Luo, J.

Luo, Y.

Mackechnie, C. J.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Marandi, A.

Nilsson, J.

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Po, H.

Posada-Ramírez, B.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser based on FBGs and a Hi-Bi FOLM,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1820–1823 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Posada-Ramírez, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. Bravo-Huerta, and E. A. Kuzin, “Study of a Hi-Bi FOLM for tunable and dual-wavelength operation of a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2560–2568 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prieto-Cortés, P.

B. Ibarra-Escamilla, M. Durán-Sánchez, R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, B. Posada-Ramírez, P. Prieto-Cortés, E. A. Kuzin, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Tunable dual-wavelength operation of an all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser based on tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. 20(8), 085702 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ramalingam, V.

Richardson, D. J.

Rines, G. A.

Sacks, Z. S.

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

Schellhorn, M.

Schiffer, Z.

Z. S. Sacks, Z. Schiffer, and D. David, “Long wavelength operation of double-clad Tm: silica fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645320 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

Setzler, S. D.

Shardlow, P. C.

Shen, D. Y.

Simakov, N.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Spindler, G.

Sun, B.

Sun, Z.

Tang, Y.

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, “Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 1(1), 2–13 (1995).
[Crossref]

Turner, P. W.

Valla, M.

J. P. Cariou, B. Augere, and M. Valla, “Laser source requirements for coherent lidars based on fiber technology,” Compt. Rend. Phys. 7(2), 213–223 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Calculated gain spectrum of a Tm-doped fiber pumped at different pumping wavelengths. Simulation parameters: pump power, 1W; small-signal absorption of the Tm: fiber at 1560 nm, 300 dB/m; the lengths of the Tm: fibers were selected to obtain a gain of 5 dB at 2100 nm; the absorption and emission cross-section data of the Tm fiber were taken from [4]. (b) Simulated output spectra of Tm-doped fiber lasers lasing at 2100 nm and pumped at 1560 nm and 1910 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The layout of the 2.1 μm Tm-doped fiber laser, which was pumped by another Tm-doped fiber laser at 1908 nm laser. LD, laser diode; TDF, Tm-doped fiber; FBG, fibre Bragg grating; HR, high reflector; OC, output coupler.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured backward ASE spectrum at a pump power of 2.7W.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured output spectra from the wavelength-tunable Tm-doped fiber laser, and (b) Measured output laser power versus launched pump power at different oscillation wavelengths.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The power stability of the Tm-doped fiber laser, measured at an emission wavelength of 2150 nm under the maximum pump power over 1 second (Inset: the power stability measured over 100 seconds).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The oscillation threshold power, maximum output power and slope efficiency versus oscillation wavelength, (b) The emission cross-section of Tm fibers [4] and the transmission loss of a typical silica fiber (obtained from the specification of Thorlabs SM2000 fiber).

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