Abstract

With a potential trap to mimic the finite-size effect, we predict the generation of dark soliton train in a nonresonant polariton condensate excited with the spatially homogeneous continuous wave (cw) field by exploiting the quantum interference in spatial domain. The number of solitons in the train is demonstrated to be controllable on demand in the domain of material parameters. We show that, similar to dark solitons in conservative systems, these nonlinear excitations have infinite lifetime and remain spatially localized even for the periodically oscillating and colliding state of dark soliton train, which do not depend on the parameters of the condensate. Especially, a final state of anti-dark soliton is observed for all kinds of dark soliton trains with the increase of pump power.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).
  5. K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Engels and C. Atherton, “Stationary and nonstationary fluid flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate through a penetrable barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160405 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and abrupt decay of a quasistationary dark soliton in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Pinsker and H. Flayac, “On-demand dark soliton train manipulation in a spinor polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 140405 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. X. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and manipulation of stable dark solitons and vortices in microcavity polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).
  22. L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. H. Szymańska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

X. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and manipulation of stable dark solitons and vortices in microcavity polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and abrupt decay of a quasistationary dark soliton in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Pinsker and H. Flayac, “On-demand dark soliton train manipulation in a spinor polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 140405 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Engels and C. Atherton, “Stationary and nonstationary fluid flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate through a penetrable barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. H. Szymańska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adrados, C.

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alodjants, A. P.

I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amelio, I.

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Amo, A.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

André, R.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Askitopoulos, A.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atherton, C.

P. Engels and C. Atherton, “Stationary and nonstationary fluid flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate through a penetrable barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baas, A.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berloff, N. G.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Bessa, V. H. L.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biermann, K.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bloch, J.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Bramati, A.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brun, C.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carusotto, I.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Cerda-Méndez, E. A.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chestnov, I. Yu.

I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cilibrizzi, P.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
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Cirac, J. I.

R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
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Ciuti, C.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
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Cren, T.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
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Cuevas, J. C.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
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Dang, L. S.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
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D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
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Deveaud Plédran, B.

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
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Dum, R.

R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
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Egorov, O. A.

X. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and manipulation of stable dark solitons and vortices in microcavity polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Flayac, H.

F. Pinsker and H. Flayac, “On-demand dark soliton train manipulation in a spinor polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 140405 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
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Freegarde, T.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Galopin, E.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giacobino, E.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
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Goblot, V.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
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Gorbach, A. V.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Gregory, R. L.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Grosso, G.

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grousson, R.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Harada, K.

K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
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Hartley, R.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Hawkins, R. J.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
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Heritage, J. P.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
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Hey, R.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hivet, R.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, A.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
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Johne, R.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaliteevski, M. A.

H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kamimura, O.

K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
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Kasai, H.

K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
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Kavokin, A. V.

I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
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H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Keeling, J.

M. H. Szymańska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
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Khudaiberganov, T. A.

I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
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Kirschner, E. M.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
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Kivshar, Y. S.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
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Krizhanovskii, D. N.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
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Lagoudakis, K. G.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, P.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Langbein, W.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
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Laussy, F. P.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lefrére, J.

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Léger, Y.

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lemaître, A.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leménager, G.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
[Crossref]

Littlewood, P. B.

M. H. Szymańska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and manipulation of stable dark solitons and vortices in microcavity polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpuech, G.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marchetti, F. M.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, T.

K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
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Matuszewski, M.

Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and abrupt decay of a quasistationary dark soliton in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
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Milosevic, M. V.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
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Minguzzi, A.

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Morier-Genoud, F.

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
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Nardin, G.

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
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Nash, J. M.

M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. S.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishioka, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohadi, H.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostatnicky, T.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patton, C. E.

M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlovic, G.

H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pietka, B.

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pigeon, S.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pinsker, F.

F. Pinsker and H. Flayac, “On-demand dark soliton train manipulation in a spinor polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 140405 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pisanello, F.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plédran, B. D.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

Richard, M.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Roditchev, D.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rousset, J.

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Rubo, Y. G.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Sagnes, I.

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sala, V. G.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, P. V.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanvitto, D.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, S.

X. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and manipulation of stable dark solitons and vortices in microcavity polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senellart, P.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Serrier-Garcia, L.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shelykh, I. A.

H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sich, M.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M. S.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Skryabin, D. V.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, L. A.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, D. A.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solnyshkov, D. D.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, P.

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

Stolyarov, V.

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Szymanska, M. H.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. H. Szymańska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tejedor, C.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thurston, R. N.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosi, G.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsankov, M. A.

M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viña, L.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wertz, E.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wouters, M.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, Y.

Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and abrupt decay of a quasistationary dark soliton in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nat. Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys (1)

D. Roditchev, C. Brun, L. Serrier-Garcia, J. C. Cuevas, V. H. L. Bessa, M. V. Milosevic, F. Debontridder, V. Stolyarov, and T. Cren, “Direct observation of Josephson vortex cores,” Nat. Phys 11, 332–337 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (5)

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. D. Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4, 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymanska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Nardin, G. Grosso, Y. Léger, B. Pietka, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud Plédran, “Hydrodynamic nucleation of quantized vortex pairs in a polariton quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 7, 635–641 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, J. Lefrére, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, and A. Bramati, “Superfluidity of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 5, 805–810 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Energy relaxation in a 1-D polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. Flayac, G. Pavlovic, M. A. Kaliteevski, and I. A. Shelykh, “Electric generation of vortices in polariton superfluids,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 075312 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Yu. Chestnov, T. A. Khudaiberganov, A. P. Alodjants, and A. V. Kavokin, “Heat-assisted self-localization of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 115302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Szymańska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Dum, J. I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein, and P. Zoller, “Creation of dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2972–2975 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Engels and C. Atherton, “Stationary and nonstationary fluid flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate through a penetrable barrier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Experimental observation of the fundamental dark soliton in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445–2448 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, M. A. Tsankov, J. M. Nash, and C. E. Patton, “Microwave magnetic-envelope dark solitons in yttrium iron garnet thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1707–1710 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear wave dynamics explains observations attributed to dark solitons in a polariton quantum fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and abrupt decay of a quasistationary dark soliton in a polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Pinsker and H. Flayac, “On-demand dark soliton train manipulation in a spinor polariton condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 140405 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and manipulation of stable dark solitons and vortices in microcavity polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goblot, H. S. Nguyen, I. Carusotto, E. Galopin, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, A. Amo, and J. Bloch, “Phase-controlled bistability of a dark soliton train in a polariton fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 217401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial phase coupling in polariton multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Science (2)

K. Harada, O. Kamimura, H. Kasai, and T. Matsuda, “Direct observation of vortex dynamics in superconducting films with regular arrays of defects,” Science 274, 1167–1170 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Stepanov, I. Amelio, J. Rousset, J. Bloch, A. Amo, A. Minguzzi, I. Carusotto, and M. Richard, “Two-components nature of the excitations in a polariton superfluid,” arXiv 1810.12570v1 (2018).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of a potential sample consisting in a quasi-1D semiconductor microcavity [distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR)]. A metallic mesas is embedded and deposited in the central area with a tunable potential amplitude by applying an electric field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) dynamical evolution of the system towards the generation of a pair of sink-type dark solitons, (b) |ψ| and phase of a pair of sink-type dark solitons as a function of spatial coordinate at t = 104ps, (c) phase diagram depicting parameters for which sink-type dark soliton trains are achieved. Parameters are: (a) and (b) γ R = 2 γ C = 1 15 ps 1, P = 1.2Pth; (c) γ C = 1 30 ps 1, α = γC/γR. other parameters are: V0=−0.2mev, a = 3μm, m* = 5 × 10−5me, R1D = 2.24 × 10−4μm ps−1, g R 1 D = 2 g C 1 D = 0.95 μ e V μ m
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 the phenomena of sink-type dark soliton trains as a function of spatial coordinate for different potential width while t = 104ps. (a) a=2μm, (b) a=5μm, (c) a=8μm, (d) a=9μm. other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 dynamical evolution of the system towards the generation of (a) a pair of periodically oscillating and colliding dark solitons as well as (b) anti dark soliton. Parameters are (a) P = 2.0Pth, (b) P = 2.2Pth. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 dark soliton trains vs the amplitude of potential trap. (a) V0 = 0.2mev, (b) V0 = 0.7mev, (c) V0 = 1.8mev. P = 1.6Pth and other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 real and imaginary part of the excitation spectrum of the dark soliton train. (a) and (b) corresponding to the case of Figs. 3(a), (c) and (d) corresponding to the case of Fig. 3(b).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d ψ ( x ) = [ 2 m * 2 ψ ( x ) x 2 ( i + D 0 n R ( x ) ) + 1 2 ( R 1 D n R ( x ) γ C ) R ψ ( x ) i ( g C 1 D | ψ ( x ) | 2 ψ ( x ) + g R 1 D n R ( x ) ψ ( x ) + V ( x ) ψ ( x ) ) ] d t + d W n R ( x ) t = D 1 2 n R ( x ) x 2 + P ( γ R + R 1 D | ψ ( x ) | 2 ) n R ( x )
< d W ( x ) d W ( x ) > = 0 < d W ( x ) d W * ( x ) > = d t 2 d x ( R 1 D n R + γ C ) δ x , x
V ( x ) = { V 0 | x | a 0 | x | > a
ψ ( x , t ) = e i μ t ψ 0 ( x ) [ 1 + k ( u k e i k x i λ k t + v k * e i k x + i λ k * t ) ] , n R ( x , t ) = n R 0 ( x ) ( 1 + k ( w k e i k x i λ k t + w k * e i k x + i λ k * t ) )

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