Abstract

We report on the crystal growth, spectroscopy characterization and first laser operation of a new tetragonal disordered “mixed” calcium aluminate crystal, Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4. The introduction of Lu3+ leads to an additional inhomogeneous broadening of Tm3+ absorption and emission spectra compared to the well-known Tm:CaGdAlO4. The maximum stimulated-emission cross-section for the 3F43H6 Tm3+ transition is 0.91 × 10−20 cm2 at 1813 nm for σ-polarization, and the emission bandwidth is more than 200 nm. A continuous-wave diode-pumped Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 laser generates 1.82 W at 1945 nm with a slope efficiency of 29%. Under Ti:Sapphire laser pumping, a continuous tuning of the laser wavelength from 1836 to 2083 nm (tuning range: 247 nm) is demonstrated. The Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 crystal is promising for tunable/femtosecond lasers at ~2 μm.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (5)

2016 (4)

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Druon, M. Olivier, A. Jaffrès, P. Loiseau, N. Aubry, J. DidierJean, F. Balembois, B. Viana, and P. Georges, “Magic mode switching in Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser under high pump power,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4138–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. O. Petit, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions in Yb:CaYAlO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(7), 1093–1097 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

W. Wang, X. Yan, X. Wu, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Study of single-crystal growth of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 by the floating-zone method,” J. Cryst. Growth 219(1–2), 56–60 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, P. Kerbrat, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, “Spectroscopic investigation and two-micron laser performance of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 141(1–2), 29–34 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 287–306 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Agnesi, A.

Aguiló, M.

Antoshkina, S. A.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aravazhi, S.

Aubry, N.

Aull, B.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. E.

Balembois, F.

Baranov, A.

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

Becker, P.

Bohatý, L.

Bolshakova, E. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Borel, C.

R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, P. Kerbrat, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, “Spectroscopic investigation and two-micron laser performance of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 141(1–2), 29–34 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

J. Lan, B. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power CW and Q-switched Tm:CaYAlO4 lasers at 1.94 μm for shallow water absorption,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(23), 2127–2130 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725–1731 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chai, B. H.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 287–306 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, W.

Cho, Y. J.

Choi, S. Y.

Cormier, E.

Couto dos Santos, M. A.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

Descamps, D.

Di, J.

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Di Bartolo, B.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
[Crossref]

Díaz, F.

DidierJean, J.

Druon, F.

Esterowitz, L.

Ferrari, J. L.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

Fuhrberg, P.

Gao, W. L.

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
[Crossref]

García-Blanco, S. M.

Garnier, N.

R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, P. Kerbrat, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, “Spectroscopic investigation and two-micron laser performance of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 141(1–2), 29–34 (1997).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Goes, M. S.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goldner, P.

Griebner, U.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Pan, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, M. Mero, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “78 fs SWCNT-SA mode-locked Tm:CLNGG disordered garnet crystal laser at 2017 nm,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4268–4271 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, P. Becker, L. Bohatý, C. Liebald, M. Peltz, S. Vernay, D. Rytz, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, Y. Wang, X. Xu, J. Xu, A. Major, A. Baranov, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier equations, group velocity dispersion, and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CaLnAlO4 (Ln = Y, Gd) laser host crystals,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2275–2278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, X. Mateos, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, K. Yumashev, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Vibronic thulium laser at 2131 nm Q-switched by single-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(11), D19–D27 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

Guan, X.

Guina, M.

Härkönen, A.

Hu, B.

W. Wang, X. Yan, X. Wu, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Study of single-crystal growth of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 by the floating-zone method,” J. Cryst. Growth 219(1–2), 56–60 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Q. Hu, Z. Jia, A. Volpi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and X. Tao, “Crystal growth and spectral broadening of a promising Yb:CaLuxGd1-xAlO4 disordered crystal for ultrafast laser application,” CrystEngComm 19(12), 1643–1647 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huber, G.

Hutchinson, J. A.

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P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
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J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725–1731 (2017).
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Lin, Z.

Liu, J. G.

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
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Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
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Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Pan, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, M. Mero, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “78 fs SWCNT-SA mode-locked Tm:CLNGG disordered garnet crystal laser at 2017 nm,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4268–4271 (2018).
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Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
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P. Loiko, P. Becker, L. Bohatý, C. Liebald, M. Peltz, S. Vernay, D. Rytz, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, Y. Wang, X. Xu, J. Xu, A. Major, A. Baranov, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier equations, group velocity dispersion, and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CaLnAlO4 (Ln = Y, Gd) laser host crystals,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2275–2278 (2017).
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P. Loiko, X. Mateos, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, K. Yumashev, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Vibronic thulium laser at 2131 nm Q-switched by single-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(11), D19–D27 (2016).
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Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
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P. Loiko, F. Druon, P. Georges, B. Viana, and K. Yumashev, “Thermo-optic characterization of Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2241–2249 (2014).
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Loiseau, P.

Lucas Leclin, G.

Lv, Z.

J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
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Ma, J.

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
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Major, A.

Malov, A. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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Mandrik, A. V.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mateos, X.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
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Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Pan, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, M. Mero, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “78 fs SWCNT-SA mode-locked Tm:CLNGG disordered garnet crystal laser at 2017 nm,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4268–4271 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
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P. Loiko, P. Becker, L. Bohatý, C. Liebald, M. Peltz, S. Vernay, D. Rytz, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, Y. Wang, X. Xu, J. Xu, A. Major, A. Baranov, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier equations, group velocity dispersion, and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CaLnAlO4 (Ln = Y, Gd) laser host crystals,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2275–2278 (2017).
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P. Loiko, X. Mateos, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, K. Yumashev, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Vibronic thulium laser at 2131 nm Q-switched by single-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(11), D19–D27 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
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Merkle, L. D.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 287–306 (1994).
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Mero, M.

Moncorgé, R.

J. Lan, B. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power CW and Q-switched Tm:CaYAlO4 lasers at 1.94 μm for shallow water absorption,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(23), 2127–2130 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, P. Kerbrat, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, “Spectroscopic investigation and two-micron laser performance of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 141(1–2), 29–34 (1997).
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P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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Pecoraro, E.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
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Perrella, R. V.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
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Peters, R.

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Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, Z. Pan, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, M. Mero, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “78 fs SWCNT-SA mode-locked Tm:CLNGG disordered garnet crystal laser at 2017 nm,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4268–4271 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Loiko, P. Becker, L. Bohatý, C. Liebald, M. Peltz, S. Vernay, D. Rytz, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, Y. Wang, X. Xu, J. Xu, A. Major, A. Baranov, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sellmeier equations, group velocity dispersion, and thermo-optic dispersion formulas for CaLnAlO4 (Ln = Y, Gd) laser host crystals,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2275–2278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko, X. Mateos, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, K. Yumashev, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Vibronic thulium laser at 2131 nm Q-switched by single-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(11), D19–D27 (2016).
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A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
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Pollnau, M.

Qian, L. J.

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronous operation of a mode-locked 2-μm Tm:CaYAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 356–358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
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Qin, Z.

Qin, Z. P.

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronous operation of a mode-locked 2-μm Tm:CaYAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 356–358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rotermund, F.

Ryabochkina, P. A.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rytz, D.

Sai, Q.

J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schiavon, M. A.

R. V. Perrella, C. N. Júnior, M. S. Goes, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Schiavon, C. O. Paiva-Santos, H. Lima, M. A. Couto dos Santos, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and J. L. Ferrari, “Structural, electronic and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped CaYAlO4 obtained by using citric acid complexes as precursors,” Opt. Mater. 57, 45–55 (2016).
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Schmidt, A.

Serres, J. M.

Sévillano, P.

Shcherbitskii, V. G.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shchuchkina, N. V.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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Shen, D.

Stoneman, R. C.

Suomalainen, S.

Tao, X.

Q. Hu, Z. Jia, A. Volpi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and X. Tao, “Crystal growth and spectral broadening of a promising Yb:CaLuxGd1-xAlO4 disordered crystal for ultrafast laser application,” CrystEngComm 19(12), 1643–1647 (2017).
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Tonelli, M.

Q. Hu, Z. Jia, A. Volpi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and X. Tao, “Crystal growth and spectral broadening of a promising Yb:CaLuxGd1-xAlO4 disordered crystal for ultrafast laser application,” CrystEngComm 19(12), 1643–1647 (2017).
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Ushakov, S. N.

P. A. Ryabochkina, S. A. Antoshkina, E. V. Bolshakova, M. A. Ivanov, V. V. Kochurihin, A. V. Malov, S. N. Ushakov, N. V. Shchuchkina, and K. N. Nishchev, “K.N., “Hypersensitive transitions of Tm3+, Ho3+ and Dy3+ rare-earth ions in garnet crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(8), 1900–1905 (2012).
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van Dalfsen, K.

Verdun, H. R.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 287–306 (1994).
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Vernay, S.

Veronesi, S.

Q. Hu, Z. Jia, A. Volpi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and X. Tao, “Crystal growth and spectral broadening of a promising Yb:CaLuxGd1-xAlO4 disordered crystal for ultrafast laser application,” CrystEngComm 19(12), 1643–1647 (2017).
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Viana, B.

Volpi, A.

Q. Hu, Z. Jia, A. Volpi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and X. Tao, “Crystal growth and spectral broadening of a promising Yb:CaLuxGd1-xAlO4 disordered crystal for ultrafast laser application,” CrystEngComm 19(12), 1643–1647 (2017).
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Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, and B. Di Bartolo, “Branching ratios, cross sections, and radiative lifetimes of rare earth ions in solids: Application to Tm3+ and Ho3+ ions in LiYF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2772–2787 (1998).
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Wang, W.

W. Wang, X. Yan, X. Wu, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Study of single-crystal growth of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 by the floating-zone method,” J. Cryst. Growth 219(1–2), 56–60 (2000).
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Wang, Y.

Wu, F.

Wu, X.

W. Wang, X. Yan, X. Wu, Z. Zhang, B. Hu, and J. Zhou, “Study of single-crystal growth of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 by the floating-zone method,” J. Cryst. Growth 219(1–2), 56–60 (2000).
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Wyon, C.

R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, P. Kerbrat, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, “Spectroscopic investigation and two-micron laser performance of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 single crystals,” Opt. Commun. 141(1–2), 29–34 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Xie, G. Q.

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronous operation of a mode-locked 2-μm Tm:CaYAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 356–358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

J. Lan, B. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power CW and Q-switched Tm:CaYAlO4 lasers at 1.94 μm for shallow water absorption,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(23), 2127–2130 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725–1731 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725–1731 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lan, B. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power CW and Q-switched Tm:CaYAlO4 lasers at 1.94 μm for shallow water absorption,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(23), 2127–2130 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Lan, B. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power CW and Q-switched Tm:CaYAlO4 lasers at 1.94 μm for shallow water absorption,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(23), 2127–2130 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725–1731 (2017).
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J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
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Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Xu, X. D.

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronous operation of a mode-locked 2-μm Tm:CaYAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 356–358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
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Yan, X.

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Zhou, D.

J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D. H.

Z. P. Qin, J. G. Liu, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. L. Gao, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, and D. H. Zhou, “Spectroscopic characteristics and laser performance of Tm:CaYAlO4 crystal,” Laser Phys. 23(10), 105806 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

J. Lan, B. Xu, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Xu, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power CW and Q-switched Tm:CaYAlO4 lasers at 1.94 μm for shallow water absorption,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(23), 2127–2130 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725–1731 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. Di, X. Xu, C. Xia, Q. Sai, D. Zhou, Z. Lv, and J. Xu, “Growth and spectra properties of Tm, Ho doped and Tm, Ho co-doped CaGdAlO4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 155, 101–107 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Photograph of the as-grown Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4; (b) X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) pattern (in black), numbers denote the Miller’s indices (hkl), standard XRD pattern of CaGdAlO4 is shown for comparison (in blue); (c) polarized Raman spectra of an a-cut crystal, a(xy)a are the Porto’s notations, numbers denote the peak Raman frequencies in cm−1, λexc = 514 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption of Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4: (a) absorption spectrum of the annealed crystal (α: absorption coefficient), inset – photograph of the sample before (left) and after (right) annealing; absorption cross-sections, σabs, for the 3H63H4 Tm3+ transition. In (b), the spectra for 1.8 at.% Tm:CaGdAlO4 are also shown. The light polarization is denoted by π and σ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Luminescence of Tm3+ in Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4: (a) luminescence spectra for the 3F43H6 transition, λexc = 802 nm; (b) luminescence decay curve, circles – experimental data, line – single-exponential fit. In (a), the spectra for Tm:CaGdAlO4 are given for comparison. The light polarization is denoted by π and σ.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transition cross-sections of Tm3+ in Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 crystal: (a) absorption, σabs, and stimulated-emission, σSE, cross-sections for the 3F43H6 transition (π and σ light polarization); (b) gain cross-sections, σgain = βσSE – (1 – β)σabs, for various inversion ratios β = N2(3F4)/NTm (σ light polarization).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-c) CW diode-pumped Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 laser: (a) laser set-up: LD – laser diode, PM – pump mirror, OC – output coupler; (a) input-output dependences, η – slope efficiency, inset – measured spatial profile of the laser beam for TOC = 9% and maximum Pabs; (b) laser emission spectra measured at the maximum Pabs. The crystal is a-cut and the laser polarization is σ.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a,b) Wavelength tuning of the Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 laser (a-cut crystal): (a) laser set-up: M1 and M2 – folding mirrors, M3 – HR mirror, OC – output coupler, L – lens; (b) wavelength tuning curves (Pabs = 2.6 W, laser polarization: σ).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Absorption Oscillator Strengths for Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Emission Probabilities for Tm3+ in Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4

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