Abstract

High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits plays a key role in long distance quantum communication. By establishing the channel between ground and satellite, the communication distance can even exceed thousands of kilometers. Aimed to achieve the efficient uplink quantum communication, here we describe a high-fidelity polarization design of a transmitting antenna with an average polarization extinction ratio of 887:1 by a local test. We also implement a feasible polarization-compensation scheme for satellite motions with a fidelity exceeding 0.995 ± 0.001. Based on these works, we demonstrate the ground-to-satellite entanglment distribution with a violation of Bell inequality by 2.312±0.096, which is well above the classic limit 2.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

P. Xu, Y. Ma, J.-G. Ren, H.-L. Yong, T. C. Ralph, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, X. Han, H.-N. Wu, W.-Y. Wang, F.-Z. Li, M. Yang, F.-L. Lin, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, Y. Chen, J. Fan, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite testing of a gravitationally induced quantum decoherence model,” Science 366(6461), 132–135 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (6)

J. Wu, Z. He, L. Zhang, L. Yuan, T. Wang, J. Jia, R. Shu, and J. Wang, “Polarization study about a telescope-based transmitter for quantum communication,” Appl. Opt. 56(30), 8501–8506 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Takenaka, A. Carrasco-Casado, M. Fujiwara, M. Kitamura, M. Sasaki, and M. Toyoshima, “Satellite-to-ground quantum communication using a 50-kg-class micro-satellite,” Nat. Photonics 11(8), 502–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Liao, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-G. Ren, J. Yin, Q. Shen, Y. Cao, Z.-P. Li, F.-Z. Li, X.-W. Chen, L.-H. Sun, J.-J. Jia, J.-C. Wu, X.-J. Jiang, J.-F. Wang, Y.-M. Huang, Q. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, L. Deng, T. Xi, L. Ma, T. Hu, Q. Zhang, Y.-A. Chen, N.-L. Liu, X.-B. Wang, Z.-C. Zhu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” Nature 549(7670), 43–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, J.-G. Ren, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, M. Li, Y.-M. Huang, L. Deng, L. Li, Q. Zhang, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(20), 200501 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, Y.-H. Li, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, J.-G. Ren, W.-Q. Cai, W.-Y. Liu, B. Li, H. Dai, G.-B. Li, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-H. Gong, Y. Xu, S.-L. Li, F.-Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yin, Z.-Q. Jiang, M. Li, J.-J. Jia, G. Ren, D. He, Y.-L. Zhou, X.-X. Zhang, N. Wang, X. Chang, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers,” Science 356(6343), 1140–1144 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-G. Ren, P. Xu, H.-L. Yong, L. Zhang, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, M. Yang, L. Li, K.-X. Yang, X. Han, Y.-Q. Yao, J. Li, H.-Y. Wu, S. Wan, L. Liu, D.-Q. Liu, Y.-W. Kuang, Z.-P. He, P. Shang, C. Guo, R.-H. Zheng, K. Tian, Z.-C. Zhu, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, R. Shu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, J.-Y. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation,” Nature 549(7670), 70–73 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and H. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526(7575), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, M. A. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-Å. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

J. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489(7415), 269–273 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, J.-G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H.-L. Yong, Y.-P. Wu, C. Liu, S.-K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X.-D. Cai, P. Xu, G.-S. Pan, J.-J. Jia, Y.-M. Huang, H. Yin, J.-Y. Wang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488(7410), 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Levit and W. Marshall, “Improved orbit predictions using two-line elements,” Adv. Space Res. 47(7), 1107–1115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

M. Toyoshima, Y. Takayama, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23(8), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Bonato, C. Pernechele, and P. Villoresi, “Influence of all-reflective optical systems in the transmission of polarization-encoded qubits,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9(10), 899–906 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: Towards satellite-based global quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 150501 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, H. R. Böhm, T. Gyatso, T. Jennewein, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, G. Molina-Terriza, A. Poppe, K. Resch, M. Taraba, G. Molina-Terriza, A. Poppe, K. Resch, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance free-space distribution of quantum entanglement,” Science 301(5633), 621–623 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B.-G. Englert, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, “Universal unitary gate for single-photon two-qubit states,” Phys. Rev. A 63(3), 032303 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and einstein-podolsky-rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(5), 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Roger, “Experimental realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Gedankenexperiment : A new violation of bell’s inequalities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49(2), 91–94 (1982).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

S. J. Freedman and J. F. Clauser, “Experimental test of local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(14), 938–941 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23(15), 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

D. Höhn, “Depolarization of a laser beam at 6328 å due to atmospheric transmission,” Appl. Opt. 8(2), 367–369 (1969).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. S. Bell, “On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox,” Physics 1(3), 195–200 (1964).
[Crossref]

1935 (2)

A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” Phys. Rev. 47(10), 777–780 (1935).
[Crossref]

E. Schrödinger, “Discussion of probability relations between separated systems,” Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 31(4), 555–563 (1935).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

M. Giustina, M. A. Versteegh, S. Wengerowsky, J. Handsteiner, A. Hochrainer, K. Phelan, F. Steinlechner, J. Kofler, J.-Å. Larsson, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, J. Beyer, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, L. K. Shalm, S. W. Nam, T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, B. Wittmann, and A. Zeilinger, “Significant-loophole-free test of Bell’s theorem with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250401 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. K. Shalm, E. Meyer-Scott, B. G. Christensen, P. Bierhorst, M. A. Wayne, M. J. Stevens, T. Gerrits, S. Glancy, D. R. Hamel, M. S. Allman, K. J. Coakley, S. D. Dyer, C. Hodge, A. E. Lita, V. B. Verma, C. Lambrocco, E. Tortorici, A. L. Migdall, Y. Zhang, D. R. Kumor, W. H. Farr, F. Marsili, M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, T. Jennewein, M. W. Mitchell, P. G. Kwiat, J. C. Bienfang, R. P. Mirin, E. Knill, and S. W. Nam, “Strong loophole-free test of local realism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(25), 250402 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and H. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526(7575), 682–686 (2015).
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P. Xu, Y. Ma, J.-G. Ren, H.-L. Yong, T. C. Ralph, S.-K. Liao, J. Yin, W.-Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, X. Han, H.-N. Wu, W.-Y. Wang, F.-Z. Li, M. Yang, F.-L. Lin, L. Li, N.-L. Liu, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, Y. Chen, J. Fan, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Satellite testing of a gravitationally induced quantum decoherence model,” Science 366(6461), 132–135 (2019).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, “Principles of optics, 7-th ed,” Camb. U. Press.Cambridge, UK (1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Local polarization test of the transmitting antenna. Panels (a)–(d) show the PERs in different directions for $\left |H\right \rangle$ , $\left |V\right \rangle$ , $\left |+\right \rangle$ and $\left |-\right \rangle$ , respectively. The azimuth axis means the azimuth angle and polar axis means the elevation angle of the transmitting antenna.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Compensation angles for two typical passages. (a) Compensation angles changing with time for two typical passages, which are shown in Panel (b). In the sky view (b), $0^\circ$ , $90^\circ$ , $180^\circ$ and $270^\circ$ represent north, east, south and west, respectively in azimuth axis. On the polar axis shown on the right of Panel (b), $0$ represents horizon and $90$ represents zenith.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Polarization test from ground to satellite. Offset angles are added both on the ground and satellite with every scanning point staying for 3 s, and the average fidelities of each scanning point are given.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup for ground-to-satellite Bell test. (a) Entangled photon source. A 390 nm pulse with a repetition frequency of 80 MHz pumps a 1 mm BiBO crystal. One photon is measured by the two detectors (D1 and D2) locally. Another photon is sent to the transmitting antenna via a 15-m-long single mode fiber (SMF). (b)Transmitting antenna. A 671 nm beacon laser diode (LD, power: 2 W, divergence angle: 1.2 mrad) and an 1064 nm synchronization LD (repetition rate: 10 kHz) are coaxial with the signal. Two cameras and a fast-steering mirror (FSM) are used for coarse tracking and fine tracking. An automatic half-wave plate (HWP) is used to compensate the polarization caused by satellite motions. (c) Receiving system on the satellite. A 532 nm LD and two CMOS are used for tracking. The signal light is measured by D3 and D4. The synchronization light is measured by another detector(1064). Dichroic mirrors (DMs) are used to combine or split the signal light and the beacon laser. The mirror which can flip down is between the collimator and the automatic HWP.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental result for ground-to-satellite Bell test. Four measurement settings $(0,\pi /8)$ , $(0,3\pi /8)$ , $(\pi /4,\pi /8)$ , $(\pi /4,3\pi /8)$ are used. The error bars represent one standard deviation, calculated from the propagated Poissonian counting statistics of the events.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Zemax parameters of the transmitting antenna.

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Table 2. Experimental result for ground-to-satellite Bell test.

Equations (5)

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r s = n 0 cos θ i n cos θ t n 0 cos θ i + n cos θ t
r p = n cos θ i n 0 cos θ t n cos θ i + n 0 cos θ t
| Φ = 1 2 ( | H H + | V V )
S = | E ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) E ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) + E ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) + E ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) |
E ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) = C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) + C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) + C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) + C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 ) + C ( ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 )

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