Abstract

In this paper, a multi-bit dielectric reflective metasurface is presented for control of electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering and anomalous reflection. The unit cell is designed to act as a 1-, 2-, and 3-bit coding metasurface to attain better control of EM waves. For the 3-bit coding metasurface, the eight digital states have phase responses of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315°. The top layer of the proposed metasurface consists of high permittivity material to realize a high Q factor. The proposed multi-bit coding metasurface can reflect the incident EM wave to the desired angle with more than 93% power efficiency. For radar cross section reduction applications, the discrete water cycle algorithm is utilized to obtain an optimal coding matrix for the unit cell arrangement, leading to better diffusion-like scattering, dispersion of the EM wave in all directions, and hence minimal specular reflection. The simulation and experimental results verify that the proposed metasurface is a suitable candidate for control of EM wave scattering and anomalous reflection.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

W. L. Guo, G. M. Wang, H. S. Hou, K. Chen, and Y. Feng, “Multi-functional coding metasurface for dual-band independent electromagnetic wave control,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19196–19211 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Saifullah, A. B. Waqas, G. M. Yang, F. Zhang, and F. Xu, “4-Bit Optimized Coding Metasurface for Wideband RCS Reduction,” IEEE Access 7, 122378–122386 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, M. Premaratne, and W. Zhu, “Dual-functional coding metasurfaces made of anisotropic all-dielectric resonators,” IEEE Access 7, 45716–45722 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

H. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Xu, C. Tian, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, Y. Li, J. Gu, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, X. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “High-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for polarization-dependent terahertz wavefront manipulation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(1), 1700773 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sui, H. Ma, Y. Lv, J. Wang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, and S. J. Qu, “Fast optimization method of designing a wideband metasurface without using the Pancharatnam–Berry phase,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1443–1451 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Su, H. He, Z. Li, Y. L. Yang, H. Yin, and J. J. Wang, “Uneven-layered coding metamaterial tile for ultra-wideband RCS reduction and diffuse scattering,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8182 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. M. Wong and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Perfect anomalous reflection with a bipartite Huygens’ metasurface,” Phys. Rev. X 8(1), 011036 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, S. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Information metamaterials and metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C 5(15), 3644–3668 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, X. Cao, J. Gao, H. Yang, Y. Zhou, and S. Wang, “Shared aperture metasurface with ultra-wideband and wide-angle low-scattering performance,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2706–2714 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Odit, P. Kapitanova, P. Belov, R. Alaee, C. Rockstuhl, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental realisation of all-dielectric bianisotropic metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221903 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, and H. Wang, “An ultra-wideband and polarization-independent metasurface for RCS reduction,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20387 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (10)

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yu, A. Y. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez Y, H. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. I. Kuznetso, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sautter, I. Staude, M. Decker, E. Rusak, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Active tuning of all-dielectric metasurfaces,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4308–4315 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S. J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. X. Jiang, H. F. Ma, Q. Y. Wen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, W. W. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Q. Yao, P. H. Wu, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Lu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H. T. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous control of light polarization and phase distributions using plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 704–710 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. D. Giovampaola and N. Engheta, “Digital metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1115–1121 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. C. I. Galarregui, A. T. Pereda, J. L. M. De Falcon, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Propagation, Broadband radar cross-section reduction using AMC technology,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61(12), 6136–6143 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao W, T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Eskandar, A. Sadollah, A. Bahreininejad, and M. Hamdi, “Water cycle algorithm-A novel metaheuristic optimization method for solving constrained engineering optimization problems,” Comput. Struct. 110-111, 151–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. Mock, J. Chin, T. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Paquay, J.-C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, Propagation, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. Mock, B. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. J. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alaee, R.

M. Odit, P. Kapitanova, P. Belov, R. Alaee, C. Rockstuhl, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental realisation of all-dielectric bianisotropic metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221903 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref]

Albooyeh, M.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V. S.

A. Díaz-Rubio, V. S. Asadchy, A. Elsakka, and S. A. Tretyakov, “From the generalized reflection law to the realization of perfect anomalous reflectors,” Science 3(8), e1602714 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Z. Li, E. Palacios, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Visible-frequency metasurfaces for broadband anomalous reflection and high-efficiency spectrum splitting,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1615–1621 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bahreininejad, A.

H. Eskandar, A. Sadollah, A. Bahreininejad, and M. Hamdi, “Water cycle algorithm-A novel metaheuristic optimization method for solving constrained engineering optimization problems,” Comput. Struct. 110-111, 151–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balanis, C. A.

C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design,” 3rd ed., (Wiley, 2005).

Bao, D.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. Han, W. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic coding metamaterials and their powerful manipulation of differently polarized terahertz waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belov, P.

M. Odit, P. Kapitanova, P. Belov, R. Alaee, C. Rockstuhl, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental realisation of all-dielectric bianisotropic metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(22), 221903 (2016).
[Crossref]

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M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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Other (2)

Y. Saifullah, F. Zhang, G. Yang, and F. Xu, “3-bit Polarization Insensitive Reflective Metasurface for RCS Reduction,” in 2018 12th International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory (ISAPE), (IEEE, 2018) pp. 1–3.

C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design,” 3rd ed., (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Conceptual illustration of the multi-bit dielectric metasurface. Here, p = 8 mm, h = 7.5 mm, g varies from 1.7 mm to 6.6 mm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulation results of the unit cell with variations in the size of drilled-hole “g.” (a) magnitude response vs. frequency, (b) phase response vs. frequency, and (c) design principles of 1-, 2-, and 3-bit coding metasurfaces.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Principle of anomalous reflection
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Far-field pattern for anomalous reflection at (a) $ {\theta _r}$ = 16°, (b) $ {\theta _r}$ = 25°, and (c) $ {\theta _r}$ = 34.6°. Designed multi-bit coding metasurface for the sequence (d) “011233455677”, (e) “01234567”, and (f) “012467.”
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Layout and scattering performance of proposed design for (a) one beam, (b) two beams, (c) three beams, and (d) four beams.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Flow chart of the discrete water cycle algorithm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Simulation results of (a) Convergence graph of DWCA, (b) 2D scattering pattern obtained from MATLAB, and (c) 3D far-field pattern of the optimized dielectric coding metasurface.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) 3D scattering patterns of the proposed dielectric metasurface. (b) Optimized coding matrix. (c) 3D scattering patterns of the PEC. (d) Simulated RCS of metal and optimized dielectric coding metasurface.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Experimental setup in an anechoic chamber. (b) Fabricated sample of dielectric metasurface (c) Comparison of PEC and proposed dielectric metasurface.

Equations (5)

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D x = λ | sin θ i sin θ r |
N = D x p
E ( θ , φ ) = E P ( θ , φ ) A F ( θ , φ )
A F ( θ , φ ) = m = 1 M n = 1 N exp { j k d [ ( m 1 2 ) u + ( n 1 2 ) v + j ϕ ( m , n ) ] }
f i t n e s s = m i n ( A F max )

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