Abstract

A highly sensitive method for detecting transient reflection in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region was developed on the basis of high-order harmonics for tracking carrier and coherent phonon dynamics. The use of lock-in detection and boxcar integration enables us to observe optical modulation (ΔR/R) as high as 1 × 10−4, and the data acquisition takes only four minutes. XUV transient reflections of bismuth exhibited exponential decay originating from excited carriers and periodic oscillation originating from A1g optical phonons. The linear power dependence of the electronic and phonon amplitudes indicated that one-photon excitation occurred under the experimental conditions. The cosine of the initial phase of the phonon oscillation revealed that a displacive excitation mechanism contributed to phonon generation. The phonon parameters obtained by the XUV and NIR probes were consistent even though their penetration depths were different. The result indicated that the XUV and NIR pulses probe the same excited region, which should be near the surface due to the short penetration depth of the NIR pump pulses. The present highly sensitive means of detecting XUV transient reflections in solid-state materials could be utilized for detecting attosecond dynamics in the future.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

16 January 2020: A typographical correction was made to Fig. 1.


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References

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2019 (1)

R. Geneaux, H. J. B. Marroux, A. Guggenmos, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 377(2145), 20170463 (2019).
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2018 (4)

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, A. D. Ross, M. Zürch, S. K. Cushing, M. F. Jager, H.-T. Chang, E. M. Gullikson, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond tracking of carrier relaxation in germanium with extreme ultraviolet transient reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 97(20), 205202 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Oguri, H. Mashiko, T. Ogawa, Y. Hanada, H. Nakano, and H. Gotoh, “Sub-50-as isolated extreme ultraviolet continua generated by 1.6-cycle near-infrared pulse combined with double optical gating scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(18), 181105 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Ohsugi, H. Omi, Y. Krockenberger, and A. Fujiwara, “Spin splitting in EuO(111)/Si(111) spin-filter tunnel junctions with atomically sharp interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(11), 110304 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Husek, A. Cirri, S. Biswas, and L. R. Baker, “Surface electron dynamics in hematite (α-Fe2O3): correlation between ultrafast surface electron trapping and small polaron formation,” Chem. Sci. 8(12), 8170–8178 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Weisshaupt, A. Rouzée, M. Woerner, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. L. Shirley, and A. Borgschulte, “Ultrafast modulation of electronic structure by coherent phonon excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 95(8), 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. S. Gonçalves, A. S. Silva, D. Navas, M. Miranda, F. Silva, H. Crespo, and D. S. Schmool, “A Dual-Colour Architecture for Pump-Probe Spectroscopy of Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics in the Sub-10-femtosecond Range,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22872 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, T. Yamaguchi, A. Suda, and H. Gotoh, “Petahertz optical drive with wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 12(8), 741–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. K. Mag-usara, S. Funkner, G. Niehues, E. A. Prieto, M. H. Balgos, A. Somintac, E. Estacio, A. Salvador, K. Yamamoto, M. Hase, and M. Tani, “Low temperature-grown GaAs carrier lifetime evaluation by double optical pump terahertz time-domain emission spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26175–26185 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

T. Shin, J. W. Wolfson, S. W. Teitelbaum, M. Kandyla, and K. A. Nelson, “Carrier confinement and bond softening in photoexcited bismuth films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(18), 184302 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Oguri, T. Tsunoi, K. Kato, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, K. Tateno, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Dynamical observation of photo-Dember effect on semi-insulating GaAs using femtosecond core-level photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022401 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Melnikov, O. V. Misochko, and S. V. Chekalin, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in laser-excited crystalline bismuth,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033502 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Faure, J. Mauchain, E. Papalazarou, M. Marsi, D. Boschetto, I. Timrov, N. Vast, Y. Ohtsubo, B. Arnaud, and L. Perfetti, “Direct observation of electron thermalization and electron-phonon coupling in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075120 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

I. Timrov, T. Kampfrath, J. Faure, N. Vast, C. R. Ast, C. Frischkorn, M. Wolf, P. Gava, and L. Perfetti, “Thermalization of photoexcited carriers in bismuth investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155139 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Rudolf, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Battiato, R. Adam, J. M. Shaw, E. Turgut, P. Maldonado, S. Mathias, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. M. Schneider, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Ultrafast magnetization enhancement in metallic multilayers driven by superdiffusive spin current,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. Papalazarou, D. Boschetto, J. Gautier, T. Garl, C. Valentin, G. Rey, P. Zeitoun, A. Rousse, P. Balcou, and M. Marsi, “Probing coherently excited optical phonons by extreme ultraviolet radiation with femtosecond time resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

S. Rubanov and P. R. Munroe, “Damage in III-V Compounds during Focused Ion Beam Milling,” Microsc. Microanal. 11(5), 446–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, J. Demsar, K. Ushida, and M. Kitajima, “Ultrafast dynamics of coherent optical phonons and nonequilibrium electrons in transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(18), 184301 (2005).
[Crossref]

ÉD Murray, D. M. Fritz, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. Fahy, and D. A. Reis, “Effect of lattice anharmonicity on high-amplitude phonon dynamics in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 72(6), 060301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

O. V. Misochko, M. Hase, K. Ishioka, and M. Kitajima, “Transient Bose-Einstein condensation of phonons,” Phys. Lett. A 321(5-6), 381–387 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Hase, M. Kitajima, S.-i. Nakashima, and K. Mizoguchi, “Dynamics of Coherent Anharmonic Phonons in Bismuth Using High Density Photoexcitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067401 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S.-i. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Merlin, “Generating coherent THz phonons with light pulses,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 207–220 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

H. J. Zeiger, J. Vidal, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Theory for displacive excitation of coherent phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 45(2), 768–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

A. Ejiri, F. Sugawara, H. Onuki, M. Hirano, and T. Yao, “Absorption Spectra of the Outermost 5d Core-Levels in Lead and Bismuth,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3451–3458 (1981).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

1970 (1)

P. Y. Wang and A. L. Jain, “Modulated Piezoreflectance in Bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 2978–2983 (1970).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

M. Cardona and D. L. Greenaway, “Optical Properties and Band Structure of Group IV-VI and Group V Materials,” Phys. Rev. 133(6A), A1685–A1697 (1964).
[Crossref]

Adam, R.

D. Rudolf, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Battiato, R. Adam, J. M. Shaw, E. Turgut, P. Maldonado, S. Mathias, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. M. Schneider, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Ultrafast magnetization enhancement in metallic multilayers driven by superdiffusive spin current,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, M.

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Rudolf, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Battiato, R. Adam, J. M. Shaw, E. Turgut, P. Maldonado, S. Mathias, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. M. Schneider, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Ultrafast magnetization enhancement in metallic multilayers driven by superdiffusive spin current,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arendt, P.

Arnaud, B.

J. Faure, J. Mauchain, E. Papalazarou, M. Marsi, D. Boschetto, I. Timrov, N. Vast, Y. Ohtsubo, B. Arnaud, and L. Perfetti, “Direct observation of electron thermalization and electron-phonon coupling in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ast, C. R.

I. Timrov, T. Kampfrath, J. Faure, N. Vast, C. R. Ast, C. Frischkorn, M. Wolf, P. Gava, and L. Perfetti, “Thermalization of photoexcited carriers in bismuth investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155139 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baker, L. R.

J. Husek, A. Cirri, S. Biswas, and L. R. Baker, “Surface electron dynamics in hematite (α-Fe2O3): correlation between ultrafast surface electron trapping and small polaron formation,” Chem. Sci. 8(12), 8170–8178 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

E. Papalazarou, D. Boschetto, J. Gautier, T. Garl, C. Valentin, G. Rey, P. Zeitoun, A. Rousse, P. Balcou, and M. Marsi, “Probing coherently excited optical phonons by extreme ultraviolet radiation with femtosecond time resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balgos, M. H.

Battiato, M.

D. Rudolf, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Battiato, R. Adam, J. M. Shaw, E. Turgut, P. Maldonado, S. Mathias, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. M. Schneider, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Ultrafast magnetization enhancement in metallic multilayers driven by superdiffusive spin current,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biswas, S.

J. Husek, A. Cirri, S. Biswas, and L. R. Baker, “Surface electron dynamics in hematite (α-Fe2O3): correlation between ultrafast surface electron trapping and small polaron formation,” Chem. Sci. 8(12), 8170–8178 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blonsky, A.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Borgschulte, A.

J. Weisshaupt, A. Rouzée, M. Woerner, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. L. Shirley, and A. Borgschulte, “Ultrafast modulation of electronic structure by coherent phonon excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 95(8), 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Borja, L. J.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boschetto, D.

J. Faure, J. Mauchain, E. Papalazarou, M. Marsi, D. Boschetto, I. Timrov, N. Vast, Y. Ohtsubo, B. Arnaud, and L. Perfetti, “Direct observation of electron thermalization and electron-phonon coupling in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075120 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Hase, K. Ishioka, J. Demsar, K. Ushida, and M. Kitajima, “Ultrafast dynamics of coherent optical phonons and nonequilibrium electrons in transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(18), 184301 (2005).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Maldonado, P.

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M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suda, A.

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, T. Yamaguchi, A. Suda, and H. Gotoh, “Petahertz optical drive with wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 12(8), 741–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, F.

A. Ejiri, F. Sugawara, H. Onuki, M. Hirano, and T. Yao, “Absorption Spectra of the Outermost 5d Core-Levels in Lead and Bismuth,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3451–3458 (1981).
[Crossref]

Swartzlander, A. B.

Takacs, P. Z.

Tani, M.

Tao, Z.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tateno, K.

K. Oguri, T. Tsunoi, K. Kato, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, K. Tateno, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Dynamical observation of photo-Dember effect on semi-insulating GaAs using femtosecond core-level photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Teitelbaum, S. W.

T. Shin, J. W. Wolfson, S. W. Teitelbaum, M. Kandyla, and K. A. Nelson, “Carrier confinement and bond softening in photoexcited bismuth films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(18), 184302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tengdin, P.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Timrov, I.

J. Faure, J. Mauchain, E. Papalazarou, M. Marsi, D. Boschetto, I. Timrov, N. Vast, Y. Ohtsubo, B. Arnaud, and L. Perfetti, “Direct observation of electron thermalization and electron-phonon coupling in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075120 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Timrov, T. Kampfrath, J. Faure, N. Vast, C. R. Ast, C. Frischkorn, M. Wolf, P. Gava, and L. Perfetti, “Thermalization of photoexcited carriers in bismuth investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155139 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsunoi, T.

K. Oguri, T. Tsunoi, K. Kato, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, K. Tateno, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Dynamical observation of photo-Dember effect on semi-insulating GaAs using femtosecond core-level photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Turgut, E.

D. Rudolf, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Battiato, R. Adam, J. M. Shaw, E. Turgut, P. Maldonado, S. Mathias, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. M. Schneider, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Ultrafast magnetization enhancement in metallic multilayers driven by superdiffusive spin current,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ushida, K.

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, J. Demsar, K. Ushida, and M. Kitajima, “Ultrafast dynamics of coherent optical phonons and nonequilibrium electrons in transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(18), 184301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Valentin, C.

E. Papalazarou, D. Boschetto, J. Gautier, T. Garl, C. Valentin, G. Rey, P. Zeitoun, A. Rousse, P. Balcou, and M. Marsi, “Probing coherently excited optical phonons by extreme ultraviolet radiation with femtosecond time resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vast, N.

J. Faure, J. Mauchain, E. Papalazarou, M. Marsi, D. Boschetto, I. Timrov, N. Vast, Y. Ohtsubo, B. Arnaud, and L. Perfetti, “Direct observation of electron thermalization and electron-phonon coupling in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075120 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Timrov, T. Kampfrath, J. Faure, N. Vast, C. R. Ast, C. Frischkorn, M. Wolf, P. Gava, and L. Perfetti, “Thermalization of photoexcited carriers in bismuth investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155139 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vidal, J.

H. J. Zeiger, J. Vidal, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Theory for displacive excitation of coherent phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 45(2), 768–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

J. Weisshaupt, A. Rouzée, M. Woerner, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. L. Shirley, and A. Borgschulte, “Ultrafast modulation of electronic structure by coherent phonon excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 95(8), 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

ÉD Murray, D. M. Fritz, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. Fahy, and D. A. Reis, “Effect of lattice anharmonicity on high-amplitude phonon dynamics in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 72(6), 060301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, P. Y.

P. Y. Wang and A. L. Jain, “Modulated Piezoreflectance in Bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 2978–2983 (1970).
[Crossref]

Weisshaupt, J.

J. Weisshaupt, A. Rouzée, M. Woerner, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. L. Shirley, and A. Borgschulte, “Ultrafast modulation of electronic structure by coherent phonon excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 95(8), 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Whitmore, D.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

Woerner, M.

J. Weisshaupt, A. Rouzée, M. Woerner, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. L. Shirley, and A. Borgschulte, “Ultrafast modulation of electronic structure by coherent phonon excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 95(8), 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

I. Timrov, T. Kampfrath, J. Faure, N. Vast, C. R. Ast, C. Frischkorn, M. Wolf, P. Gava, and L. Perfetti, “Thermalization of photoexcited carriers in bismuth investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155139 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolfson, J. W.

T. Shin, J. W. Wolfson, S. W. Teitelbaum, M. Kandyla, and K. A. Nelson, “Carrier confinement and bond softening in photoexcited bismuth films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(18), 184302 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yabana, K.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, T.

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, T. Yamaguchi, A. Suda, and H. Gotoh, “Petahertz optical drive with wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 12(8), 741–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

Yao, T.

A. Ejiri, F. Sugawara, H. Onuki, M. Hirano, and T. Yao, “Absorption Spectra of the Outermost 5d Core-Levels in Lead and Bismuth,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3451–3458 (1981).
[Crossref]

You, W.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeiger, H. J.

H. J. Zeiger, J. Vidal, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Theory for displacive excitation of coherent phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 45(2), 768–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zeitoun, P.

E. Papalazarou, D. Boschetto, J. Gautier, T. Garl, C. Valentin, G. Rey, P. Zeitoun, A. Rousse, P. Balcou, and M. Marsi, “Probing coherently excited optical phonons by extreme ultraviolet radiation with femtosecond time resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zürch, M.

C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, A. D. Ross, M. Zürch, S. K. Cushing, M. F. Jager, H.-T. Chang, E. M. Gullikson, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond tracking of carrier relaxation in germanium with extreme ultraviolet transient reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 97(20), 205202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zusin, D.

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Oguri, T. Tsunoi, K. Kato, H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, K. Tateno, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Dynamical observation of photo-Dember effect on semi-insulating GaAs using femtosecond core-level photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Papalazarou, D. Boschetto, J. Gautier, T. Garl, C. Valentin, G. Rey, P. Zeitoun, A. Rousse, P. Balcou, and M. Marsi, “Probing coherently excited optical phonons by extreme ultraviolet radiation with femtosecond time resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041114 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Oguri, H. Mashiko, T. Ogawa, Y. Hanada, H. Nakano, and H. Gotoh, “Sub-50-as isolated extreme ultraviolet continua generated by 1.6-cycle near-infrared pulse combined with double optical gating scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(18), 181105 (2018).
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Chem. Sci. (1)

J. Husek, A. Cirri, S. Biswas, and L. R. Baker, “Surface electron dynamics in hematite (α-Fe2O3): correlation between ultrafast surface electron trapping and small polaron formation,” Chem. Sci. 8(12), 8170–8178 (2017).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. A. Melnikov, O. V. Misochko, and S. V. Chekalin, “Ultrafast electronic dynamics in laser-excited crystalline bismuth,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033502 (2013).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

A. Ejiri, F. Sugawara, H. Onuki, M. Hirano, and T. Yao, “Absorption Spectra of the Outermost 5d Core-Levels in Lead and Bismuth,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3451–3458 (1981).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Ohsugi, H. Omi, Y. Krockenberger, and A. Fujiwara, “Spin splitting in EuO(111)/Si(111) spin-filter tunnel junctions with atomically sharp interface,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(11), 110304 (2018).
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Microsc. Microanal. (1)

S. Rubanov and P. R. Munroe, “Damage in III-V Compounds during Focused Ion Beam Milling,” Microsc. Microanal. 11(5), 446–455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Rudolf, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Battiato, R. Adam, J. M. Shaw, E. Turgut, P. Maldonado, S. Mathias, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, C. M. Schneider, and P. M. Oppeneer, “Ultrafast magnetization enhancement in metallic multilayers driven by superdiffusive spin current,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1037 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Mashiko, K. Oguri, T. Yamaguchi, A. Suda, and H. Gotoh, “Petahertz optical drive with wide-bandgap semiconductor,” Nat. Phys. 12(8), 741–745 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A (1)

R. Geneaux, H. J. B. Marroux, A. Guggenmos, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 377(2145), 20170463 (2019).
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Phys. Lett. A (1)

O. V. Misochko, M. Hase, K. Ishioka, and M. Kitajima, “Transient Bose-Einstein condensation of phonons,” Phys. Lett. A 321(5-6), 381–387 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (10)

P. Y. Wang and A. L. Jain, “Modulated Piezoreflectance in Bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 2978–2983 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Faure, J. Mauchain, E. Papalazarou, M. Marsi, D. Boschetto, I. Timrov, N. Vast, Y. Ohtsubo, B. Arnaud, and L. Perfetti, “Direct observation of electron thermalization and electron-phonon coupling in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 88(7), 075120 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hase, K. Mizoguchi, H. Harima, S.-i. Nakashima, and K. Sakai, “Dynamics of coherent phonons in bismuth generated by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58(9), 5448–5452 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Shin, J. W. Wolfson, S. W. Teitelbaum, M. Kandyla, and K. A. Nelson, “Carrier confinement and bond softening in photoexcited bismuth films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(18), 184302 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. J. Zeiger, J. Vidal, T. K. Cheng, E. P. Ippen, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Theory for displacive excitation of coherent phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 45(2), 768–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Hase, K. Ishioka, J. Demsar, K. Ushida, and M. Kitajima, “Ultrafast dynamics of coherent optical phonons and nonequilibrium electrons in transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(18), 184301 (2005).
[Crossref]

ÉD Murray, D. M. Fritz, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. Fahy, and D. A. Reis, “Effect of lattice anharmonicity on high-amplitude phonon dynamics in photoexcited bismuth,” Phys. Rev. B 72(6), 060301 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Timrov, T. Kampfrath, J. Faure, N. Vast, C. R. Ast, C. Frischkorn, M. Wolf, P. Gava, and L. Perfetti, “Thermalization of photoexcited carriers in bismuth investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and ab initio calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155139 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Kaplan, P. M. Kraus, A. D. Ross, M. Zürch, S. K. Cushing, M. F. Jager, H.-T. Chang, E. M. Gullikson, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond tracking of carrier relaxation in germanium with extreme ultraviolet transient reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 97(20), 205202 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Weisshaupt, A. Rouzée, M. Woerner, M. J. J. Vrakking, T. Elsaesser, E. L. Shirley, and A. Borgschulte, “Ultrafast modulation of electronic structure by coherent phonon excitations,” Phys. Rev. B 95(8), 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Hase, M. Kitajima, S.-i. Nakashima, and K. Mizoguchi, “Dynamics of Coherent Anharmonic Phonons in Bismuth Using High Density Photoexcitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067401 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

S. Mathias, C. La-O-Vorakiat, P. Grychtol, P. Granitzka, E. Turgut, J. M. Shaw, R. Adam, H. T. Nembach, M. E. Siemens, S. Eich, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Probing the timescale of the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic alloy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(13), 4792–4797 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

P. Tengdin, W. You, C. Chen, X. Shi, D. Zusin, Y. Zhang, C. Gentry, A. Blonsky, M. Keller, P. M. Oppeneer, H. C. Kapteyn, Z. Tao, and M. M. Murnane, “Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel,” Sci. Adv. 4(3), eaap9744 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. S. Gonçalves, A. S. Silva, D. Navas, M. Miranda, F. Silva, H. Crespo, and D. S. Schmool, “A Dual-Colour Architecture for Pump-Probe Spectroscopy of Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics in the Sub-10-femtosecond Range,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22872 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

R. Merlin, “Generating coherent THz phonons with light pulses,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 207–220 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of XUV transient reflection measurement based on HHG. BS, WP, PL, and CM stand for beam splitter, wave plate, polarizer, and concave mirror with a 250-mm focal length, respectively. EMT and PD stand for electron-multiplier tube and photodiode. The Ag mirror near the sample is inserted in NIR-NIR measurements for confirming temporal and spatial overlap between the pump and probe pulses. Inset graph shows the HH spectrum taken after the Al filter (gray solid line), the SiC reflectivity (dotted blue line), and the HH spectrum multiplied with the SiC reflectivity (black solid line). The scale of the multiplied spectrum is enlarged five times relative to the scale used for the original spectrum.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) XUV transient reflection of Bi detected with lock-in detection. Experimental and fitting results are shown as open blue circles and the solid black line. Dotted green and dashed red lines correspond to the first and second terms of Eq. (2). (b) XUV transient reflection taken without lock-in detection. The data were obtained by subtracting integrated signal with the pump from the integrated signal without the pump.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Power dependence of (a) electronic amplitude (Ae), (b) phonon amplitude (Aph), (c) phonon frequency (ωph), (d) phonon decay rate (Γph), and (e) electronic decay rate (Γe). Blue squares and red circles are results obtained by XUV and NIR probes, respectively.

Equations (2)

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Δ R ( t ) = ( R n ) n ( t ) + ( R T e ) Δ T e ( t ) + ( R Q ) Q ( t )
Δ R ( t ) = ( A e exp ( Γ e ( t ) + A p h exp ( Γ p h t ) c o s ( ω p h t + ϕ ) ) H 0 ( t )

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